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Stroke inflammation

Ahmed M Elmansi, Mohamed E Awad, Nada H Eisa, Dmitry Kondrikov, Khaled A Hussein, Alexandra Aguilar-Pérez, Samuel Herberg, Sudharsan Periyasamy-Thandavan, Sadanand Fulzele, Mark W Hamrick, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Carlos M Isales, Brian F Volkman, William D Hill
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is an exopeptidase found either on cell surfaces where it is highly regulated in terms of its expression and surface availability (CD26) or in a free/circulating soluble constitutively available and intrinsically active form. It is responsible for proteolytic cleavage of many peptide substrates. In this review we discuss the idea that DPP4-cleaved peptides are not necessarily inactivated, but rather can possess either a modified receptor selectivity, modified bioactivity, new antagonistic activity, or even a novel activity relative to the intact parent ligand...
February 10, 2019: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Emily W Baker, Holly A Kinder, Franklin D West
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSCs) have demonstrated multimodal therapeutic function for stroke, which is the leading cause of long-term disability and the second leading cause of death worldwide. In preclinical stroke models, NSCs have been shown to modulate inflammation, foster neuroplasticity and neural reorganization, promote angiogenesis, and act as a cellular replacement by differentiating into mature neural cell types. However, there are several key technical questions to address before NSC therapy can be applied to the clinical setting on a large scale...
February 12, 2019: Brain and Behavior
César G Fraga, Kevin D Croft, David O Kennedy, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán
Although deficiencies in polyphenol intake do not result in specific deficiency diseases, adequate intake of polyphenols could confer health benefits, especially with regard to chronic diseases. Tea, cocoa, fruits, and berries, as well as vegetables, are rich in polyphenols. Flavan-3-ols from cocoa have been found to be associated with a reduced risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and diabetes, as well as improvements in lipids, endothelial-dependent blood flow and blood pressure, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation...
February 12, 2019: Food & Function
Hanna Markstad, Andreas Edsfeldt, Ingrid Yao Mattison, Eva Bengtsson, Pratibha Singh, Michele Cavalera, Giuseppe Asciutto, Harry Björkbacka, Gunilla Nordin Fredrikson, Nuno Dias, Petr Volkov, Marju Orho-Melander, Jan Nilsson, Gunnar Engström, Isabel Gonçalves
Background When the lectinlike oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox LDL) receptor-1 ( LOX -1), a scavenger receptor for ox LDL , binds ox LDL , processes leading to endothelial dysfunction and inflammation are promoted. We aimed to study release mechanisms of LOX -1 and how circulating levels of soluble LOX -1 ( sLOX -1) relate to plaque inflammation and future risk for ischemic stroke. Methods and Results Endothelial cells and leukocytes were used to study release of sLOX -1. Plasma levels of sLOX -1 were determined in 4703 participants in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Heart Association
Peipei Gong, Rui Jiang, Junzhong Yao, Qi Yao, Xide Xu, Jian Chen, Jianhong Shen, Wei Shi
Neuronal apoptosis is regarded as one of the most important pathophysiological changes of intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke-a major public health problem that leads to high mortality rates and functional dependency. Mitogen-and stress-activated kinase (MSK) 1 is implicated in various biological functions in different cell types, including proliferation, tumorigenesis and responses to stress. Our previous study showed that MSK1 phosphorylation (p-MSK1) is related to the regulation of LPS-induced astrocytic inflammation, and possibly acts as a negative regulator of inflammation...
February 11, 2019: Cell Transplantation
Lexiao Li, Saifudeen Ismael, Sanaz Nasoohi, Kazuko Sakata, Francesca-Fang Liao, Michael P McDonald, Tauheed Ishrat
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of age-associated dementia characterized by amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Recent studies have demonstrated that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), an endogenous regulator of redox/glucose induced stress and inflammation, is now known to be upregulated in stroke, traumatic brain injury, diabetes and AD. We hypothesized that TXNIP overexpression sustains neurodegeneration through activation of the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 in human AD brains...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Sandra A Acosta, Jea Y Lee, Hung Nguyen, Yuji Kaneko, Cesar V Borlongan
Stroke remains a major unmet clinical need that warrants novel therapies. Following an ischemic insult, the cerebral vasculature secretes inflammatory molecules, creating the stroke vasculome profile. The present study evaluated the therapeutic effects of endothelial cells on the inflammation-associated stroke vasculome. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that specific inflammation-related vasculome genes BRM, IκB, Foxf1, and ITIH-5 significantly upregulated by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD. Interestingly, co-culture of human endothelial cells (HEN6) with human endothelial cells (EPCs) during OGD significantly blocked the elevations of BRM, IκB, and Foxf1, but not ITIH-5...
February 9, 2019: Stem Cell Reviews
Evgeny Sidorov, Dharambir K Sanghera, Jairam K P Vanamala
Finding ischemic stroke biomarker is highly desirable because it can improve diagnosis even before a patient arrives to the hospital. Metabolome is one of new technologies that help to find biomarkers. Most metabolome-related ischemic stroke studies were done in Asia and had exploratory designs. Although failed to find specific biomarkers, they discovered several important metabolite-stroke associations which belong to three pathophysiological mechanisms: Excitotoxicity with activation of glutamate, resulting in the increase of glutamate derivatives proline and pyroglutamate; Oxidative stress with production of free radicals and perturbed concentrations of uric acid, matrix metalloproteinase-9, branch-chained amino acids, sphingolipids, homocysteine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, nitric oxide and folate cycle metabolites; and Stroke mediated inflammation, affecting phospholipid metabolism with perturbed levels of lysophosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidylcholine...
January 2019: Journal of Stroke
Takahiro Ohkura, Teizo Yoshimura, Masayoshi Fujisawa, Toshiaki Ohara, Rie Marutani, Kaya Usami, Akihiro Matsukawa
Chronic low-grade inflammation in visceral adipose tissues triggers the development of obesity-related insulin resistance, leading to the metabolic syndrome, a serious health condition with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and stroke. In the present study, we investigated whether Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein 2 (Spred2), a negative regulator of the Ras/Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, plays a role in the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, metabolic abnormalities, and insulin resistance...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Anne-Sophie Ernst, Laura-Inés Böhler, Anna M Hagenston, Angelika Hoffmann, Sabine Heiland, Carsten Sticht, Martin Bendszus, Markus Hecker, Hilmar Bading, Hugo H Marti, Thomas Korff, Reiner Kunze
Local cerebral hypoperfusion causes ischemic stroke while driving multiple cell-specific responses including inflammation, glutamate-induced neurotoxicity mediated via NMDAR, edema formation and angiogenesis. Despite the relevance of these pathophysiological mechanisms for disease progression and outcome, molecular determinants controlling the onset of these processes are only partially understood. In this context, our study intended to investigate the functional role of EphB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase that is crucial for synapse function and binds to membrane-associated ephrin-B ligands...
February 5, 2019: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Amit Algotar, Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, H H Sherry Chow, Shona Dougherty, Hani M Babiker, David Marrero, Ivo Abraham, Rachit Kumar, Jennifer Ligibel, Kerry S Courneya, Cynthia Thomson
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer is associated with adverse cardiometabolic effects such as reduced libido, hot flashes, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke. This reduces quality of life and potentially increases mortality. Several large clinical trials have demonstrated improvements in cardiometabolic risk with comprehensive multimodality lifestyle modification. However, there is a lack of data for such interventions in men on ADT for prostate cancer, and existing studies have used non-standardized interventions or lacked data on metabolic risk factors...
February 5, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Raheleh Gholamzadeh, Mehdi Eskandari, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli, Hossein Mostafavi
Introduction: Brain Ichemic-Reperfusion Injury (IRI) activates different pathophysiological processes. It also changes physiological parameters such as Blood Glucose (BG) level. An increase in BG after stroke is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Erythropoietin has been shown to be effective on both reducing inflammation and BG level. Therefore, in this study the erythropoietin pretreatment effect on BG and its relationship with inflammatory markers after brain IRI was investigated...
September 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Joanna Saluk-Bijak, Angela Dziedzic, Michal Bijak
The available data, including experimental studies, clearly indicate an excessive intravascular activation of circulating platelets in multiple sclerosis (MS) and their hyper-responsiveness to a variety of physiological activators. Platelet activation is manifested as an increased adhesion and aggregation and is accompanied by the formation of pro-thrombotic microparticles. Activated blood platelets also show an expression of specific membrane receptors, synthesis many of biomediators, and generation of reactive oxygen species...
February 1, 2019: Cells
Antje Giede-Jeppe, Jonathan Reichl, Maximilian I Sprügel, Hannes Lücking, Philip Hoelter, Ilker Y Eyüpoglu, Joji B Kuramatsu, Hagen B Huttner, Stefan T Gerner
OBJECTIVEStroke-associated immunosuppression and inflammation are increasingly recognized as factors triggering infections and thus potentially influencing outcome after stroke. Several studies have demonstrated that elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a significant predictor of adverse outcomes for patients with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Thus far, in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage the association between NLR and outcome is insufficiently established. The authors sought to investigate the association between NLR on admission and functional outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Hong Li, Antoni Sureda, Hari Prasad Devkota, Valeria Pittalà, Davide Barreca, Ana Sanches Silva, Devesh Tewari, Suowen Xu, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) cause the largest mortality worldwide, and much attention has been focused to unravel the mechanisms and optimize the treatment regimens. Curcumin is an important bioactive component of turmeric that has been widely applied as traditional medicine to prevent and treat various diseases in some countries. Recent studies have demonstrated its potent activities in modulating multiple signaling pathways associated with cellular growth, proliferation, survival, inflammation and oxidative stress...
February 1, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
Ke Ning, Wen-Wu Liu, Jun-Long Huang, Hong-Tao Lu, Xue-Jun Sun
It has been confirmed that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. The polarization of microglia as an important participant in the inflammation following stroke is also found to be involved in stroke. This study aimed to investigate the effects of hydrogen gas on the polarization of macrophages/microglia in vitro . Raw264.7 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharides and then exposed to hydrogen. The microglia were treated with the supernatant from oxygen and glucose deprivation-treated neurons and then exposed to hydrogen...
October 2018: Medical Gas Research
Jong-Hyun Nho, A-Hyeon Kim, Ho-Kyung Jung, Mu-Jin Lee, Ji-Hun Jang, Beo-Dul Yang, Hyun-Ju Lee, Ki-Ho Lee, Kyeong-Wan Woo, Hyun-Woo Cho
The dry rhizome of Acorus gramineus Solander, known as Acori Graminei Rhizoma, is used to treat dementia, stroke, eczema, and indigestion in traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Korean medicine, and traditional Japanese Kampo medicine. Previous studies have reported that Acori Graminei Rhizoma extract ameliorated cognitive impairment in A β 1-42 injected mice. However, the effect of Acori Graminei Rhizoma on type II collagen induced arthritis (CIA) has not been elucidated. Thus, we evaluated the water extract of Acori Graminei Rhizoma (WAG) in CIA mice models...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Hang Xu, Tianlong Liu, Wenjun Wang, Ning Su, Liudi Yang, Zhifu Yang, Fang Dou, Jia Cui, Fei Fei, Jing Ma, Aidong Wen, Yi Ding
Ischemic stroke is a common cerebrovascular disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, treatment options for reducing cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) are limited. Gallic acid (GA) as a plant polyphenol has been used to fight against CIRI. But its pharmacokinetic properties such as low absorption, poor bioavailability and quick elimination have negative effects on its clinical application. To strengthen its potency, a delivery system of GA-loaded o-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticle (GA-NP) was synthesized in our study...
February 2, 2019: Rejuvenation Research
Abdallah Al-Salameh, Philippe Chanson, Sophie Bucher, Virginie Ringa, Laurent Becquemont
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, compiled data suggest that type 2 diabetes affects the risk of cardiovascular disease differentially according to sex. In recent years, large meta-analyses have confirmed that women with type 2 diabetes have a higher relative risk of incident coronary heart disease, fatal coronary heart disease, and stroke compared with their male counterparts. The reasons for these disparities are not completely elucidated. A greater burden of cardiometabolic risk in women was proposed as a partial explanation...
February 2019: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Runzhi Chen, Peng Wu, Zheng Cai, Yingying Fang, Hao Zhou, Yi Lasanajak, Lan Tang, Ling Ye, Chuqi Hou, Jie Zhao
The combination of Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CXR) is commonly used to treat cerebrovascular diseases. This work aimed to clarify the mechanisms of their action in treating cerebral ischemic stroke from the perspective of gut microecology. The PLR and CXR combination effectively improved the neurological function, reduced the cerebral infarction and relieved the complications of cerebral ischemic stroke, including dyslipidemia, increased blood viscosity and thrombotic risk. Cerebral ischemic stroke triggered gut microbial disturbances by enriching pathogens and opportunistic microorganisms, including Bacteroides, Escherichia_Shigella, Haemophilus, Eubacterium_nodatum_group, Collinsella, Enterococcus, Proteus, Alistipes, Klebsiella, Shuttleworthia and Faecalibacterium...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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