airway vagal

Ding He, Hong Chen, Ming Zeng, Chunmei Xia, Jin Wang, Linlin Shen, Danian Zhu, Yonghua Chen, Jijiang Wang
Airway vagal hypertonia is closely related to the severity of asthma; however, the mechanisms of its genesis are unclear. This study aims to prove that asthmatic airway vagal hypertonia involves neuronal Cl- dyshomeostasis. The experimental airway allergy model was prepared with ovalbumin in male adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Plethysmography was used to evaluate airway vagal response to intracisternally injected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Immunofluorescent staining and Western-blot assay were used to examine the expression of microglia-specific proteins, Na+ -K+ -2Cl- co-transporter 1 (NKCC1), K+ -Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2) and brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) in airway vagal centers...
2020: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Manish Goyal, Arun Goel, Ruchi Singh, Nilotpal Chowdhury, Narsingh Verma, Sunita Tiwari, Kishore Kumar Deepak
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is one of the effector pathways for circadian variation of many physiological parameters. Autonomic tone and airways caliber have been reported to exhibit circadian variation in separate studies. A simultaneous investigation of heart rate variability (HRV) and airway caliber might ascertain how airway caliber is modulated by autonomic tone. This study was planned to identify the variations in airway caliber and autonomic function tone during a 24-hour span. A total of 56 healthy male subjects with almost similar daily routines were studied...
February 20, 2020: Chronobiology International
Xujiao Zhou, Ding He, Xianxia Yan, Xingxin Chen, Rui Li, Guangming Zhang, Jijiang Wang
As an imidazoline I1 receptor agonist with very weak binding affinity for α2 -adrenoceptors, moxonidine is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension. Moxonidine also has been implicated to act centrally to reduce airway vagal outflow. However, it is unknown at which central sites moxonidine acts to affect airway vagal activity, and how moxonidine takes effect at synaptic and receptor levels. In this study, airway vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs) were retrogradely labeled in neonatal rats from the intrathoracic trachea; retrogradely labeled AVPNs in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus (NA) were identified in rhythmically active medullary slices using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques; and the effects of moxonidine on the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of AVPNs were observed at synaptic level...
January 30, 2020: Brain Research
Sébastien Talbot, Benjamin Doyle, Junwei Huang, Jo-Chiao Wang, Maryam Ahmadi, David P Roberson, Ajay Yekkirala, Simmie L Foster, Liam E Browne, Bruce P Bean, Bruce D Levy, Clifford J Woolf
Airway sensory neuron-produced Substance P heightens allergy-induced goblet cell hyperplasia and hypersecretion of Muc5AC, electrically silencing these overreactive neurons reduced these components of lung type 2 allergic inflammatory response.
January 16, 2020: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yonglin Mai, Chen Zhan, Shengfang Zhang, Jiaxing Liu, Wanqin Liang, Jiawei Cai, Kefang Lai, Nanshan Zhong, Ruchong Chen
BACKGROUND: A higher incidence of Arnold Nerve Reflex (ANR) has been observed in patients with chronic cough. However, the different ANR response in various causes of chronic cough remains unclear. Furthermore, it is unknown whether ANR will change after effective treatment. METHODS: Patients with chronic cough were enrolled in the Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health. The causes of chronic cough were diagnosed via a validated management algorithm. Patients underwent an assessment of ANR response before and after one-month etiological treatment...
January 13, 2020: Chest
An-Hsuan Lin, Chun-Chun Hsu, You Shuei Lin, Ruei-Lung Lin, Lu-Yuan Lee
KEY POINTS: Brief inhalation of SO2 of concentration >500 ppm triggered a pronounced stimulatory effect on vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibres in anaesthetized rats. This stimulatory effect was drastically diminished by a pretreatment with NaHCO3 that raised the baseline arterial pH, suggesting a possible involvement of acidification of airway fluid and/or tissue generated by inhaled SO2 . The stimulation was completely abolished by pretreatment with antagonists of both acid-sensing ion channels and transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 receptor, indicating that this effect was caused by acid activation of these cation channels expressed in airway sensory nerves...
December 31, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Vanessa Cristina Cunha Sequeira, Pamela Martin Bandeira, João Carlos Moreno Azevedo
Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a common respiratory disorder characterized by recurrent nocturnal episodes of normal breathing interruption due to upper airway total or partial collapse. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular diseases has similar risk factors, but the first is also a predisposing factor for cardiovascular pathologies independently of individuals demographic characteristics or risk markers. Heart rate variability is a non-invasive method to evaluate the regulation of autonomic nervous system and its a promising marker for health and disease, such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases...
July 2019: Sleep Science
Hanwei Li, Daiqiang Huang, Kun Qiao, Zheng Wang, Shiyuan Xu
Data about the feasibility and safety of thoracoscopic surgery under non-intubated anesthesia and regional block are limited. In this prospective study, 57 consecutive patients scheduled for thoracoscopic surgery were enrolled. Patients were sedated with dexmedetomidine and anesthetized with propofol and remifentanil. Ropivacaine was used for intercostal nerve and paravertebral block. Lidocaine was used for vagal block. The primary outcomes were mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation, and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (ETCO2) at T0 (pre-anesthesia), T1 (immediately after laryngeal mask/nasopharyngeal airway placement), T2 (immediately after skin incision), T3 (10 min after opening the chest), T4 (end of surgery), and T5 (immediately after laryngeal mask/nasopharyngeal airway removal)...
2020: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Luiz Otávio Lourenço, Ana Carolina Ramos Lopes, Bruno Zavan, Roseli Soncini
Mammals airways are extensively innervated by the vagus nerve, which controls the airway diameter and bronchial tone. However, very few studies described the respiratory function and lung morphology after vagal section. In the present study, we evaluated the respiratory mechanics after aerosolization of vehicle (to obtain control values), a muscarinic agonist (methacholine), a β2 -adrenergic agonist (salbutamol) or a muscarinic antagonist (ipratropium bromide) in intact (Vi) and bilaterally vagotomized (Vx) Swiss male mice...
December 4, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Bradley J Undem, Hui Sun
Stimulation of bronchopulmonary vagal afferent C fibers by inflammatory mediators can lead to coughing, chest tightness, and changes in breathing pattern, as well as reflex bronchoconstriction and secretions. These responses serve a defensive function in healthy lungs but likely contribute to many of the signs and symptoms of inflammatory airway diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the activation of bronchopulmonary C-fiber terminals may lead to novel therapeutics that would work in an additive or synergic manner with existing anti-inflammatory strategies...
January 1, 2020: Physiology
Zhenying Nie, Jessica N Maung, David B Jacoby, Allison D Fryer
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils mediate airway hyperresponsiveness by increasing vagally-mediated reflex bronchoconstriction. Here we tested whether circulating or airway eosinophils change nerve function. METHODS: Airway resistance in response to aerosolized 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 10-300 mM) was measured in wild type mice or transgenic mice that over express IL5 in T cells (+IL5T ), over express IL5 in airway epithelium (+IL5AE ), or over express IL5 but devoid of eosinophils (+IL5AE /-Eos)...
November 20, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Yonghua Chen, Yuhong Guo, Xianxia Yan, Ming Zeng, Hong Chen, Dongying Qiu, Jijiang Wang
Airway vagal nerves play a predominant role in the neural control of the airway, and augmented airway vagal activity is known to play important roles in the pathogenesis of some chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Several lines of evidence indicate that dysfunctional central orexinergic system is closely related to the severity of airway diseases, however, whether orexins affect airway vagal activity is unknown. This study investigates whether and how orexin-A regulates the activity of medullary airway vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs)...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Javier Milagro, Javier Gracia, Ville-Pekka Seppa, Jussi Karjalainen, Marita Paassilta, Michele Orini, Raquel Bailon, Eduardo Gil, Jari Viik
OBJECTIVE: Despite its increasing prevalence, diagnosis of asthma in children remains problematic due to their difficulties in producing repeatable spirometric maneuvers. Moreover, low adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) treatment could result in permanent airway remodeling. The growing interest in a noninvasive and objective way for monitoring asthma, together with the apparent role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) in its pathogenesis, have attracted interest towards heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiorespiratory coupling (CRC) analyses...
October 28, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Stuart B Mazzone, Luyi Tian, Aung Aung Kywe Moe, Matthew W Trewella, Matthew E Ritchie, Alice E McGovern
Bronchopulmonary sensory neurons are derived from the vagal sensory ganglia and are essential for monitoring the physical and chemical environment of the airways and lungs. Subtypes are heterogenous in their responsiveness to stimuli, phenotype, and developmental origin, but they collectively serve to regulate normal respiratory and pulmonary processes and elicit a diverse range of defensive physiological responses that protect against noxious stimuli. In this study, we aimed to investigate the transcriptional features of vagal bronchopulmonary sensory neurons using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to provide a deeper insight into their molecular profiles...
October 19, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
Huda Badri, Jaclyn A Smith
Cough is mediated by vagal afferent fibres innervating the larynx and proximal airways. Pre-clinical studies suggest that vagal C fibres produce Substance P, one of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides, which has been shown to enhance cough via the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and studies in animal models have also shown that NK-1 antagonists are effective at blocking induced cough. In the past, tachykinin receptor antagonists have yielded disappointing results in treating asthma and cough, however most of the activity of the agents tested was restricted to the peripheral nervous system and also the outcomes measures evaluating cough not optimal...
October 14, 2019: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Paloma G Bittencourt-Silva, Miguel Furtado Menezes, Bolival A Mendonça-Junior, Marlusa Karlen-Amarante, Daniel B Zoccal
Periods of apnoeas, commonly observed in premature and newborns, are an important risk factor for the development of cardiorespiratory diseases in adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated changes in pulmonary ventilation and respiratory motor pattern in juvenile and adult rats exposed to postnatal chronic intermittent hypoxia (pCIH). Newborn male Holtzman rats (P1) were submitted to pCIH [6% O2 for 30 s, every 9 min, 8 hours a day (9:30 am - 5:30 pm)] during their first 10 days of life, while control animals were maintained under normoxic conditions (20...
October 12, 2019: Experimental Physiology
Michael G Z Ghali
Preinspiratory discharge manifests in the neuronal recordings of the pre-Bötzinger complex, parafacial respiratory group, retrotrapezoid nucleus, and Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, as well as the efferent neural discharge of respiratory-related nerves innervating upper airway musculature. This neural component of triphasic eupnea contemporaneously contributes to the genesis of native and originate respiratory rhythmic activity, as well as the preinspiratory component of efferent neural respiratory discharges. In the course of our investigations evaluating hypoglossal discharge in response to asphyxia, we noted a curious pattern of neural respiratory recovery following postasphyxia resuscitation in hypoglossal, vagal, and phrenic neurograms in unanesthetized decerebrate rats...
September 30, 2019: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Jeremy H M Chan, James W Owens, Joanna E Wrede
We present the case of a 12-year-old girl with medically refractory epilepsy and a vagal nerve stimulator (VNS), who experienced severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with respiratory events closely matching her VNS settings. We demonstrated a real-time decrease in OSA through an in-laboratory VNS titration study, decreasing her VNS frequency from 20 Hz to 10 Hz. We were able to demonstrate a baseline level of OSA by turning off the VNS. We then effectively treated her residual OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)...
October 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Alexandria K Driessen
The paratrigeminal nucleus is an obscure region in the dorsal lateral medulla, which has been best characterized as a collection of interstitial cells located in the dorsal tip of the spinal trigeminal tract. The paratrigeminal nucleus receives afferent input from the vagus, trigeminal, spinal, and glossopharyngeal nerves, which contribute to its long-known roles in the baroreceptor reflex and nociceptive processing. More recently, studies have shown that this region is also involved in the processing of airway-derived sensory information...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Jeremy H M Chan, James W Owens, Joanna E Wrede
We present the case of a 12-year-old girl with medically refractory epilepsy and a vagal nerve stimulator (VNS), who experienced severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with respiratory events closely matching her VNS settings. We demonstrated a real-time decrease in OSA through an in-laboratory VNS titration study, decreasing her VNS frequency from 20 Hz to 10 Hz. We were able to demonstrate a baseline level of OSA by turning off the VNS. We then effectively treated her residual OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)...
September 10, 2019: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
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