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Pattarapon Khemrattrakool, Jintana Yanola, Nongkran Lumjuan, Pradya Somboon
Many insect vector species of medical and veterinary importance are found abundantly in areas where animals are held. In these areas, they often rest for a period of time on objects around the animals both before and after blood feeding. However, the use of neurotoxic insecticides for vector control is not advised for use in such shelters as these chemicals can pose hazards to animals. The present study evaluated the efficacy of pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth regulator, applied to polypropylene sheets and resting boxes on the reproductivity of mosquitoes found in animal shelters in Chiang Mai, Thailand...
February 18, 2019: Insects
Ibtissem Ben Fekih, Annette Bruun Jensen, Sonia Boukhris-Bouhachem, Gabor Pozsgai, Salah Rezgui, Christopher Rensing, Jørgen Eilenberg
Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana (phylum Entomophthoromycota) are important fungal pathogens on cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi . Here, we evaluated and compared for the first time the virulence of these two fungi, both produced in S. avenae cadavers, against the two aphid species subjected to the same exposure. Two laboratory bioassays were carried out using a method imitating entomophthoralean transmission in the field. Healthy colonies of the two aphid species were exposed to the same conidial shower of P...
February 13, 2019: Insects
Francisco Díaz-Fleischer, José Arredondo, Rodrigo Lasa, Carlos Bonilla, Diana Debernardi, Diana Pérez-Staples, Trevor Williams
Polyols are commonly used in food and medicines as sweeteners and preservatives but may also have insecticidal properties against some species of Diptera. Here we compared the insecticidal activity and feeding response of glycerol and propylene glycol (PG) on two tephritids: Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua , and the drosophilid Drosophila suzukii . First, flies were exposed to solutions of 50% sucrose and the two polyols at concentrations of 1.67 M, 2.78 M and 4.18 M for 24 h and then observed at 24 h intervals for a period of three days...
February 12, 2019: Insects
Edward L Vargo
Termites are social insects that live in colonies headed by reproductive castes. The breeding system is defined by the number of reproductive individuals in a colony and the castes to which they belong. There is tremendous variation in the breeding system of termites both within and among species. The current state of our understanding of termite breeding systems is reviewed. Most termite colonies are founded by a primary (alate-derived) king and queen who mate and produce the other colony members. In some species, colonies continue throughout their life span as simple families headed by the original king and queen...
February 12, 2019: Insects
Reem Alajmi, Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, Noura AlOtaibi
Termites are social insects of economic importance that have a worldwide distribution. Identifying termite species has traditionally relied on morphometric characters. Recently, several mitochondrial genes have been used as genetic markers to determine the correlation between different species. Heavy metal accumulation causes serious health problems in humans and animals. Being involved in the food chain, insects are used as bioindicators of heavy metals. In the present study, 100 termite individuals of Anacanthotermes ochraceus were collected from two Saudi Arabian localities with different geoclimatic conditions (Riyadh and Taif)...
February 8, 2019: Insects
Frank H Arthur
Wheat, corn, and brown rice were treated with different combinations of a deltamethrin suspension concentrate (SC) formulation and a new emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation, at rates of either 0.5 or 1.0 ppm alone or in combination with 1.25 and 2.5 ppm methoprene (10 treatments in all, including an untreated control). Treated commodities were stored at ambient conditions on the floor of an empty grain bin in Manhattan, KS, USA, in 5-kg lots for individual replicates. The commodities were sampled and bio-assayed every three months for 15 months by exposing 10 mixed-sex parental adults of selected adult stored product insects on 70⁻80 g of the commodity...
February 5, 2019: Insects
Ephantus J Muturi, Jose L Ramirez, Chang-Hyun Kim
The growing awareness that microbial symbionts residing in mosquito midguts can interrupt transmission of vector-borne diseases has stimulated interest in understanding their potential role in mosquito biology. Fluorescent proteins are powerful molecular markers that provide for detailed analysis of the function and behavior of specific midgut bacterial isolates without disturbing the normal gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to label bacterial isolates from the midgut of Ochlerotatus triseriatus , the primary vector of La Crosse virus, with green, yellow, and red fluorescent proteins (GFP, YFP, RFP) via electroporation...
February 3, 2019: Insects
Farhan J M Al-Behadili, Vineeta Bilgi, Junxi Li, Penghao Wang, Miyuki Taniguchi, Manjree Agarwal, Yonglin Ren, Wei Xu
Cold treatment at 0.0 °C with different exposure durations (0⁻12 days) was applied to the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fed on a lab diet. The examined developmental stages were early eggs (<6 h), late eggs (>42 h), first instar, second instar and third instar larvae. Pupation, adult emergence and sex ratios of survived flies were investigated to study the C. capitata responses to this low temperature treatment. Our results showed that exposure time at low temperature has a clear effect on pupation and adult emergence...
February 3, 2019: Insects
Nguyen Huy Hung, Prabodh Satyal, Ho Viet Hieu, Nguyen Thi Hong Chuong, Do Ngoc Dai, Le Thi Huong, Thieu Anh Tai, William N Setzer
Mosquito-borne infections are a constant problem in Vietnam, and mosquito vector control is a primary approach to control these infections. Essential oils represent environmentally friendly alternatives to synthetic pesticides for mosquito control. The essential oils of two weedy species in Vietnam, Erechtites hieraciifolius and E. valerianifolius , have been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography⁻mass spectrometry. The essential oils have been screened for mosquito larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus , Ae...
February 3, 2019: Insects
Seokyoung Kang, Dongyoung Shin, Derrick K Mathias, Berlin Londono-Renteria, Mi Young Noh, Tonya M Colpitts, Rhoel R Dinglasan, Yeon Soo Han, Young S Hong
Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by mosquitoes and is a major public health concern. The study of innate mosquito defense mechanisms against DENV have revealed crucial roles for the Toll, Imd, JAK-STAT, and RNAi pathways in mediating DENV in the mosquito. Often overlooked in such studies is the role of intrinsic cellular defense mechanisms that we hypothesize to work in concert with the classical immune pathways to affect organismal defense. Our understanding of the molecular interaction of DENV with mosquito host cells is limited, and we propose to expand upon the recent results from a genome-scale, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based study that identified mammalian host proteins associated with resistance to dengue/West Nile virus (DENV/WNV) infection...
February 2, 2019: Insects
Birhanu Sisay, Tadele Tefera, Mulatu Wakgari, Gashawbeza Ayalew, Esayas Mendesil
Fall armyworm (FAW) was reported for the first time in Africa in 2016. FAW is widely distributed in Ethiopia, causing significant damage to maize. Nine synthetic insecticides belonging to different chemical groups and 11 pesticidal plants (botanicals) were tested for their efficacy against FAW under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions. In the laboratory, Radiant, Tracer, Karate, and Ampligo caused over 90% larval mortality 72 h after application. Malathion had moderate activity, causing 51.7% mortality 72 h after application, while Carbaryl was less effective, causing 28% mortality 72 h after application...
February 1, 2019: Insects
Carlo Duso, Renzo Moret, Alessandro Manera, Dario Berto, Diego Fornasiero, Gaia Marchegiani, Alberto Pozzebon
The leafhopper Erasmoneura vulnerata (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is native of Northern and Central America where it occurs on wild and cultivated grapes as well as on a number of secondary hosts. This species was recorded for the first time in Europe (Italy, Veneto region) in 2004. Since then it has spread over Northern Italy and Slovenia. Studies on the biology of E. vulnerata in America are limited and thus its phenology was investigated on Vitis labrusca L. and Vitis vinifera L. plants under field and semi-field conditions...
February 1, 2019: Insects
Daniel A H Peach, Regine Gries, Nathan Young, Robyn Lakes, Erin Galloway, Santosh Kumar Alamsetti, Elton Ko, Amy Ly, Gerhard Gries
Plant sugar is an essential dietary constituent for mosquitoes, and hemipteran honeydew is one of the many forms of plant sugar that is important to mosquitoes. Many insects rely on volatile honeydew semiochemicals to locate aphids or honeydew itself. Mosquitoes exploit volatile semiochemicals to locate sources of plant sugar but their attraction to honeydew has not previously been investigated. Here, we report the attraction of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti , to honeydew odorants from the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae , and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , feeding on fava bean, Vicia faba ...
February 1, 2019: Insects
John Heep, Alica Klaus, Tobias Kessel, Maximilian Seip, Andreas Vilcinskas, Marisa Skaljac
Ants are a biodiverse group of insects that have evolved toxic venom containing many undiscovered bioactive molecules. In this study, we found that the venom of the ruby ant Myrmica rubra is a rich source of peptides. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 142 different peptides varying in molecular weight, sequence length, and hydrophobicity. One of the most abundant peaks was selected for further biochemical and functional characterization. Combined Edman degradation and de novo peptide sequencing revealed the presence of a novel decapeptide (myrmicitoxin) with the amino acid sequence NH₂-IDPKLLESLA-CONH₂...
February 1, 2019: Insects
Luis Fernando Chaves, Mariel D Friberg, Jiun-Yu Jian, Kazuhiko Moji
The bamboo mosquito, Tripteroides bambusa (Yamada) (Diptera: Culicidae) , is a common insect across East Asia. Several studies have looked at the ecology of Tr. bambusa developmental stages separately, but little is known about the factors associated with the persistence (how often) and abundance (how many individuals) of Tr. bambusa stages simultaneously studied across a heterogeneous landscape. Here, we ask what environmental and landscape factors are associated with the persistence and abundance of Tr. bambusa stages across the altitudinal gradient of Mt...
February 1, 2019: Insects
Mani Shrestha, Jair E Garcia, Justin H J Chua, Scarlett R Howard, Thomas Tscheulin, Alan Dorin, Anders Nielsen, Adrian G Dyer
To monitor and quantify the changes in pollinator communities over time, it is important to have robust survey techniques of insect populations. Pan traps allow for the assessment of the relative insect abundance in an environment and have been promoted by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) as an efficient data collection methodology. It has been proposed that fluorescent pan traps are particularly useful, as it has been suggested that they capture high numbers of insects in an unbiased fashion. We use a simultaneous presentation of fluorescent and non-fluorescent pan trap colours to assess how flower-visiting insects of different orders respond to visual stimuli and reveal a significant interaction between trap fluorescence and captured insect type...
February 1, 2019: Insects
Irma Sanchez-Vargas, Laura C Harrington, William C Black, Ken E Olson
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a medically important mosquito-borne virus transmitted to humans by infected Aedes ( Stegomyia ) species. In 2013⁻2014, Ae. aegypti transmitted CHIKV to humans in the Caribbean and in 2005⁻2006, Ae. albopictus transmitted CHIKV on La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean basin). CHIKV LR2006 OPY1 from the La Réunion epidemic was associated with a mutation (E1:A226V) in the viral E1 glycoprotein that enhanced CHIKV transmission by Ae. albopictus . CHIKV R99659 from the Caribbean outbreak did not have the E1:A226V mutation...
February 1, 2019: Insects
Guy Josens, Solange Patricia Makatia Wango
Many African termite species are true soil-feeders: how can they coexist, sometimes with high densities? How do they separate their trophic niches? Preliminary results suggest that two coexisting Cubitermes species forage in different soil layers, and stable C and N isotopes show that they feed on different organic material. Cubitermes aff. ugandensis forages near the soil surface whereas C. aff. sankurensis forages in deeper layers; however, unexpectedly, the former shows a higher δ15 N than the latter, highlighting, for the first time, a trophic niche differentiation between two sympatric true soil feeders bearing different enteric valve patterns...
February 1, 2019: Insects
Franklin Y Quarcoo, Xing Ping Hu, Arthur G Appel
Behavioral symptoms and mortality associated with intoxication with insecticides fipronil and indoxacarb were determined in field-collected eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), and Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Behaviors and mortality were evaluated at three temperatures (16, 22, and 28 °C) and three concentrations of fipronil (0.5, 1, and 5 ppm) and indoxacarb (50, 75, and 100 ppm). LT50 (median lethal time to kill 50% of the termites) values declined with increasing concentrations and temperatures for both fipronil-exposed eastern and Formosan subterranean termites, whereas these values were not always the highest at 16 °C for indoxacarb-treated termites...
January 30, 2019: Insects
Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Panuwan Chantawannakul, Orlando Yañez, Peter Neumann
The global trade of honeybee hive products imposes the risk of the introduction of exotic pests. However, data on the potential of specific products enabling pest survival are often lacking. This holds especially true for ectoparasitic mites Tropilaelaps spp., which are mandatory pests of honeybees in many countries. Here, we evaluated the longevity of Tropilaelaps mercedesae mites associated with empty honeycomb and dry pollen as two possible global import routes. Mites were able to survive up to three days in dry pollen and up to six days in empty honeycomb, thereby suggesting a sufficient time window for the potential introduction of T...
January 29, 2019: Insects
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