Verónica Trujillo, Evandro Valentim-Lima, Rodrigo Mencalha, Quézia S R Carbalan, Raoni C Dos-Santos, Viviane Felintro, Carlos E N Girardi, Rodrigo Rorato, Danilo Lustrino, Luis C Reis, André S Mecawi
The serotoninergic system plays an important role in the ontogeny of the mammalian central nervous system, and changes in serotonin production during development may lead to permanent changes in brain cytoarchitecture and function. The present study investigated the programming effects of neonatal serotonin depletion on behavior and molecular components of the serotoninergic system in adult male and female rats. Subcutaneous para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) administration (100 mg kg-1 ) was performed daily on postnatal days 8-16 to deplete brain serotonin content...
October 20, 2020: Molecular Neurobiology
Grażyna Gebuza, Marzena Kaźmierczak, Katarzyna Leńska
OBJECTIVE: Kangaroo mother care and musical stimulation are recommended nursing interventions in the NICU. However, there is little research on the combination of kangaroo care with musical stimulation and their relationship with the health condition of infants. The aim of the study was to compare the parameters of the physiological state and behavior of infants during kangaroo mother care as well as kangaroo mother care and musical stimulation. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 100 infants, with corrected gestational ages of 35 weeks, with an average body weight of 2704 g...
October 20, 2020: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Elina Botha, Mika Helminen, Marja Kaunonen, Welma Lubbe, Katja Joronen
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a behavioral infant calming technique to support mothers' parenting self-efficacy and parenting satisfaction. The methods of this randomized controlled trial are based on the CONSORT guidelines. Data were collected during March 1 to May 20, 2019, from 3 postpartum units in 1 university-level hospital in Finland. A total of 250 mothers agreed to participate, of which 120 were randomly allocated to the intervention group and 130 to the control group. All mothers completed a baseline questionnaire before randomization...
October 2020: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
Constanze Pfitzer, Aleksandra Buchdunger, Paul C Helm, Maximilian J Blickle, Lisa-Maria Rosenthal, Hannah Ferentzi, Felix Berger Prof, Ulrike M M Bauer, Katharina R L Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Aim of the study was to evaluate the educational achievement of patients diagnosed with univentricular heart physiology (UVHP) or transposition of the great arteries (TGA) after neonatal cardiac surgery METHODS: An exploratory online survey was performed with patients registered with the National Register for Congenital Heart Defects (NRCHD) in Germany. For this publication, a subgroup analysis was conducted among patients diagnosed with TGA (n=173; 36.3%) and UVHP (n=304; 63...
October 16, 2020: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Léa Cailleau, Raphaël Weber, Sandie Cabon, Cyril Flamant, Jean-Michel Roué, Géraldine Favrais, Géraldine Gascoin, Aurore Thollot, Maxime Esvan, Fabienne Porée, Patrick Pladys
Background: Sleep is an important determinant of brain development in preterm infants. Its temporal organization varies with gestational age (GA) and post-menstrual age (PMA) but little is known about how sleep develops in very preterm infants. The objective was to study the correlation between the temporal organization of quiet sleep (QS) and maturation in premature infants without severe complications during their neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Percentage of time spent in QS and average duration of time intervals (ADI) spent in QS were analyzed from a cohort of newborns with no severe complications included in the Digi-NewB prospective, multicentric, observational study in 2017-19...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
María Inés Herrera, Tamara Kobiec, Rodolfo Kölliker-Frers, Matilde Otero-Losada, Francisco Capani
Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is an obstetric complication occurring when the oxygen supply to the newborn is temporally interrupted. This health problem is associated with high morbimortality in term and preterm neonates. It severely affects the brain structure and function, involving cortical, hippocampal, and striatal loss of neurons. Nearly 25% of PA survivor newborns develop several neurodevelopmental disabilities. Behavioral alterations, as well as the morphological and biochemical pathways involved in PA pathophysiology, have been studied using an animal model that resembles intrauterine asphyxia...
2020: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Marco Chiera, Francesco Cerritelli, Alessandro Casini, Nicola Barsotti, Dario Boschiero, Francesco Cavigioli, Carla G Corti, Andrea Manzotti
Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) greatly expand the use of technology. There is a need to accurately diagnose discomfort, pain, and complications, such as sepsis, mainly before they occur. While specific treatments are possible, they are often time-consuming, invasive, or painful, with detrimental effects for the development of the infant. In the last 40 years, heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a non-invasive measurement to monitor newborns and infants, but it still is underused. Hence, the present paper aims to review the utility of HRV in neonatology and the instruments available to assess it, showing how HRV could be an innovative tool in the years to come...
2020: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Takefumi Kikusui, Yuichi Shima, Miku Sonobe, Yuuki Yoshida, Miho Nagasawa, Kensaku Nomoto, Kazutaka Mogi
Testosterone masculinizes male sexual behavior by providing organizational and activational effects during the perinatal and peripubertal periods and during adulthood, respectively. We revealed that the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) and mounting behavior was regulated by different neural circuits. However, the detailed testosterone effects on these two behaviors have not been fully elucidated. Here, we evaluated the time-dependent effects of testosterone on USVs and mounting behavior in mice using a testosterone treatment model, in which females were treated with testosterone to assess the "gain-of-function" and a "loss-of-function" model...
October 18, 2020: Developmental Psychobiology
Da Hee Jung, Malk Eun Pak, Hong Ju Lee, Sung Min Ahn, Young Ju Yun, Yong-Il Shin, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Seo-Yeon Lee, Byung Tae Choi
Electroacupuncture (EA) therapy via alternating current stimulation on the scalp over the motor cortex is used for the treatment of brain disorders. Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI), a brain injury in newborns, leads to long-term neurologic complications. Here, we investigated whether EA could promote functional improvements and neurogenesis in a neonatal HI rat model. A neonatal HI rat model was induced by permanent ligation of the left carotid artery in postnatal day 7 pups. EA for neonatal HI rats was performed at 2 Hz (1, 3, or 5 mA; 20 min) from 4-6 weeks after birth...
October 14, 2020: Life
Rupa Radhakrishnan, Gregory Grecco, Kellen Stolze, Brady Atwood, Samuel G Jennings, Izlin Z Lien, Andrew J Saykin, Senthilkumar Sadhasivam
Prenatal opioid exposure (POE) has shown to be a risk factor for adverse long-term cognitive and behavioral outcomes in offspring. However, the neural mechanisms of these outcomes remain poorly understood. While preclinical and human studies suggest that these outcomes may be due to opioid-mediated changes in the fetal and early postnatal brain, other maternal, social, and environmental factors are also shown to play a role. Recent neuroimaging studies reveal brain alterations in children with POE. Early neuroimaging and novel methodology could provide an in vivo mechanistic understanding of opioid mediated alterations in developing brain...
October 13, 2020: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Zihao Zhang, Donald Chad Collins, Joost X Maier
The time course of changes in functional cortical activity during early development has been extensively studied in the rodent visual system. A key period in this process is the time of eye opening, which marks the onset of patterned visual input and active vision. However, vision differs from other systems in that it receives limited patterned sensory input before eye opening, and it remains unclear how findings from vision relate to other systems. Here, we focus on the development of cortical network activity in the olfactory system-which is crucial for survival at birth-by recording field potential and spiking activity from piriform cortex of unanesthetized rat pups from birth (P0) to P21...
October 16, 2020: Cerebral Cortex
Hansa Haftu, Teklu Gebrehiwot Gebremichael, Abel Gidey Kebedom
Introduction: Umbilical granuloma (UG) is the most common cause of umbilical mass and it is formed in the first few weeks of life after the umbilical cord separates. Though there are different options of treatment described in the literature, there is no clear consensus on the best option of treatment. In our case, we will describe the complete resolution of granuloma with salt treatment with no adverse effect. Case Presentation: An 18-day-old female infant presented to the outpatient department (OPD) with concerns of swelling over the umbilicus with a yellowish discharge of one-day duration noticed after separation of the umbilical cord...
2020: Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Hongfei Ke, Dexiang Liu, Tingting Li, Xili Chu, Danqing Xin, Min Han, Shuanglian Wang, Zhen Wang
Introduction: We have reported previously that hydrogen-rich saline (HS) plays a neuroprotective role in hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain damage in newborn mice. However, the mechanisms for this neuroprotection resulting from HS remain unknown. In this study, we examined the potential for HS to exert effects upon microglial phagocytosis via involvement of the Akt signaling pathway as one of the neuroprotective mechanisms in response to neonatal HI. Methods: The HI brain injury model was performed on postnatal day (PND) 7 (modified Vannucci model)...
2020: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Gregory G Grecco, Brady K Atwood
The opioid crisis has resulted in an unprecedented number of neonates born with prenatal opioid exposure (POE); however, the long-term effects of POE on offspring behavior and neurodevelopment remain relatively unknown. The advantages and disadvantages of the various preclinical POE models developed over the last several decades are discussed in the context of clinical and translational relevance. Although considerable and important variability exists among preclinical models of POE, the examination of these preclinical models has revealed that opioid exposure during the prenatal period contributes to maladaptive behavioral development as offspring mature including an altered responsiveness to rewarding drugs and increased pain response...
October 15, 2020: ENeuro
Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, Kathleen Noonan, Anna Wyrwa, Uwe Christians, Amanda J Law, M Camille Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Prenatal depression has lasting effects on development in offspring, including later mental illness risk. Maternal responses to depression include inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation. Effects on development of cerebral inhibitory neurocircuits may differ for female and male fetuses. METHODS: Mothers (N = 181) were assessed periodically, beginning at 16 weeks' gestation, using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale...
August 13, 2020: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Yan-Ting Liang, Hui-Yun Jiang, Hua-Yu Fu
A boy, aged 1 month, attended the hospital due to feeding difficulty and hypotonia. He had unusual facial features (prominent forehead, hypertelorism, ptosis of the lateral canthus, thin upper lip, and low-set ears), hypotonia, and a decreased score of neonatal behavioral neurological assessment. Heart ultrasound showed atrial septal defect. Cranial MRI showed widened supratentorial ventricle, cerebral cistern, and subarachnoid space. High-throughput whole-exome sequencing of the boy detected a hemizygous mutation, c...
October 2020: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Emma Olsson, Martina Carlsen Misic, Randi Dovland Andersen, Jenny Ericson, Mats Eriksson, Ylva Thernström Blomqvist, Alexandra Ullsten
BACKGROUND: During the first period of life, critically ill as well as healthy newborn infants experience recurrent painful procedures. Parents are a valuable but often overlooked resource in procedural pain management in newborns. Interventions to improve parents' knowledge and involvement in infants' pain management are essential to implement in the care of the newborn infant. Neonatal pain research has studied a range of non-pharmacological pain alleviating strategies during painful procedures, yet, regarding combined multisensorial parent-driven non-pharmacological pain management, research is still lacking...
October 12, 2020: BMC Pediatrics
Xiaxia Xu, Lingzhen Song, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene represents an intracellular hub of developmental processes. When combined with early environmental stressors, such as maternal immune activation, but not in the absence of thereof, whole-brain DISC1 knock-down leads to memory and executive deficits as result of impaired prefrontal-hippocampal communication throughout development. While synaptic dysfunction in neonatal prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been recently identified as one source of abnormal long-range coupling, the contribution of hippocampus (HP) is still unknown...
October 10, 2020: Cerebral Cortex
Deniz Özalp Kızılay, Cansever Aydın, Ayşe Pakel Aygün, Hale Ünver Tuhan, Özgür Olukman
Objectives To investigate the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on newborn infants' anogenital distance (AGD). Methods Fifty-six female and sixty-four male newborn infants from mothers who smoked during pregnancy were included in this study. A control group for each sex was selected from infants whose mothers had no active or passive (in either the household or the workplace) smoke exposure before or during pregnancy. Questionnaire data on maternal demographic characteristics and information about cigarette use were collected...
October 8, 2020: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Yu Kodama, Jun Okamoto, Ken Imai, Hidetsugu Asano, Atsushi Uchiyama, Ken Masamune, Masaki Wada, Yoshihiro Muragaki
BACKGROUND: Procedures should be performed when an infant is most receptive to disruptions in order to reduce the stress on an infant. However, frequent direct observations place a heavy burden on medical staff. Therefore, there is a need for a method of quantitatively and automatically evaluating the neonatal state. METHODS: Ten infants in our hospital were enrolled in this study. The states of the infants were assessed by medical staff using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and were recorded on video at the same time...
October 8, 2020: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
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