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Clinical electrophysiology

Baojing Guo, Chencheng Dai, Qiangqiang Li, Wenxiu Li, Ling Han
AimThe aim was to attach importance to the hazards of ventricular pre-excitation on left ventricular systolic function and size. METHOD: We analysed the clinical, electrophysiological, and echocardiographic characteristics of the 25 cases with abnormal ventricular wall motion, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, or dilation with co-existing right-sided overt accessary pathways before and after ablation or medication during March 2011 and June 2017. Moreover, we compared the therapy effect between patients with ventricular pre-excitation-induced dilated cardiomyopathy and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy without ventricular pre-excitation...
February 15, 2019: Cardiology in the Young
Sayaka Yonemizu, Keiichiro Masuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Tomomi Notsu, Yuhei Higashi, Kenta Fukumura, Peili Li, Haruaki Ninomiya, Junichiro Miake, Motokazu Tsuneto, Yasuaki Shirayoshi, Ichiro Hisatome
Introduction: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) harboring cardiac myosin heavy chain 6 promoter can differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes called "iCell cardiomyocytes" under blasticidin treatment condition. While iCell cardiomyocytes are expected to be used for predicting cardiotoxicity of drugs, their responses to antiarrhythmic agents remain to be elucidated. We first examined electrophysiological properties of iCell cardiomyocytes and mRNA levels of ion channels and Ca handling proteins, and then evaluated effects of class I antiarrhythmic agents on their Na+ and Ca2+ currents...
June 2019: Regenerative Therapy
Noriaki Yamada, Yoshihiro Asano, Masashi Fujita, Satoru Yamazaki, Atsushi Inanobe, Norio Matsuura, Hatasu Kobayashi, Seiko Ohno, Yusuke Ebana, Osamu Tsukamoto, Saki Ishino, Ayako Takuwa, Hidetaka Kioka, Toru Yamashita, Norio Hashimoto, Dimitar P Zankov, Akio Shimizu, Masanori Asakura, Hiroshi Asanuma, Hisakazu Kato, Yuya Nishida, Yohei Miyashita, Haruki Shinomiya, Nobu Naiki, Kenshi Hayashi, Takeru Makiyama, Hisakazu Ogita, Katsuyuki Miura, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Issei Komuro, Masakazu Yamagishi, Minoru Horie, Koichi Kawakami, Tetsushi Furukawa, Akio Koizumi, Yoshihisa Kurachi, Yasushi Sakata, Tetsuo Minamino, Masafumi Kitakaze, Seiji Takashima
BACKGROUND: Bradyarrhythmia is a common clinical manifestation. Although the majority of cases are acquired, genetic analysis of families with bradyarrhythmia has identified a growing number of causative gene mutations. Since the only ultimate treatment for symptomatic bradyarrhythmia has been invasive surgical implantation of a pacemaker, the discovery of novel therapeutic molecular targets is necessary to improve prognosis and quality of life. METHODS: We investigated a family containing seven individuals with autosomal dominant bradyarrhythmias of sinus node dysfunction (SND), atrial fibrillation (AF) with slow ventricular response, and atrio-ventricular block (AV block)...
February 15, 2019: Circulation
Anna Zaia Carolina Rodrigues, Zhong-Min Wang, María Laura Messi, Osvaldo Delbono
Increasing evidence indicates that, first, the sympathetic nervous system interacts extensively with both vasculature and skeletal muscle fibers near neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and, second, its neurotransmitter, noradrenaline, influences myofiber molecular composition and function and motor innervation. Since sympathomimetic agents have been reported to improve NMJ transmission, we examined whether two in clinical use, salbutamol and clenbuterol, affect the motor axon terminal via extracellular Ca2+ and molecular targets, such as TRPV1 and P/Q- and N-type voltage-activated Ca2+ channels...
February 11, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Fanhao Ye, Wenbing Jiang, Yi Wang, Wei Lin, Hao Chen, Binglin Pan
RATIONALE: Amiodarone, a broad-spectrum antiarrhythmic drug, is widely used for the clinical treatment of tachyarrhythmias because of its safety and efficacy. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 30-year-old woman presented with known paroxysmal atrial tachycardia and severe preeclampsia. Two days before admission, she had given birth to twins. She described her symptoms as a sudden palpitation at 10:20 accompanied by chest tightness and shortness of breath. DIAGNOSIS: Cardiac arrhythmia and acute left heart failure...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
David R Howell, Gregory D Myer, Anna Brilliant, Kim Barber Foss, William P Meehan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate recovery trajectories among youth athletes with a concussion and healthy controls across different domains using a quantitative and multifaceted protocol. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective repeated measures. PARTICIPANTS: Youth athletes diagnosed with a concussion between the ages of 8 and 18 years were evaluated (1) within 10 days after injury, (2) approximately 3 weeks after injury, and (3) after return-to-play clearance. Control participants completed the same protocol...
February 11, 2019: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Christian Schneider, Alina Sprenger, Kilian Weiss, Karin Slebocki, David Maintz, Gereon R Fink, Tobias D Henning, Helmar C Lehmann, Thorsten Lichtenstein
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and disease monitoring of non-systemic vasculitic neuropathy (NSVN) are based on electrophysiological and clinical measures. However, these methods are insensitive to detect subtle differences of axonal injury. We here assessed the utility of a multiparametric MRI protocol to quantify axonal injury and neurogenic muscle damage in NSVN. METHODS: Ten NSVN patients and ten age-matched controls were investigated in this single-center prospective study...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Neurology
Peng Soon Ng, Peter J Dyck, Ruple S Laughlin, Prabin Thapa, Marcus V Pinto, P James B Dyck
OBJECTIVE: To determine the previously unknown incidence of lumbosacral-radiculoplexus neuropathy (LRPN) and its association with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: LRPN defined by clinical and electrophysiologic criteria was identified among Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents during a 16-year period (2000-2015) using the unique facilities of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. DM was ascertained using American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS: Of 1,892 medical records reviewed, 59 patients (33 men, 26 women) were identified as having LRPN...
February 13, 2019: Neurology
Débora Schmidt, Ana Cláudia Coelho, Fernando Nataniel Vieira, Vitor Félix Torres, Augusto Savi, Silvia Regina Rios Vieira
OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of peripheral and respiratory muscle strength tests in diagnosing critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM), compared with an electrophysiological examination. METHODS: Fifty septic patients who required mechanical ventilation for at least five days, and without a previous history of muscle weakness, were included. Peripheral muscle strength was assessed using the Medical Research Council (MRC) score, handgrip strength by dynamometry, and respiratory muscle strength with maximum respiratory pressures...
January 2019: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Yuko Saito, Hirotsugu Yamada, Kenya Kusunose, Ken Saito, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: There is a need to stratify patients who may develop heart failure because of the current "heart failure pandemic". We hypothesized that noninvasive assessment of diastolic electromechanical coupling by electrocardiography and Doppler echocardiography may be clinically useful for risk stratification of hypertensive patients who may develop heart failure. METHODS: We measured the time from the peak to end of the T wave (TpTe) as an electrophysiological parameter, and peak early diastolic mitral flow (E) and lateral annular (e') velocities as mechanical parameters in 109 patients with hypertension...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Echocardiography
Peter V Bui, Nathan L Haas, Nicholas W C Herrman, Matthew Macias, Victoria Hoch, William Schaeffer, Christopher Wallace
BACKGROUND: Brugada pattern on electrocardiography (ECG) can manifest as type 1 (coved pattern) and type 2 (saddleback pattern). Brugada syndrome represents an ECG with Brugada pattern in a patient with symptoms or clinical factors, including syncope, cardiac arrest, ventricular dysrhythmias, and family history. Brugada syndrome is caused by a genetic channelopathy, but the Brugada pattern may be drug-induced. Epinephrine-induced Brugada pattern has not been reported previously. CASE REPORT: A 63-year-old man developed anaphylaxis secondary to a bee sting, had a transient loss of consciousness, and self-administered intramuscular epinephrine...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Konstantinos N Aronis, Rheeda Ali, Natalia A Trayanova
Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in humans and is associated with high morbidity, mortality and health-related expenses. Computational approaches have been increasingly utilized in atrial electrophysiology. In this review we summarize the recent advancements in atrial fibrillation modeling at the organ scale. Multi-scale atrial models now incorporate high level detail of atrial anatomy, tissue ultrastructure and fibrosis distribution. We provide the state-of-the art methodologies in developing personalized atrial fibrillation models with realistic geometry and tissue properties...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Yusra Mansour, Kaitlyn Blackburn, Luis Oscar González-González, Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Randy J Kulesza
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a biological construct defined by abnormal deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid-β. The 2050 projection for AD in the USA is 14 million. There is a strong association between AD, air pollution, and traffic. Early diagnosis is imperative for intervention in the initial disease stages. Hearing and, specifically, the ability to encode complex sounds are impaired in AD. Nuclei in the auditory brainstem appear to be sensitive to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Styliani Giza, Eleni Litou, Eleni P Kotanidou, Angeliki N Kleisarchaki, Panagiotis Koliatos, Tasos Tzirtzipis, Vasiliki Rengina Tsinopoulou, Athanasios Tychalas, Athanasios Evangeliou, Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou
Neuropathy, a complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D), is a heterogeneous group, and chronic polyneuropathy is the most common form in adults. Αn 8-year-old girl admitted with severe diabetic ketoacidosis was diagnosed with T1D. She was managed with intravenous fluids and insulin and was subsequently commenced on multiple daily subcutaneous injections of insulin. On the 7th day of hospitalisation, a right foot drop with sensory loss on the dorsal surface and cellulitis were detected and the latter responded to intravenous antibiotics...
February 11, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Roisin McMackin, Peter Bede, Niall Pender, Orla Hardiman, Bahman Nasseroleslami
There is strong clinical, imaging and pathological evidence that neurodegeneration is associated with altered brain connectivity. While functional imaging (fMRI) can detect resting and activated states of metabolic activity, its use is limited by poor temporal resolution, cost and confounding vascular parameters. By contrast, electrophysiological (e.g. EEG/MEG) recordings provide direct measures of neural activity with excellent temporal resolution, and source localization methodologies can address problems of spatial resolution, permitting measurement of functional activity of brain networks with a spatial resolution similar to that of fMRI...
February 2, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Andreea Nissenkorn, Yael Almog, Inbar Adler, Mary Safrin, Marina Brusel, Milit Marom, Shayel Bercovich, Daniel Yakubovich, Michal Tzadok, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Moran Rubinstein
Mutations in the SCN1A gene, which encodes for the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1, cause Dravet syndrome, a severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. Genetic testing of this gene is recommended early in life. However, predicting the outcome of de novo missense SCN1A mutations is difficult, since milder epileptic syndromes may also be associated. In this study, we correlated clinical severity with functional in vitro electrophysiological testing of channel activity and bioinformatics prediction of damaging mutational effects...
2019: PloS One
Teodoro Martín Noguerol, Rafael Barousse, Marta Gómez Cabrera, Mariano Socolovsky, Jenny T Bencardino, Antonio Luna
Evaluation of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries has classically been based on clinical and electrophysiologic criteria. US and MRI have been widely used for morphologic assessment of nerve injury sites and concomitant lesions. In the past few years, morphologic MR neurography has significantly increased its clinical applications on the basis of three-dimensional or two-dimensional images with and without fat-suppression techniques. However, these sequences have a major drawback: absence of pathophysiologic information about functional integrity or axonal flow of peripheral nerves...
February 8, 2019: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Michael Chang, Suzie Dufour, Peter L Carlen, Taufik A Valiante
Controlling seizures remains a challenging issue for the medical community. To make progress, researchers need a way to extensively study seizure dynamics and investigate its underlying mechanisms. Acute seizure models are convenient, offer the ability to perform electrophysiological recordings, and can generate a large volume of electrographic seizure-like (ictal) events. The promising findings from acute seizure models can then be advanced to chronic epilepsy models and clinical trials. Thus, studying seizures in acute models that faithfully replicate the electrographic and dynamical signatures of a clinical seizure will be essential for making clinically relevant findings...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Anthony J Williams, Qian-Quan Sun
Our objective is to examine the layer and spectrotemporal architecture and laminar distribution of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in a neonatal freeze lesion model of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) associated with a high prevalence of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWDs). Electrophysiological recording of local field potentials (LFPs) in control and freeze lesion animals were obtained with linear micro-electrode arrays to detect presence of HFOs as compared to changes in spectral power, signal coherence, and single-unit distributions during "hyper-excitable" epochs of anesthesia-induced burst-suppression (B-S)...
2019: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Ruben Doste, David Soto-Iglesias, Gabriel Bernardino, Alejandro Alcaine, Rafael Sebastian, Sophie Giffard-Roisin, M Sermesant, Antonio Berruezo, Damian Sanchez-Quintana, Oscar Camara
Rule-based methods are often used for assigning fiber orientation to cardiac anatomical models. However, existing methods have been developed using data mostly from the left ventricle. As a consequence, fiber information obtained from rule-based methods often does not match histological data in other areas of the heart such as the right ventricle, having a negative impact in cardiac simulations beyond the left ventricle. In this work, we present a rule-based method where fiber orientation is separately modeled in each ventricle following observations from histology...
February 5, 2019: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
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