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World Journal of Psychiatry

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30631749/comorbidity-of-bipolar-and-anxiety-disorders-an-overview-of-trends-in-research
#1
REVIEW
Mamidipalli Sai Spoorthy, Subho Chakrabarti, Sandeep Grover
Over the last three decades burgeoning research has shown that anxiety disorder comorbidity is not only highly prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD), but it also adversely impacts the course, outcome, and treatment of BD. The present review provides an overview of the current trends in research on comorbid anxiety and BDs based on prior reviews and meta-analyses ( n = 103), epidemiological surveys, and large-scale clinical studies. The results reiterated the fact that at least half of those with BD are likely to develop an anxiety disorder in their lifetimes and a third of them will manifest an anxiety disorder at any point of time...
January 4, 2019: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30631748/electroconvulsive-therapy-80-years-old-and-still-going-strong
#2
EDITORIAL
Gábor Gazdag, Gabor S Ungvari
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which is among the oldest and most controversial treatments in the field of psychiatry, has its 80th birthday this year. In this brief historical overview, the discovery of the therapeutic effects of convulsive therapy by Laszló Meduna, and the circumstances that motivated Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini to use electricity as a means of seizure induction are described. Meduna's original theory about the antagonism between epilepsy and schizophrenia has been replaced by hypotheses on the mechanism of action of ECT...
January 4, 2019: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30425943/women-who-suffer-from-schizophrenia-critical-issues
#3
REVIEW
Mary V Seeman
Many brain diseases, including schizophrenia, affect men and women unequally - either more or less frequently, or at different times in the life cycle, or to varied degrees of severity. With updates from recent findings, this paper reviews the work of my research group over the last 40 years and underscores issues that remain critical to the optimal care of women with schizophrenia, issues that overlap with, but are not identical to, the cares and concerns of men with the same diagnosis. Clinicians need to be alert not only to the overarching needs of diagnostic groups, but also to the often unique needs of women and men...
November 9, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30425942/treatment-alliance-and-adherence-in-bipolar-disorder
#4
EDITORIAL
Subho Chakrabarti
The clinician patient relationship lies at the core of psychiatric practice and delivery of mental health care services. The concept of treatment alliance in psychiatry has its origins in psychotherapy, but has also been influenced by several other constructs such as patient-centred care (PCC) and shared decision-making (SDM). Similarly, there has been a shift in conceptualization of treatment-adherence in psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder (BD) from illness-centred and clinician-centred approaches to patient-centred ones...
November 9, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30370229/role-of-rumination-in-the-relationship-between-metacognition-and-shyness
#5
Sara Palmieri, Giovanni Mansueto, Simona Scaini, Francesca Fiore, Sandra Sassaroli, Giovanni M Ruggiero, Rosita Borlimi, Bernardo J Carducci
AIM: To explore the association between metacognitive beliefs, rumination and shyness in a non-clinical sample of adults. METHODS: One hundred and three healthy subjects from the general population were enrolled in the study. Shyness was evaluated using the Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale, rumination was assessed using the Ruminative Response Scale, metacognition was evaluated using the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30, and anxiety levels were measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y...
October 14, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30254981/psychic-euosmia-and-obsessive-compulsive-personality-disorder
#6
Massimo Pasquini, Annalisa Maraone, Valentina Roselli, Lorenzo Tarsitani
Patients with obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often refer to a prompt mood improvement upon encountering good scents in general, or fresh laundry borax on their clothes, pillows or home settings. The Authors propose the new term psychic euosmia in the mean of an overstated psychological predisposition for a real pleasant smell that elicits an immediate sense of pleasure, order and calm. The prompt reactions to a pleasant odor might be explained by the involvement of rhinencephalon and its proximity to mood-related limbic circuits, which bypass the cognitive awareness...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30254980/antidepressant-foods-an-evidence-based-nutrient-profiling-system-for-depression
#7
Laura R LaChance, Drew Ramsey
AIM: To investigate which foods are the most nutrient dense sources of nutrients demonstrated by the scientific literature to play a role in the prevention and promotion of recovery from depressive disorders. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to derive a list of Antidepressant Nutrients from the 34 nutrients known to be essential for humans using level of evidence criteria. Nutritional data was extracted for a subset of foods with a high content of at least 1 Antidepressant Nutrient using a USDA database...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30254979/drinking-plain-water-is-associated-with-decreased-risk-of-depression-and-anxiety-in-adults-results-from-a-large-cross-sectional-study
#8
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Awat Feizi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Nafiseh Rashidi-Pourfard, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Hamid Roohafza, Payman Adibi
AIM: To investigate the relation between plain water drinking and risk of depression and anxiety among a large sample of Iranian adults. METHODS: A total of 3327 Iranian general adults were included in this cross-sectional study. Validated Iranian version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression. Water consumption was assessed by asking about the number of glasses of water that consumed daily. Water consumption was categorized into < 2, 2-5, and ≥ 5 glasses of water/d...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30254978/single-men-seeking-adoption
#9
REVIEW
Mary V Seeman
It was once impossible anywhere in the world for single adults to adopt children, and this is still the case in many jurisdictions. Elsewhere, however, single adults are now being actively recruited primarily because they are more willing than are married couples to adopt older or disabled children or to adopt across racial or other barriers. This is true for single men as well as for single women, but single men seeking to adopt continue to be widely viewed with skepticism and are reportedly often judged to be inappropriate parents...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30254977/psycho-emotional-content-of-illness-narrative-master-plots-for-people-with-chronic-illness-implications-for-assessment
#10
EDITORIAL
Andy Soundy
Illness narratives are stories of illness told by patients with chronic illness. One way of studying illness narratives is by considering illness narrative master plots. An examination of illness narrative master plots has revealed the importance of psycho-emotional information contained within the story that is told. There is a need for research to capture this information in order to better understand how common stories and experiences of illness can be understood and used to aid the mental well-being of individuals with chronic illness...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30254976/successful-treatment-of-nightmares-may-reduce-psychotic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#11
EDITORIAL
Mary V Seeman
Nightmares occur more frequently in patients with schizophrenia than they do in the general population. Nightmares are profoundly distressing and may exacerbate daytime psychotic symptoms and undermine day-to-day function. Clinicians do not often ask about nightmares in the context of psychotic illness and patients may underreport them or, if nightmares are reported, they may be disregarded; it may be assumed that they will disappear with antipsychotic medication and that they do not, therefore, require separate intervention...
September 20, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29988908/glutamate-transporters-eaat1-and-eaat2-are-potentially-important-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-schizophrenia-and-affective-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Georgia M Parkin, Madhara Udawela, Andrew Gibbons, Brian Dean
Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and it has been shown that prolonged activation of the glutamatergic system leads to nerve damage and cell death. Following release from the pre-synaptic neuron and synaptic transmission, glutamate is either taken up into the pre-synaptic neuron or neighbouring glia by transmembrane glutamate transporters. Excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1 and EAAT2 are Na+ -dependant glutamate transporters expressed predominantly in glia cells of the central nervous system...
June 28, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29988891/melatonin-in-drug-addiction-and-addiction-management-exploring-an-evolving-multidimensional-relationship
#13
REVIEW
Olakunle J Onaolapo, Adejoke Y Onaolapo
Melatonin is a pleiotropic signalling molecule that regulates several physiological functions, and synchronises biological rhythms. Recent evidences are beginning to reveal that a dysregulation of endogenous melatonin rhythm or action may play a larger role in the aetiology and behavioural expression of drug addiction, than was previously considered. Also, the findings from a number of animal studies suggest that exogenous melatonin supplementation and therapeutic manipulation of melatonin/melatonin receptor interactions may be beneficial in the management of behavioural manifestations of drug addiction...
June 28, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29568731/bullying-among-people-with-visual-impairment-prevalence-associated-factors-and-relationship-to-self-efficacy-and-life-satisfaction
#14
Audun Brunes, Morten B Nielsen, Trond Heir
AIM: To examine associated factors of bullying and to determine associations between bullying and psychosocial outcomes among individuals with visual impairments (VI). METHODS: We conducted an age-stratified cross-sectional survey of adults with VI who were recruited from the Norwegian Association of the Blind and Partially Sighted. Data were collected through structural telephone interviews in the period between February and May, 2017. Linear regression models were used to examine factors related to bullying and associations of bullying with self-efficacy and life satisfaction...
March 22, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29568730/factors-associated-with-tobacco-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-among-youth-living-in-west-central-mexico
#15
Octavio Campollo, Payam Sheikhattari, Cesar Alvarez, Jaime Toro-Guerrero, Hector Sanchez Avila, Fernando A Wagner
AIM: To determine the prevalence of drug and substance abuse among high school students in Jalisco and its association with the severity of health, behavior and psychosocial problems in order to provide evidence for possible prevention and treatment needs. METHODS: A multi-stage random sample of Jalisco high school students was given a paper-and-pencil survey based upon an adapted version of the drug use screening inventory (DUSI) ( n = 24699; n = 2832). The DUSI showed adequate psychometric characteristics in this population...
March 22, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29568729/audit-of-physical-health-monitoring-in-children-and-adolescents-receiving-antipsychotics-in-neurodevelopmental-clinics-in-northumberland
#16
Sundar Gnanavel, Sharafat Hussain
AIM: To ascertain performance against the standards set by National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on physical health monitoring of thirty children and adolescents prescribed antipsychotics in neurodevelopmental clinics in Northumberland and identifying areas for improvement in practice. METHODS: The audit involved a review of recorded documentation pertaining to physical health monitoring in patient electronic records pertaining to children and adolescents attending neurodevelopmental clinics in Northumberland prescribed antipsychotics...
March 22, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29568728/repeatability-of-two-dimensional-chemical-shift-imaging-multivoxel-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-for-measuring-human-cerebral-choline-containing-compounds
#17
Basant K Puri, Mary Egan, Fintan Wallis, Philip Jakeman
AIM: To investigate the repeatability of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the in vivo measurement of human cerebral levels of choline-containing compounds (Cho). METHODS: Two consecutive scans were carried out in six healthy resting subjects at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T. On each occasion, neurospectroscopy data were collected from 64 voxels using the same 2D chemical shift imaging (CSI) sequence. The data were analyzed in the same way, using the same software, to obtain the values for each voxel of the ratio of Cho to creatine...
March 22, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29568727/complex-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-the-need-to-consolidate-a-distinct-clinical-syndrome-or-to-reevaluate-features-of-psychiatric-disorders-following-interpersonal-trauma
#18
REVIEW
Evangelia Giourou, Maria Skokou, Stuart P Andrew, Konstantina Alexopoulou, Philippos Gourzis, Eleni Jelastopulu
Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (Complex PTSD) has been recently proposed as a distinct clinical entity in the WHO International Classification of Diseases, 11th version, due to be published, two decades after its first initiation. It is described as an enhanced version of the current definition of PTSD, with clinical features of PTSD plus three additional clusters of symptoms namely emotional dysregulation, negative self-cognitions and interpersonal hardship, thus resembling the clinical features commonly encountered in borderline personality disorder (BPD)...
March 22, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29568726/promoting-recovery-from-severe-mental-illness-implications-from-research-on-metacognition-and-metacognitive-reflection-and-insight-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Paul Henry Lysaker, Jay A Hamm, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Michelle L Pattison, Bethany L Leonhardt
Research indicates that individuals with schizophrenia recover. Recovery, however means different things to different individuals and regardless of what kind of experiences define recovery, the individual diagnosed with the serious mental illness must feel ownership of their recovery. This raises the issue of how mental health services should systematically promote recovery. This paper explores the practical implications for research on metacognition in schizophrenia for this issue. First, we present the integrated model of metacognition, which defines metacognition as the spectrum of activities which allow individual to have available to themselves an integrated sense of self and others as they appraise and respond to the unique challenges they face...
March 22, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29354482/effect-of-educational-intervention-on-attitudes-toward-the-concept-of-criminal-responsibility
#20
Akihiro Shiina, Tomihisa Niitsu, Aiko Sato, Soichiro Omiya, Takako Nagata, Aika Tomoto, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Yoshito Igarashi, Masaomi Iyo
AIM: To evaluate the effect of educational intervention on individuals' knowledge of and attitudes toward forensic mental health. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward various ideas about forensic mental health. The respondents attended a 1-h seminar regarding forensic mental health after answering the questionnaire. On completion of the seminar, the respondents answered another questionnaire containing many of the same questions as contained in the pre-seminar questionnaire...
December 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
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