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Current Environmental Health Reports

Ana Olga Mocumbi, Simon Stewart, Sam Patel, Wael K Al-Delaimy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This research aims to summarize evidence on the cardiovascular effects of indoor air pollution (IAP) from solid fuel and identify areas for research and policy for low- and middle-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: IAP affects people from low socioeconomic status in Latin America, Asia, and Africa, who depend upon biomass as a fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting. In these settings, IAP disproportionately affects women, children, the elderly, and people with cardiopulmonary disease...
May 17, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Dharmin Rokad, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides information regarding how exosomes may contribute to environmental chemical-induced pathogenesis of chronic diseases. In connecting exosome biology to environmental toxicology and disease pathogenesis, we address vital questions regarding what constitutes exosomal cargo, how toxicants influence exosomal cargo, and how environmental stimuli influence exosomal physiological and pathological functions. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies in the field demonstrate that exosomal cargo changes depending on external stimuli, which has consequences for the microenvironment of recipient cells...
May 17, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Prince Addo Allotey, Ofer Harel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Incomplete data are a common problem in statistical analysis of environmental epidemiological research. However, many researchers still ignore this complication. We evaluate the performance of two commonly used multiple imputation (MI) methods (fully conditional specification and multivariate normal) for handling missing data and compare them to complete case analysis (CCA) method. We further discuss issues that arise when these methods are being used. RECENT FINDINGS: MI is a simulation-based approach to deal with incomplete data...
May 14, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Georgia Papadogeorgou, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Danielle Braun, Antonella Zanobetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fine particle (PM2.5 ) levels have been decreasing in the USA over the past decades. Our goal was to assess the current literature to characterize the association between PM2.5 and adverse health at low exposure levels. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 26 papers that examined the association between short- and long-term exposure to PM2.5 and cardio-respiratory morbidity and mortality. There is evidence suggesting that these associations are stronger at lower levels...
May 14, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Laura E Armstrong, Grace L Guo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Environmental contaminants are considered one of the major factors in the development and progression of NAFLD, the most common liver disease in the USA. RECENT FINDINGS: The evolving knowledge of mechanisms of hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis has recently been reviewed and characterized as ALD, NAFLD, and TAFLD. The most recent mechanistic studies on PFAS and PCBs have revealed a greater role for toxicants in the initiation of not only TAFLD but also NAFLD and the more progressive inflammatory stage of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis...
May 14, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Elizabeth A Gibson, Jeff Goldsmith, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline the main questions in environmental mixtures research and provide a non-technical explanation of novel or advanced methods to answer these questions. RECENT FINDINGS: Machine learning techniques are now being incorporated into environmental mixture research to overcome issues with traditional methods. Though some methods perform well on specific tasks, no method consistently outperforms all others in complex mixture analyses, largely because different methods were developed to answer different research questions...
May 8, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Maria Grau-Perez, Golareh Agha, Yuanjie Pang, Jose D Bermudez, Maria Tellez-Plaza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetic modifications are environmentally responsive and may play a mechanistic role in the development of disease. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variation to assess the causal effect of modifiable exposures on health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of Mendelian randomization studies evaluating the causal role of DNA methylation (DNAm) changes on the development of health states, emphasizing on studies that formally evaluate exposure-DNAm, in addition to DNAm-outcome, causal associations...
February 18, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Andrew Glazener, Haneen Khreis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: By 2050, 70% of the global population will live in urban areas, exposing a greater number of people to specific city-related health risks that will only be exacerbated by climate change. Two prominent health risks are poor air quality and physical inactivity. We aim to review the literature and state the best practices for clean air and active transportation in urban areas. RECENT FINDINGS: Cities have been targeting reductions in air pollution and physical inactivity to improve population health...
January 30, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Judy S LaKind, Fadwa Idri, Daniel Q Naiman, Marc-André Verner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We offer here a review of intraindividual variability in urinary biomarkers for assessing exposure to nonpersistent chemicals. We provide thoughts on how to better evaluate exposure to nonpersistent chemicals. RECENT FINDINGS: We summarized reported values of intraclass correlation coefficients and found that most values fall into categories that indicate only poor to good reproducibility. Even within the "good" classification, a large percentage of study participants is likely to be misclassified as to their exposure...
January 30, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Jessie P Buckley, Ghassan B Hamra, Joseph M Braun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Children's environmental health researchers are increasingly interested in identifying time intervals during which individuals are most susceptible to adverse impacts of environmental exposures. We review recent advances in methods for assessing susceptible periods. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified three general classes of modeling approaches aimed at identifying susceptible periods in children's environmental health research: multiple informant models, distributed lag models, and Bayesian approaches...
January 26, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Scott M Bartell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, investigators in a variety of fields have reported that most published findings can not be replicated. This review evaluates the factors contributing to lack of reproducibility, implications for environmental epidemiology, and strategies for mitigation. RECENT FINDINGS: Although publication bias and other types of selective reporting may contribute substantially to irreproducible results, underpowered analyses and low prevalence of true associations likely explain most failures to replicate novel scientific results...
January 22, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Rajiv Raghavan, Megan E Romano, Margaret R Karagas, Frank J Penna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) potentially have a role in causing hypospadias malformation through modifiable in-utero exposure. Considering the emerging literature on the role of potential endocrine disrupting substances on the occurrence of hypospadias and the potential to inform public health efforts to prevent the occurrence of these malformations, we have summarized the current literature, identified areas of consensus, and highlighted areas that warrant further investigation...
December 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Cory W Morin, Jan C Semenza, Juli M Trtanj, Gregory E Glass, Christopher Boyer, Kristie L Ebi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weather and climate influence multiple aspects of infectious disease ecology. Creating and applying early warning systems based on temperature, precipitation, and other environmental data can identify where and when outbreaks of climate-sensitive infectious diseases could occur and can be used by decision makers to allocate resources. Whether an outbreak actually occurs depends heavily on other social, political, and institutional factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Improving the timing and confidence of seasonal climate forecasting, coupled with knowledge of exposure-response relationships, can identify prior conditions conducive to disease outbreaks weeks to months in advance of outbreaks...
December 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Emily C Moody, Steven G Coca, Alison P Sanders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are ubiquitous toxicants with evidence of adverse kidney impacts at high exposure levels. There is less evidence whether environmental exposure to As, Cd, or Pb plays a role in development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a systematic review to summarize the recent epidemiologic literature examining the relationship between As, Cd, or Pb with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: We included peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2013 and April 2018 for As and Cd, and all dates prior to April 2018 for Pb...
December 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Marco Vinceti, Tommaso Filippini, Lauren A Wise
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Selenium, a trace element, is ubiquitous in the environment. The main source of human exposure is diet. Despite its nutritional benefits, it is one of the most toxic naturally occurring elements. Selenium deficiency and overexposure have been associated with adverse health effects. Its level of toxicity may depend on its chemical form, as inorganic and organic species have distinct biological properties. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonexperimental and experimental studies have generated insufficient evidence for a role of selenium deficiency in human disease, with the exception of Keshan disease, a cardiomyopathy...
December 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Jennifer Runkle, Erik R Svendsen, Mark Hamann, Richard K Kwok, John Pearce
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent changes in our planetary climate have and will continue to challenge historical knowledge and risk assumptions for weather-related disasters. While the public health community is rapidly working to develop epidemiological approaches and tools to mitigate and adapt to these weather-related disasters, recent high-profile events have exposed gaps in knowledge and response efforts. Limited work has been done to assess the climate readiness of the local public health and healthcare community as it pertains to local response planning and adaptation measures in the event of a weather-related disaster...
November 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Wael K Al-Delaimy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Rossella Alfano, Zdenko Herceg, Tim S Nawrot, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Akram Ghantous, Michelle Plusquin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review evaluated existing evidence linking air pollution exposure in humans to major epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and chromatin regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Eighty-two manuscripts were eligible, most of which were observational (85%), conducted in adults (66%) and based on DNA methylation (79%). Most observational studies, except panel, demonstrated modest effects of air pollution on the methylome...
October 25, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Jouni J K Jaakkola, Suvi Juntunen, Klemetti Näkkäläjärvi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: (1) To develop a framework for understanding the holistic effects of climate change on the Saami people; (2) to summarize the scientific evidence about the primary, secondary, and tertiary effects of climate change on Saami culture and Sápmi region; and (3) to identify gaps in the knowledge of the effects of climate change on health and well-being of the Saami. RECENT FINDINGS: The Saami health is on average similar, or slightly better compared to the health of other populations in the same area...
October 22, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Colin D Butler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To combine evolutionary principles of competition and co-operation with limits to growth models, generating six principles for a new sub-discipline, called "planetary epidemiology." Suggestions are made for how to quantify four principles. RECENT FINDINGS: Climate change is one of a suite of threats increasingly being re-discovered by health workers as a major threat to civilization. Although "planetary health" is now in vogue, neither it nor its allied sub-disciplines have, as yet, had significant impact on epidemiology...
October 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
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