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ISRN Toxicology

C Urani, P Melchioretto, M Fabbri, G Bowe, E Maserati, L Gribaldo
Cadmium and cadmium compounds are contaminants of the environment, food, and drinking water and are important constituents of cigarette smoke. Cd exposure has also been associated with airborne particulate CdO and with Cd-containing quantum dots in medical therapy. Adverse cadmium effects reported in the literature have stimulated during recent years an ongoing discussion to better elucidate cadmium outcomes at cell and molecular level. The present work is designed to gain an insight into the mechanism of p53 impairment at gene and protein level to understand Cd-induced resistance to apoptosis...
2014: ISRN Toxicology
Vibha Verma, Qiming J Yu, Des W Connell
A model based on the concept of reduction in life expectancy (RLE model) as a result of long term exposure to toxicant has been developed which has normal life expectancy (NLT) as a fixed limiting point for a species. The model is based on the equation (LC50 = a ln(LT50) + b) where a and b are constants. It was evaluated by plotting ln LT50 against LC50 with data on organic toxicants obtained from the scientific literature. Linear relationships between LC50 and ln LT50 were obtained and a Calculated NLT was derived from the plots...
December 26, 2013: ISRN Toxicology
Stephen J Genuis, Detlef Birkholz, Luke Curtis, Court Sandau
With effective antibacterial and antifungal properties, commercially used parabens are synthetic compounds widely utilized as preservatives in cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and as an additive in some foodstuffs. While long regarded as relatively safe and nontoxic, recent research has demonstrated xenoestrogenic properties of anthropogenic parabens with early evidence that paraben exposure may be linked to breast cancer, thyroid dysfunction, allergy, and obesity. In an attempt to determine the prevalence of paraben exposure in a Canadian urban community, a sample of convenience was done by measuring urinary levels of methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and isobutyl parabens (MP, EP, PP, BP, and IP) in 39 consecutive patients in an Alberta primary care clinic...
December 17, 2013: ISRN Toxicology
Priyanka Mandani, Ketki Desai, Hyacinth Highland
In recent years, individuals are rampantly exposed to vapours of benzene, through paint, plastic, petroleum industries, fuel exhaust, and tobacco smoke. Hence the present investigation was directed towards determining the effect of benzene metabolites, namely, phenol-hydroquinone and catechol, on the motility, viability, and nuclear integrity of the human spermatozoa. From the results obtained it was clear that exposure to phenol-hydroquinone caused a significant decline in both, sperm motility and viability...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
S Champion, C Sauzet, P Bremond, K Benbrahim, J Abraldes, E Seree, Y Barra, P H Villard
Recent data suggest that apart from its well-known role in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, AhR is also involved in inflammation. However, the influence of inflammation on AhR expression remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that proinflammatory conditions induced by either PMA or IL-1 β enhance AhR expression in Caco-2 cells. This was associated with an increase in AhR promoter activity. By means of directed mutagenesis experiments and the use of proteasome inhibitors, we demonstrated that inflammation-induced AhR expression involved the NF κ B pathway but not AP-1...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Arthur Omran, Ronald Baker, Charles Coughlin
Sucralose was developed as a low-cost artificial sweetener that is nonmetabolizable and can withstand changes in pH and temperature. It is not degraded by the wastewater treatment process and thus has been found in waste water, estuaries, rivers and the Gulf Stream. Since the molecule can withstand heat, acidification, and microbial degradation, it is accumulating in the environment. The highest concentration of environmental sucralose detected to date is 300 ng/L. Our lab has isolated six bacterial species from areas that have been exposed to sucralose...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Nadia Chaouali, Ines Gana, Amira Dorra, Fathia Khelifi, Anouer Nouioui, Wafa Masri, Ines Belwaer, Hayet Ghorbel, Abderazzek Hedhili
Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Fatemeh Moslemi, Mehdi Nematbakhsh, Fatemeh Eshraghi-Jazi, Ardeshir Talebi, Hamid Nasri, Farzaneh Ashrafi, Maryam Moeini, Azam Mansouri, Zahra Pezeshki
Objective. Nitric oxide (NO) has numerous important functions in the kidney. The role of NO in cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity is not completely understood. This study was designed to determine the role of NO synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) on the severity of CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods. Sixty four male (M) and female (F) Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups. The sham groups (group 1, male, n = 6 and group 2, female, n = 6) received saline. Groups 3 (male, n = 8) and 4 (female, n = 8) were treated with L-NAME (4 mg/kg, i...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Stephen J Genuis, Luke Curtis, Detlef Birkholz
Background. While perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a family of commonly used synthetic compounds with many applications, some PFCs remain persistent within the human body due, in part, to enterohepatic recirculation and renal tubular reabsorption. With increasing recognition of potential harm to human health associated with PFC bioaccumulation, interventions to facilitate elimination of these toxicants are welcome in order to potentially preclude or overcome illness. Minimal research has been undertaken thus far on methods to accelerate human clearance of PFCs...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Stephen J Genuis, Sanjay Beesoon, Detlef Birkholz
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Devashri Sahu, G M Kannan, R Vijayaraghavan, T Anand, Farhath Khanum
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are increasingly used in sunscreens, biosensors, food additives, pigments, rubber manufacture, and electronic materials. With the wide application of ZnO-NPs, concern has been raised about its unintentional health and environmental impacts. This study investigates the toxic effects of ZnO-NPs in human lung cells. In order to assess toxicity, human lung epithelial cells (L-132) were exposed to dispersion of 50 nm ZnO-NPs at concentrations of 5, 25, 50, and 100  μ g/mL for 24 h...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Gregory Cham, Francis Lim, Arul Earnest, Ponnampalam Gopalakrishnakone
Naja sumatrana is the dominant cobra species in Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, and Sumatra, and it does not have specific antivenom. The Haffkine antivenom has been advocated instead. This study aims to determine the efficacy of this antivenom against Naja sumatrana envenoming using a mouse model. Methods. Male Swiss albino mice were used. Intravenous LD50 was first determined separately for Naja naja and Naja sumatrana venom. ED50 was determined by preincubating antivenom with each venom at 2.5 LD50 before administering the mixture into the tail vein...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Lucky Joeng, Amanda Hayes, Shahnaz Bakand
Diesel exhaust emission is a major health concern because of the complex nature of its gaseous content (e.g., NO2, NO, CO, and CO2) and high concentration of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5  μ m which allows for deeper penetration into the human pulmonary system upon inhalation. The aim of this research was to elucidate the potential toxic effects of diesel exhaust on a human pulmonary-based cellular system. Validation of a dynamic direct exposure method for both laboratory (230 hp Volvo truck engine) and field (Volkswagen Passat passenger car) diesel engines, at idle mode, was implemented...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Saumya Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar Sharma
The toxicity of arsenic in soil and ground water is one of the most important environmental problems particularly in South-East Asia. Arsenic-polluted irrigation water creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) to arsenic with or without phosphate application was investigated. Arsenic-treated plants showed reduction in their growth and pigment content. Arsenic significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and level of proline showing oxidative stress...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
G Thompson, S B Fatima, N Shah, G Kitching, W S Waring
In September 2012, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) substantially amended the Marketing Authorisation for acetylcysteine following an extensive review. The present study examined the impact of this license change on patterns of acetylcysteine use in patients presenting to hospital after paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose. Between September 2011 and April 2013, 785 consecutive patients presented to York Hospital due to paracetamol overdose, and a before-after analysis was used to compare outcomes...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Chentouf Aouatif, Ph Looten, M V S Parvathi, S Raja Ganesh, V Paranthaman
NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point and frame shift mutations...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Helena Ohrvik, Eva Tydén, Per Artursson, Agneta Oskarsson, Jonas Tallkvist
Newborns have a higher gastrointestinal uptake of cadmium than adults. In adults, the iron transporters DMT1 and FPN1 are involved in the intestinal absorption of cadmium, while in neonates, the mechanisms for cadmium absorption are unknown. We have investigated possible cadmium transporters in the neonatal intestine by applying a model of immature human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. To mimic the continuous cadmium exposure via diet in neonates, cells were allowed to differentiate for 7 days in medium containing 1  μ M CdCl2...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Teresa Coccini, Luigi Manzo, Elisa Roda
Increasing application of engineered nanomaterials within occupational, environmental, and consumer settings has raised the levels of public concern regarding possible adverse effects on human health. We applied a tiered testing strategy including (i) a first in vitro stage to investigate general toxicity endpoints, followed by (ii) a focused in vivo experiment. Cytotoxicity of laboratory-made functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (i.e., MW-COOH and MW-NH2), compared to pristine MWCNTs, carbon black, and silica, has been assessed in human A549 pneumocytes by MTT assay and calcein/propidium iodide (PI) staining...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Sachindri Rana, P T Kalaichelvan
Nanotechnology is a science of producing and utilizing nanosized particles that are measured in nanometers. The unique size-dependent properties make the nanoparticles superior and indispensable as they show unusual physical, chemical, and properties such as conductivity, heat transfer, melting temperature, optical properties, and magnetization. Taking the advantages of these singular properties in order to develop new products is the main purpose of nanotechnology, and that is why it is regarded as "the next industrial revolution...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
Daliane Medeiros Mazzorana, Vanessa Nicolau, Jeverson Moreira, Patrícia de Aguiar Amaral, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade
Medicinal plants are still widely used worldwide; yet for some species, little or no information is available concerning their biological activity, specially their genotoxic and antimutagenic potential. Mikania laevigata (Asteraceae) is a native plant from South America, and its extracts are largely used to treat respiratory complaints. The aim of the present work was then to evaluate, in vivo, the potential biological activity of M. laevigata on the genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and cyclophosphamide (CP), using the comet assay...
2013: ISRN Toxicology
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