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placental cytokines in human pregnancy

Leena Kadam, Brian Kilburn, Dora Baczyk, Hamid Reza Kohan-Ghadr, John Kingdom, Sascha Drewlo
Increased inflammation and abnormal placentation are common features of a wide spectrum of pregnancy-related disorders such as intra uterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and preterm birth. The inflammatory response of the human placenta has been mostly investigated in relation to cytokine release, but the direct molecular consequences on trophoblast differentiation have not been investigated. This study measured the general effects of LPS on both extravillous and villous trophoblast physiology, and the involvement of the transcription factors PPARγ and NF-κB, specifically using 1st trimester explants and HTR-8/ SVneo cell line models...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Olivia Nonn, Jacqueline Güttler, Désirée Forstner, Sabine Maninger, Julianna Zadora, András Balogh, Alina Frolova, Andreas Glasner, Florian Herse, Martin Gauster
CX3CL1, which is a chemokine involved in many aspects of human pregnancy, is a membrane-bound chemokine shed into circulation as a soluble isoform. Placental CX3CL1 is induced by inflammatory cytokines and is upregulated in severe early-onset preeclampsia. In this study, the hypothesis was addressed whether angiotensin II can deregulate placental CX3CL1 expression, and whether CX3CL1 can promote a pro-inflammatory status of monocytes. qPCR analysis of human placenta samples ( n = 45) showed stable expression of CX3CL1 and the angiotensin II receptor AGTR1 throughout the first trimester, but did not show a correlation between both or any influence of maternal age, BMI, and gestational age...
February 2, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bingbing Wang, Panwen Wang, Nataliya Parobchak, Nathan Treff, Xin Tao, Junwen Wang, Todd Rosen
BACKGROUND: Chromatin alterations are important mediators of gene expression changes. We have recently shown that activated non-canonical NF-κB signaling (RelB/p52) recruits histone acetyltransferase CBP and deacetylase HDAC1 to selectively acetylate H3K9 (H3K9ac) to induce expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2) in the human placenta. Both of these genes play a role in initiating parturition in human pregnancy. METHODS: We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by gene sequencing (ChIP-seq) in primary term human cytotrophoblast (CTB) with use of antibodies to RelB, CBP, HDAC1 and H3K9ac...
January 10, 2019: Placenta
Cheuk-Lun Lee, Madhavi Vijayan, Xia Wang, Kevin K W Lam, Hannu Koistinen, Markku Seppala, Raymond H W Li, Ernest H Y Ng, William S B Yeung, Philip C N Chiu
STUDY QUESTION: Does glycodelin-A (GdA) induce conversion of human peripheral blood CD16-CD56bright natural killer (NK) cells to decidual NK (dNK) cells to facilitate placentation? SUMMARY ANSWER: GdA binds to blood CD16-CD56bright NK cells via its sialylated glycans and converts them to a dNK-like cells, which in turn regulate endothelial cell angiogenesis and trophoblast invasion via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) secretion, respectively...
December 28, 2018: Human Reproduction
Maureen L Kim, Caroline Maloney, Natalia Klimova, Ellen Gurzenda, Xinhua Lin, Yuko Arita, Treasure Walker, Melissa J Fazzari, Nazeeh Hanna
PROBLEM: Placental infection induces increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm labor. Endotoxin tolerance is a phenomenon in which exposure to a dose of endotoxin makes tissue less responsive to subsequent exposures. The objective of our study is to determine if repeated exposure to endotoxin will induce a tolerant phenotype in normal human second trimester placental tissue. METHODS OF STUDY: Human second trimester placental explants from elective termination of pregnancy were cultured and exposed to endotoxin (LPS)...
December 26, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Jessica A Sutton, Lisa M Rogers, Beverly Dixon, Leslie Kirk, Ryan Doster, Holly M Algood, Jennifer A Gaddy, Rebecca Flaherty, Shannon D Manning, David M Aronoff
PROBLEM: During pregnancy, Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can infect fetal membranes to cause chorioamnionitis, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Macrophages are the primary resident phagocyte in extraplacental membranes. Protein kinase D (PKD) was recently implicated in mediating pro-inflammatory macrophage responses to GBS outside of the reproductive system. This work aimed to characterize the human placental macrophage inflammatory response to GBS and address the extent to which PKD mediates such effects...
December 24, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Nanthini Jayabalan, Andrew Lai, Soumyalekshmi Nair, Dominic Guanzon, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Carlos Palma, Harold David McIntyre, Martha Lappas, Carlos Salomon
Several factors including placental hormones (PH) released from the human placenta have been associated with the development of insulin resistance and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, circulating levels of PH do not correlate well with maternal insulin sensitivity across gestation, suggesting that other, previously unrecognized, mechanisms may be involved. The levels of circulating exosomes are higher in GDM compared to normal. GDM derived exosomes produce greater release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from endothelial cells compared to exosomes from normal, suggesting that their contents may differ compared to normal pregnancies...
December 7, 2018: Proteomics
Yonghong Zhang, Lina Ma, Xiaohui Hu, Jinlu Ji, Gil Mor, Aihua Liao
STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) axis in macrophage polarization during early pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER: PD-1 signaling is a major regulator of macrophage differentiation and function, and it is critical for the success of a pregnancy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The predominance of decidual macrophages (DMs) with an M2 phenotype is an important contributor to maternal-fetal tolerance during early pregnancy...
November 30, 2018: Human Reproduction
Matthew G Zimmerman, Kendra M Quicke, Justin T O'Neal, Nitin Arora, Deepa Machiah, Lalita Priyamvada, Robert C Kauffman, Emery Register, Oluwaseyi Adekunle, Dominika Swieboda, Erica L Johnson, Sarah Cordes, Lisa Haddad, Rana Chakraborty, Carolyn B Coyne, Jens Wrammert, Mehul S Suthar
Zika virus (ZIKV), which emerged in regions endemic to dengue virus (DENV), is vertically transmitted and results in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Antibodies to DENV can cross-react with ZIKV, but whether these antibodies influence ZIKV vertical transmission remains unclear. Here, we find that DENV antibodies increase ZIKV infection of placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells [HCs]) from 10% to over 80% and enhance infection of human placental explants. ZIKV-anti-DENV antibody complexes increase viral binding and entry into HCs but also result in blunted type I interferon, pro-inflammatory cytokine, and antiviral responses...
November 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Andrea Olmos-Ortiz, Janice García-Quiroz, Ali Halhali, Euclides Avila, Verónica Zaga-Clavellina, Roberto Chavira-Ramírez, Rocío García-Becerra, Felipe Caldiño-Soto, Fernando Larrea, Lorenza Díaz
Clinical and epidemiological evidence supports that pregnancies carrying a male fetus are more vulnerable to infections and preterm birth, probably due to testosterone immunosuppressive properties. In human placentas, testosterone lowers the expression of CYP27B1, the vitamin D (VD)-activating enzyme, diminishing cathelicidin synthesis, a potent VD-dependent antimicrobial peptide (AMP). VD also stimulates other AMPs, including defensins. To get insights into the increased male vulnerability mechanisms, we investigated the relationship between fetal sex and the immunoendocrine milieu at the fetoplacental unit...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Fabien Duval, Esther Dos Santos, Benoît Maury, Valérie Serazin, Khadija Fathallah, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
Throughout the entire first trimester of pregnancy, fetal growth is sustained by endometrial secretions, i.e. histiotrophic nutrition. Endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) accumulate and secrete a variety of nutritive molecules that are absorbed by trophoblastic cells and transmitted to the fetus. Glycogen appears to have a critical role in the early stages of fetal development, since infertile women have low endometrial glycogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glycogen metabolism and trafficking at the fetal–maternal interface have not yet been characterized...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Ramin Khanabdali, Aida Shakouri-Motlagh, Sarah Wilkinson, Padma Murthi, Harry M Georgiou, Shaun P Brennecke, Bill Kalionis
Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder of human pregnancy. Low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) (60-150 mg/day) is used to prevent PE when taken early in pregnancy. The effect of aspirin on term PE remains uncertain. Abnormal placentation is a hallmark of PE and leads to increased placental oxidative stress, which triggers the release of anti-angiogenic factors that cause local damage to the decidual vasculature. The damage subsequently spreads systemically and culminates in maternal clinical symptoms...
November 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Paola Vacca, Chiara Vitale, Enrico Munari, Marco Antonio Cassatella, Maria Cristina Mingari, Lorenzo Moretta
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are developmentally related cell subsets that play a major role in innate defenses against pathogens, in lymphoid organogenesis and in tissue remodeling. The best characterized ILC are natural killer (NK) cells. They are detectable in decidua in the early phases of pregnancy. During the first trimester, NK cells represent up to 50% of decidua lymphocytes. Differently from peripheral blood (PB) NK cells, decidual NK (dNK) cells are poorly cytolytic, and, instead of IFNγ, they release cytokines/chemokines that induce neo-angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and placentation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Simone Corrêa-Silva, Aline P Alencar, Jusciele B Moreli, Alexandre U Borbely, Larissa de S Lima, Cristóforo Scavone, Débora C Damasceno, Marilza V C Rudge, Estela Bevilacqua, Iracema M P Calderon
This study was based on the hypothesis that IL-1β and its central regulator, the inflammasome, may play a role in the inflammatory condition exhibited by placental tissues from mothers with different gestational hyperglycemia levels. Pregnant women were classified according to the glycemic reference as non-diabetic (n = 15), mild gestational hyperglycemia (n = 15), gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 15) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 15). We investigated levels of pro-inflammatory factors in maternal plasma and placental tissues (by ELISA or immunohistochemistry) and, NFKB activity (by electrophoretic mobility shift assay) and inflammasome protein expression (by Western blot) in chorionic villous...
August 13, 2018: Cytokine
Anne Brandolt Larré, Fernando Sontag, Débora Montenegro Pasin, Nathália Paludo, Rayssa Ruszkowski do Amaral, Bartira Ercília Pinheiro da Costa, Carlos Eduardo Poli-de-Figueiredo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present study intends to review the possibility of using phosphodiesterase inhibitors as a treatment option for preeclampsia, addressing potential risks and benefits. RECENT FINDINGS: Preeclampsia is the most common hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, often responsible for severe maternal and fetal complications, which can lead to early pregnancy termination and death. Despite the numerous studies, its pathophysiology is still unclear, although it seems to involve a multiplicity of complex factors related to angiogenesis, ineffective vasodilation, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction...
July 26, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Ja Yun Jang, Yi Seul Kim, Yu Mi Han, So Young Kang, Jung-Sun Kim
Breast regression protein 39 (Brp-39) is a mouse homolog of human Chitinase 3-like 1, which belongs to the 18-glycosyl-hydrolase family and plays a role in inflammatory reaction and tissue remodeling. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Brp-39 in a mouse model of preterm birth. Pregnant wild-type (WT) or Brp-39(-/-) mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at embryonic day 15. Pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for 24 hours after LPS injection. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were performed to analyze messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of cytokines and contraction-associated proteins in uterine and/or placental tissue after LPS injection...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Jessica Kang, Chien-Nan Lee, Hung-Yuan Li, Kai-Han Hsu, Shu-Huei Wang, Shin-Yu Lin
Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy, which is also associated with future metabolic diseases in both patients and their offspring. The mechanisms underlying this condition remain largely unknown and may be partly related to epigenetics. The aim of this study was to compare the methylation levels of the cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in pregnant women and their fetuses under both hyperglycemic and euglycemic environments, as those levels may be a clue to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of GDM...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Fabien Duval, Esther Dos Santos, Benoit Maury, Valérie Serazin, Khadija Fathallah, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
Throughout the entire first trimester of pregnancy, fetal growth is sustained by endometrial secretions, i.e histiotrophic nutrition. Endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) accumulate and secrete a variety of nutritive molecules which are absorbed by trophoblastic cells and transmitted to the fetus. Glycogen appears to have a critical role in the early stages of fetal development, since infertile women have low endometrial glycogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glycogen metabolism and trafficking at the fetal-maternal interface have not yet been characterized...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Oleg Pavlov, Aleksandr Selutin, Oksana Pavlova, Sergei Selkov
PROBLEM: To determine if placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells) can synthesize and secrete cytokines of the IL-17 family throughout pregnancy and to reveal the patterns of cytokine expression in early and late gestation. METHODS OF STUDY: Macrophages were isolated from the first-trimester and term placental villous tissues from normal pregnancies. Basal and stimulated intracellular production of IL-17A, IL-17E, IL-17F as well as IL-17A secretion was quantified by flow cytometry and cytometric bead array, respectively...
June 29, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Stella Liong, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
Preeclampsia affects 5% of all pregnancies and is a serious disorder of pregnancy, characterised by high maternal blood pressure, placental hypoxia, fluid retention (oedema) and proteinuria. Women with preeclampsia are associated with exaggerated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1). Studies in non-gestational tissues have described the bromodomain (BRD) and extraterminal family of proteins, in particular BRD4 to play a critical role in propagating inflammation and is currently a therapeutic target for treating cancer, lung inflammation and asthma...
June 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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