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Porcine Health Management

Carlos Piñeiro, Alberto Manso, Edgar G Manzanilla, Joaquin Morales
Background: Primiparous sows (PP) have higher nutrient requirements, fewer piglets born with lower birth weight and growth performance than multiparous sows (MP). The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of parity of sow (PP or MP) on the growth performance and humoral immune response of piglets. A total of 10 PP and 10 MP (3rd to 5th parity) sows were used. There were 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with piglets from PP sows suckled by PP or MP sows, and piglets from MP sows suckled by PP or MP sows...
2019: Porcine Health Management
Monica Balasch, Maria Fort, Lucas P Taylor, Ivan Díaz, Enric Mateu, Jay G Calvert
Background: The development of the innate and adaptive immune responses to Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) after vaccination of 1 day-old pigs with a PRRSV-1 based modified live virus (MLV) vaccine by intramuscular (IM) and intranasal (IN) routes was characterised, before and after challenge with a heterologous PRRSV-1 isolate at 18 weeks post-vaccination. Twenty-five PRRSV-seronegative piglets were used. At 1 day of age, pigs were administered with a single dose of vaccine via the IM ( n  = 10) or the IN route ( n  = 10)...
2019: Porcine Health Management
Daniel Meyer, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein, Maria Hartmann, Lothar Kreienbrock, Elisabeth Grosse Beilage
Background: Shoulder ulcers in breeding sows that are restricted to the superficial skin layers, epidermis and dermis are usually classified as insubstantial animal welfare-related lesions. These less-severe lesions need to be differentiated from more-severe wounds that also involve the subcutis and the underlying bone, commonly evaluated as substantial animal welfare-related lesions. Scoring schemes based on clinical or histopathological findings are available, but the consistency between both types of findings has not been definitively evaluated...
2019: Porcine Health Management
S Gallien, V Catinot, N Pozzi, M Berri, E Authié, N Rose, B Grasland
Pigs infected by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are affected by severe diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration. The severity of clinical signs depends on the virus strain. Two genetically different PEDV strains are known to infect pigs, the PEDV S-InDel strains which circulate on all continents and the highly virulent PEDV S-non-InDel strains found in Asia and in America. We have previously demonstrated the presence of PEDV RNA in semen from boars experimentally infected with an S-non-InDel PEDV strain. If naturally infected boars may shed PEDV in semen, this would have important consequences for the breeding sector...
2019: Porcine Health Management
Erika Chenais, Klaus Depner, Vittorio Guberti, Klaas Dietze, Arvo Viltrop, Karl Ståhl
In 2007 African swine fever (ASF) arrived at a Black Sea harbour in Georgia and in 2014 the infection reached the European Union (EU), where it still expands its territory. ASF is a fatal viral disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar of all ages with clinical presentations ranging from per-acute to chronic disease, including apparently asymptomatic courses. Until the detection of the first case inside the EU, infections in the current epidemic were mainly seen among pig farms with generally low biosecurity, and with incidental spill over to the wild boar population...
2019: Porcine Health Management
Korakrit Poonsuk, Ting-Yu Cheng, Ju Ji, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Luis Giménez-Lirola
The diagnostic performance of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) IgG and IgA ELISAs was evaluated using paired serum and meat juice samples collected from PEDV-negative ( n  = 50) and PEDV-inoculated pigs ( n  = 87). Serum samples were tested by PEDV (IgG, IgA) ELISAs using a procedure performed routinely at the Iowa State University-Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU-VDL). Serum samples were tested using PEDV serum IgG and IgA ELISA procedures as routinely performed at the Iowa State University-Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU-VDL)...
2018: Porcine Health Management
S Raasch, M Postma, J Dewulf, K D C Stärk, E Grosse Beilage
Background: Antimicrobial usage in food producing animals is of major concern. A clear link between the extent of use and the development of antimicrobial resistance has already been demonstrated. To evaluate strategies that may reduce the antimicrobial usage while assuring pig health and welfare, it requires profound knowledge of factors that are associated with antimicrobial usage. Data on biosecurity and herd management practices are important parameters to identify risk factors which are related to a higher antimicrobial usage...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Gitte Blach Nielsen, John Haugegaard, Rika Jolie
Background: In practice, field evaluation of vaccine efficacy in individual herds is often based on a historical comparison of productivity data following initiation of vaccination. Being biased by time, this study design highly contrasts the more controlled, parallel-group design used for most initial vaccine efficacy studies but offers the possibility of including a larger number of animals and herds. As an important add-on to previous findings in controlled studies, the objective of this study was to evaluate the field efficacy of the ready-to-use combination vaccine Porcilis® PCV M Hyo (MSD Animal Health) by an observational historical study design using routinely generated herd productivity data...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Karl Johan Møller Klit, Ken Steen Pedersen, Helle Stege
Background: Acquisition of knowledge and skills by agriculture students prior to real-life experience is a well-known educational challenge. Game-based learning has the advantage of being active, experiential, and problem-based, and provides immediate feedback. Simulation games are widely used in other fields to support traditional teaching methodology and actively engage students. This study investigates whether a digital pig farm game can assist agriculture students in acquiring knowledge and skills in farrowing management to reduce mortality in piglets prior to weaning...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Nancy De Briyne, Charlotte Berg, Thomas Blaha, Andreas Palzer, Déborah Temple
Background: European legislation dictates that pig tail docking is not allowed to be performed routinely (European Union. Council Directive 2008/120/EC of 18 December 2008 laying down minimum standards for the protection of pigs. OJ L 47, 18.2.2009). Nevertheless, tail docking is still practiced routinely in many European countries, while four countries stopped routine tail docking completely. Tail docking is also practiced in many countries outside Europe.The Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE), the European Association of Porcine Health Management (EAPHM) together with the European Commission carried out an online survey to investigate the situation regarding the practice of pig tail docking and the provision of enrichment material across 24 European countries...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Monica Balasch, Maria Fort, Lucas P Taylor, Jay G Calvert
Background: The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on the efficacy of a PRRSV-1 based attenuated vaccine, when administered in 1 day-old piglets by the intramuscular route. The protective immunity of the modified live virus vaccine was evaluated in pigs born from seropositive sows, vaccinated at 1 day of age, upon inoculation with a PRRSV-1 isolate. The animals were challenged when the levels of MDAs detected by seroneutralization test (SNT) in the non-vaccinated control group became undetectable (10 weeks after vaccination)...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Amin Sayyari, Tore Framstad, Anette Kristine Krogenæs, Tore Sivertsen
Background: The most prevalent Fusarium mycotoxin in grains is deoxynivalenol (DON). Contamination of swine feed with DON can result in reduced consumption and poor growth performance. Gestating and lactating sows need sufficient feed intake for fetus development during late gestation and milk production and body maintenance during lactation. Therefore, there is considerable concern in modern piglet production about the effects of DON contamination in sow feed. Most previous studies in sows have been done under experimental conditions, with DON levels ≥2...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Krista Marie Wagner, Jochen Schulz, Nicole Kemper
Background: Enrichment materials for pigs, particularly organic materials, are becoming increasingly important in order to reduce abnormal behaviour such as tail biting. However, potential health risks posed by these materials (such as the introduction of pathogens into the herd) have not been sufficiently studied to date. Therefore, 21 different organic materials used as enrichment materials in pig farming were tested for total viable count of mesophilic bacteria, moulds, coliforms, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella spp...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Odile C Hecker, Marc Boelhauve, Marcus Mergenthaler
Background: Due to the risk of spreading epizootic diseases through rodents, pest control is mandatory in pig farming in European countries. However, there is limited research focused on rodent control practices, usage of anticoagulant rodenticides, and the acceptance of Pest Control Operators (PCOs) in pig farming in Germany. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate current control practices in pig holdings and to analyze the potential of a financial support on the implementation of professional pest control...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Anja Joachim, Bärbel Ruttkowski, Daniel Sperling
Background: Cystoisospora suis is the causative agent of porcine neonatal coccidiosis, a diarrheal disease which affects suckling piglets in the first weeks of life. Detection of oocysts in the faeces of infected animals is frequently hampered by the short individual excretion period and the high fat content of faecal samples. We analysed oocyst excretion patterns of infected piglets, evaluated different detection methods for their detection limit and reproducibility, and propose a sampling scheme to improve the diagnosis of C...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Isabel Hennig-Pauka, Franz-Josef Koch, Simone Schaumberger, Bettina Woechtl, Johannes Novak, Michael Sulyok, Veronika Nagl
Background: The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) causes functional and morphological alterations in reproductive organs of pigs. In the field, diagnosis of ZEN-induced disorders is often challenging, as relevant feed lots are no longer available, or feed analysis results are not conclusive. Here, we report a field case of hyperestrogenism in newborn piglets. Surprisingly, more than 50 fungal metabolites were detected in hay pellets fed to gestating sows, including ZEN and its modified form zearalenone-14-sulfate (ZEN-14-S)...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Hanne Kongsted, Karl Pedersen, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Lars Erik Larsen, Ken Steen Pedersen, Sven Erik Jorsal, Poul Bækbo
Background: Many factors can influence the occurrence of neonatal diarrhoea in piglets. Currently, well-known pathogens such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens type C appear to play a minor role in development of disease. Other infectious pathogens may be involved. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of selected infectious pathogens in neonatal piglets with clinical and pathological signs of enteric disease. The association between rotavirus A, Enterococcus hirae, Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens type A/C and diarrhoea was investigated in a case control study on piglet level...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Jeremy Kroll, Michael Piontkowski, Christian Kraft, Teresa Coll, Oliver Gomez-Duran
Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes respiratory distress in pigs, reproductive failure in breeding-age gilts and sows, and can have devastating economic consequences in domestic herds. Several PRRS vaccines are available commercially. This study compared the effectiveness of single-vaccination and revaccination schedules using the PRRS 94881 Type I modified live virus (MLV) vaccine ReproCyc® PRRS EU with no vaccination (challenge control) in protecting against a PRRS virus (PRRSV) challenge in non-pregnant gilts...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Fahiel Casillas, Miguel Betancourt, Cristina Cuello, Yvonne Ducolomb, Alma López, Lizbeth Juárez-Rojas, Socorro Retana-Márquez
Background: Most studies carried out to evaluate recovery and development after porcine oocyte vitrification, reported better rates when cryopreserved in embryonic development stages or zygotes, but not in immature oocytes. For this reason, many studies are performed to improve immature oocyte vitrification protocols testing the use of different cryoprotectant concentrations, cooling devices, incubation times; but only a few of them have evaluated which fertilization procedure enhances blastocyst rates in vitrified oocytes...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Vojislav Cvjetković, Sabine Sipos, Imre Szabó, Wolfgang Sipos
Background: A randomised field trial was conducted on an Austrian farrow-to-finish farm for one year to compare the efficacy of two commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines. 585 piglets either received the one-shot formulation in group 1 (Hyogen®, 23.9 days of age) or a two-shot vaccine (Stellamune® Mycoplasma, 4.3 and 24.0 days of age) in group 2. Assessment of vaccine efficacy was evaluated by regression analyses through cough monitoring from nursery to slaughter, average daily weight gain from inclusion to slaughter, antibiotic treatment rate (ATR), mortality rate, and lung lesion scoring at slaughter...
2018: Porcine Health Management
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