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Health & Justice

Daniel C Semenza, Jessica M Grosholz
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that inmate misconduct is related to a range of demographic factors and experiences with the criminal justice system. Poor mental and physical health has also been associated with inmate misconduct, although no research has examined the relationship between co-occurring conditions and misconduct in prison populations. METHODS: We rely on data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (N = 14,499) and use negative binomial regression models to examine the relationship between types of co-occurring mental and physical conditions and misconduct...
January 5, 2019: Health & Justice
D Crowley, M C Van Hout, C Murphy, E Kelly, J S Lambert, W Cullen
BACKGROUND: Prisons are a key location to access Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected people who inject drugs (PWID). Prison health care structures are complex and optimising health care delivery to this high need, marginalised and underserved population remains challenging. Despite international guidelines recommending that prisons are a priority location for HCV screening and treatment levels of prisoner engagement in HCV care remain low. Competing priorities between security and healthcare is a key feature of prison health care...
December 19, 2018: Health & Justice
Paul Biddle, Wendy Dyer, Richard Hand, Charlitta Strinati
BACKGROUND: This article critically explores the implementation and evaluation of a project designed, delivered and evaluated by frontline staff to improve prison responses to prisoner suicide and self-harm. We begin by evidencing the need for the project and detail its content, delivery and attempts at evaluation. We draw on the reflections of the three practitioners most closely involved in its development, delivery and review in order to explore lessons learned for future staff-led projects including those aimed at tackling prison suicide and self-harm...
December 3, 2018: Health & Justice
Katie Bailey, Staci Rising Paquet, Bradley R Ray, Eric Grommon, Evan M Lowder, Emily Sightes
BACKGROUND: In an effort to reduce the increasing number of persons with mental illness (PMI) experiencing incarceration, co-responding police-mental health teams are being utilized as a way to divert PMI from the criminal justice system. Co-response teams are typically an inter-agency collaboration between police and mental health professionals, and in some cases include emergency medical personnel. These teams are intended to facilitate emergency response by linking patients to mental health resources rather than the criminal justice system, thus reducing burdens on both the criminal justice systems as well as local healthcare systems...
November 22, 2018: Health & Justice
Sarah Elison-Davies, Glyn Davies, Jonathan Ward, Stephanie Dugdale, Samantha Weston, Andrew Jones, Michelle Brides, John Weekes
BACKGROUND: Substance misuse, including problematic drug and alcohol use, are significant issues in society that can have multiple detrimental effects. Many people access support for their substance misuse during prison sentences, due to the associations between substance misuse and offending, and the high proportion of the prison population who have drug and alcohol issues. Breaking Free Online Health and Justice is a computer-assisted therapy program that has been developed to support substance-involved offenders to address their substance misuse and associated offending within prison settings...
November 3, 2018: Health & Justice
Ashleigh C Stewart, Reece Cossar, Paul Dietze, Gregory Armstrong, Michael Curtis, Stuart A Kinner, James R P Ogloff, Amy Kirwan, Mark Stoové
BACKGROUND: Histories of self-harm and suicide attempts are common among people in prison in Australia, and substance dependence is an established risk factor for these lifetime experiences. We describe the prevalence of self-reported history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts in a cohort of men with recent histories of injecting drug use (IDU) imprisoned in Victoria, Australia. Baseline interviews from the Prison and Transition Health (PATH) prospective cohort study were conducted in the weeks prior to release from prison among 400 incarcerated men who reported regular IDU in the six months prior to incarceration...
October 15, 2018: Health & Justice
Kathryn E McCollister, Xuan Yang, Sean M Murphy, Jared A Leff, Richard A Kronmal, Heidi M Crane, Redonna K Chandler, Faye S Taxman, Daniel J Feaster, Lisa R Metsch, William E Cunningham, Frederick L Altice, Bruce R Schackman
BACKGROUND: The consequences of substance use disorders (SUDs) are varied and broad, affecting many sectors of society and the economy. Economic evaluation translates these consequences into dollars to examine the net economic impact of interventions for SUD, and associated conditions such as HCV and HIV. The nexus between substance use and crime makes criminal justice outcomes particularly significant for estimating the economic impact of SUD interventions, and important for data harmonization...
September 21, 2018: Health & Justice
Mike C Horton, Wendy Dyer, Alan Tennant, Nat M J Wright
BACKGROUND: Prisoners are at increased risk of self-harm and when either intent is expressed, or an act of self-harm carried out, prisoners in the UK are subject to self-harm/suicide monitoring (referred to as "open ACCT" monitoring). However, there is a paucity of validated instruments to identify risk of self-harm in prisoner populations. In response to the need to support prison staff to determine who is at increased risk of self-harm or repeat self-harm, the aim of this study was to determine whether any pre-existing, standardised instruments could usefully identify future self-harm events in prisoners undergoing ACCT monitoring...
September 21, 2018: Health & Justice
Mariya I Masyukova, David B Hanna, Aaron D Fox
BACKGROUND: Incarceration disproportionately affects people living with HIV/AIDS. When people are released from jail or prison, they face multiple barriers to HIV care, and those who do engage in care may have suboptimal HIV treatment outcomes. A limited number of studies have investigated HIV treatment outcomes among people who have been released from incarceration. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing HIV viral load (VL) suppression and retention in care 12 months after entry into care among patients of a post-incarceration Transitions Clinic (TC) and a comparison group who received HIV care in the same community...
September 17, 2018: Health & Justice
Mary Rogan
BACKGROUND: International human right standards place obligations on prison authorities to take reasonable steps to prevent suicides in prison and to investigate those which occur. Those human rights instruments contain minimum standards which states must abide by. Human rights principles can also be used in analysis of why suicides occur in prison. METHODS: This paper examines human rights standards on suicide and its prevention provided by the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, the European Prison Rules, the work of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and judgments of the European Court of Human Rights...
September 14, 2018: Health & Justice
Jake Phillips, Nicola Padfield, Loraine Gelsthorpe
BACKGROUND: There has long been concern about the number of people who die in custody in England and Wales, particularly in prisons or police stations. The concern is obviously heightened when people die either at their own hand, or at the hands of others. Yet there has been selective critical gaze, and people who die whilst under probation or community supervision have been neglected (Phillips, J, Gelsthorpe, L, Padfield, N., Criminology & Criminal Justice, , 2017)...
August 21, 2018: Health & Justice
Amanda Butler, Jesse T Young, Stuart A Kinner, Rohan Borschmann
BACKGROUND: Suicide is the leading cause of death in prisons worldwide. Improved understanding of the factors associated with suicide is necessary to inform targeted suicide prevention and interventions. Here we aim to (a) document the prevalence of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, self-harm, and mental disorder; and (b) identify demographic, mental health, and criminal justice correlates of suicidal ideation, in a sample of incarcerated adults in Australia. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2016 Detainee Health and Wellbeing Survey conducted in the Alexander Maconochie Centre, the Australian Capital Territory's only adult prison...
August 14, 2018: Health & Justice
Jessica M Sales, Gail Wasserman, Katherine S Elkington, Wayne Lehman, Sheena Gardner, Larkin McReynolds, Tisha Wiley, Hannah Knudsen
BACKGROUND: Youth under juvenile justice (JJ) supervision are at high-risk of adverse outcomes from substance use, making prevention important. Few studies have examined prevention-related attitudes of JJ employees, yet such attitudes may be important for implementing prevention programs. Attitudes toward prevention may reflect individual characteristics and organizational contexts. METHODS: Mixed effects regression was used to analyze data from 492 employees in 36 sites participating in the Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS) cooperative agreement...
May 15, 2018: Health & Justice
Amanda L Thomas, Jacqueline Scott, Jeff Mellow
BACKGROUND: The Bureau of Justice Statistics' Deaths in Custody Reporting Program is the primary source for jail suicide research, though the data is restricted from general dissemination. This study is the first to examine whether jail suicide data obtained from publicly available sources can help inform our understanding of this serious public health problem. METHODS: Of the 304 suicides that were reported through the DCRP in 2009, roughly 56 percent (N = 170) of those suicides were identified through the open-source search protocol...
May 9, 2018: Health & Justice
Jacqueline Horan Fisher, Jennifer E Becan, Philip W Harris, Alexis Nager, Connie Baird-Thomas, Aaron Hogue, John P Bartkowski, Tisha Wiley
BACKGROUND: The link between substance use and involvement in the juvenile justice system has been well established. Justice-involved youth tend to have higher rates of drug use than their non-offending peers. At the same time, continued use can contribute to an elevated risk of recidivism, which leads to further, and oftentimes more serious, involvement with the juvenile justice system. Because of these high rates of use, the juvenile justice system is well positioned to help identify youth with substance use problems and connect them to treatment...
April 30, 2018: Health & Justice
Alice Knight, Myfanwy Maple, Anthony Shakeshaft, Bernie Shakehsaft, Tania Pearce
BACKGROUND: Young people who engage in multiple risk behaviour (high-risk young people) such as substance abuse, antisocial behaviour, low engagement in education and employment, self-harm or suicide ideation are more likely to experience serious harms later in life including homelessness, incarceration, violence and premature death. In addition to personal disadvantage, these harms represent an avoidable social and economic cost to society. Despite these harms, there is insufficient evidence about how to improve outcomes for high-risk young people...
April 16, 2018: Health & Justice
Jennifer E Becan, John P Bartkowski, Danica K Knight, Tisha R A Wiley, Ralph DiClemente, Lori Ducharme, Wayne N Welsh, Diana Bowser, Kathryn McCollister, Matthew Hiller, Anne C Spaulding, Patrick M Flynn, Andrea Swartzendruber, Megan F Dickson, Jacqueline Horan Fisher, Gregory A Aarons
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the means by which a United States National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded cooperative, Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS), utilized an established implementation science framework in conducting a multi-site, multi-research center implementation intervention initiative. The initiative aimed to bolster the ability of juvenile justice agencies to address unmet client needs related to substance use while enhancing inter-organizational relationships between juvenile justice and local behavioral health partners...
April 13, 2018: Health & Justice
Camila D Odio, Megan Carroll, Susan Glass, Ashley Bauman, Faye S Taxman, Jaimie P Meyer
BACKGROUND: Women in the criminal justice (CJ) system experience complex and comorbid medical, psychiatric, and substance use disorders, which often contribute to CJ involvement. To identify intersections between CJ and health needs, we calculated Spearman r correlations between concurrent CJ and clinical assessments from women on probation in Connecticut who were enrolled in a clinical trial. We examined longitudinal trends in CJ risk scores over 9 years of observation (2005-2014), modeling time to probation recidivism with shared gamma frailty models and comparing contiguous time points by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests...
April 7, 2018: Health & Justice
Matthew E Rossheim, Melvin D Livingston, Jennifer A Lerch, Faye S Taxman, Scott T Walters
BACKGROUND: Adults on probation are at greater risk of both using substances and having a mental disorder compared to the general population. Several theories explain the relationship between substance use and poor mental health. However, the interaction between substance use, mental health, and substance-related consequences is not well understood. A better understanding of this relationship may help treatment programs become more responsive to people with serious mental illness (SMI)...
March 22, 2018: Health & Justice
Alice Munro, Anthony Shakeshaft, Anton Clifford
Upon publication of the original article (Munro et al., 2017), the authors noticed the following errors.
March 14, 2018: Health & Justice
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