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Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts

Jingtao Ding, Beidou Xi, Qigong Xu, Haibo Meng, Yujun Shen, Hongsheng Cheng
The considerable spatial and temporal variabilities of nitrogen (N) processing introduce large uncertainties for quantifying N cycles on a large scale, particularly in plain river network regions with complicated hydrographic connections and mixed multiple N sources. In this paper, the dual isotopes δ15N and δ18O and dissolved anions in regularly collected samples (n = 10) from the studied river, which is one of the most seriously polluted rivers in the plain river network regions of the Taihu Lake catchment, were analyzed to ascertain the main nitrate (NO3-) sources and watershed N processing in the context of monsoon climate...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Desiree L Plata, Robert B Jackson, Avner Vengosh, Paula J Mouser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Beata Korchowiec, Anna Stachowicz-Kuśnierz, Jacek Korchowiec
Lung surfactant (LS) occurs at the air-water interface in the alveoli. Its main function is to reduce the work needed to expand the alveoli during inhalation and prevent the alveolar collapse during exhalation. Disturbance of this complex interfacial system by the uptake of pollutant molecules can lead to changes in fluidity, permeability, phase separation and domain formation, which in turn can lead to serious impairment in lung function. Knowledge of the LS-pollutant interaction is essential for understanding the mechanism of this process...
February 7, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Faten Salim, Marios Ioannidis, Alexander Penlidis, Tadeusz Górecki
A mathematical model developed previously to describe the sampling process in permeation passive samplers with non-porous adsorbents and evaluated using the Waterloo Membrane Sampler (WMS) is here extended to include adsorbents with porous particles. This work was motivated by the need to expand the model applicability to include the various types of adsorbents used in the WMS, and to develop a deep understanding of the model sensitivity towards required parameters. The effects of intraparticle porosity on the effective diffusivity of the analyte in a bed of porous particles and on the mass transfer coefficient for analyte transport from the interparticle void phase to the porous solid phase are both evaluated...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Grace E Schwartz, James P Sanders, Alyssa M McBurney, Steven S Brown, Upal Ghosh, Cynthia C Gilmour
Activated carbon (AC) amendments have shown promise in reducing inorganic mercury (Hg(ii) complexes, "Hg") and methylmercury (MeHg) risk in contaminated soils. However, the effectiveness of AC in Hg and MeHg immobilization has varied among studies, suggesting that site biogeochemistry might dictate efficacy. In this study, we examined the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on MeHg and Hg sorption to AC. We evaluated the impact of Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) on sorption to AC directly using an isotherm approach and in a soil/AC mixture using slurry microcosms...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Torunn Kringlen Ervik, Nathalie Benker, Stephan Weinbruch, Yngvar Thomassen, Dag G Ellingsen, Balázs Berlinger
The global SiC market is projected to grow in the coming years, and research on potential health effects as well as epidemiological studies is therefore of importance. A detailed characterization in terms of the phase composition, morphology and mixing state of airborne PM is still missing, though highly necessary to identify sources and to understand the risk factors in this industry. Particles in the size range of 10 nm to 10 μm were collected with a 13-stage NanoMOUDI impactor in the Acheson Furnace Hall as well as in processing departments during two sampling campaigns...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Cherie L DeVore, Lucia Rodriguez-Freire, Abdul Mehdi-Ali, Carlyle Ducheneaux, Kateryna Artyushkova, Zhe Zhou, Drew E Latta, Virgil W Lueth, Melissa Gonzales, Johnnye Lewis, José M Cerrato
The mobilization of arsenic (As) from riverbank sediments affected by the gold mining legacy in north-central South Dakota was examined using aqueous speciation chemistry, spectroscopy, and diffraction analyses. Gold mining resulted in the discharge of approximately 109 metric tons of mine waste into Whitewood Creek (WW) near the Homestake Mine and Cheyenne River at Deal Ranch (DR), 241 km downstream. The highest concentrations of acid-extractable As measured from solid samples was 2020 mg kg-1 at WW and 385 mg kg-1 at DR...
February 4, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Jennifer N Apell, Kristopher McNeill
Irradiance reference spectra are used to calculate environmentally relevant photodegradation half-lives, but the currently used spectra were originally published in the 1980s with limited validation. The goal of this work is to provide updated irradiance reference spectra using the Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine (SMARTS). The SMARTS irradiance spectra were validated against measurements from several high-resolution spectroradiometers, and the updated irradiance reference spectra use current measurements for atmospheric species that can affect the irradiance that reaches the Earth's surface...
February 4, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Ajith Pattammattel, Valerie J Leppert, Henry Jay Forman, Peggy A O'Day
Carbonaceous nanomaterials represent a significant portion of ultra-fine airborne particulate matter, and iron is the most abundant transition metal in air particles. Owing to their high surface area and atmospheric oxidation, carbon nanoparticles (CNP) are enriched with surface carbonyl functional groups and act as a host for metals and small molecules. Using a synthetic model, concentration-dependent changes in the chemical speciation of iron adsorbed on oxidized carbon surfaces were investigated by a combination of X-ray and electron microscopic and spectroscopic methods...
January 31, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Anita M Avery, Michael S Waring, Peter F DeCarlo
Outdoor-originated aerosols are an important component impacting indoor air quality. Since outdoor aerosols vary over short (diurnal) and long (seasonal) timescales, we examined how the variation in outdoor aerosol concentration and composition impact indoor aerosol. Measurements of both indoor and outdoor aerosol composition in real time in an urban classroom in winter and summer seasons were performed using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), aethalometer, and a suite of gas phase instruments. Factor analysis of the organic aerosol components identified three factors in common between seasons, including hydrocarbon-like, cooking, and oxidized organic aerosol (HOA, COA, and OOA)...
January 30, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Hichem Belarbi, Philippe Gonzales, Altaf Basta, Philippe Trens
The adsorption of benzene by CuBTC and MIL101(Cr) is investigated. The differences between both materials are discussed in terms of porous volume and affinities, determined by calculating Henry's constants and by measuring the adsorption enthalpies. If MIL101(Cr) adsorbs higher quantities of benzene, CuBTC develops stronger interaction, interesting for VOC remediation.
January 29, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Rawlings N Akondi, Shikha Sharma, Ryan V Trexler, Paula J Mouser, Susan M Pfiffner
Evidence for microbes has been detected in extreme subsurface environments as deep as 2.5 km with temperatures as high as 90 °C, demonstrating that microbes can adapt and survive extreme environmental conditions. Deep subsurface shales are increasingly exploited for their energy applications, thus characterizing the prevalence and role of microbes in these ecosystems essential for understanding biogeochemical cycles and maximizing production from hydrocarbon-bearing formations. Here, we describe the distribution of bacterial ester-linked phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and diglyceride fatty acids (DGFA) in sidewall cores retrieved from three distinct geologic horizons collected to 2275 m below ground surface in a Marcellus Shale well, West Virginia, USA...
January 28, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Ilona Waszak, Henryka Dabrowska, Jan Warzocha
Native and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in whole and fine grained (F < 63 μm) sediment fractions and mussels in the southern Baltic Sea. Both sediments and mussels showed spatial differences in PAH levels and profiles. In whole sediments, mean concentrations of Σ16PAHs, ΣaPAHs, and ΣPAHs reached up to 1537, 415, and 1952 ng g-1 dry weight (dw), respectively, and in mussels they reached up to 235, 143, and 325 ng g-1 dw, respectively, depending on location. ΣaPAHs made up to 36% of ΣPAHs in whole sediments and up to 55% in some mussels in the Gulf of Gdańsk...
January 28, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Xiaoyan Lu, Taotao Lu, Haojing Zhang, Zhongbo Shang, Jiuyan Chen, Ying Wang, Deliang Li, Yanmei Zhou, Zhichong Qi
With the increase in production and wide application of graphene oxide (GO), colloidal GO particles are expectantly released into soil and groundwater, where a large number of mineral particles exist. In addition, the porewater chemistry (e.g. organic acid, valence of cation) is a neglected but important aspect to comprehensively investigate the fate of GO. The interactions of GO with three ubiquitous clay minerals (i.e., montmorillonite, kaolinite and diatomite) have been systematically investigated through batch experiments across different solution chemistry conditions...
January 25, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Ying Li, Qimin Chang, Huabo Duan, Yicheng Liu, Juan Zhang, Jinhui Li
With the global phasing-out of POP-BFRs (brominated flame retardants restricted under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants), the main challenge for their environmentally sound management has shifted from manufacturing and consumption to their recycling and disposal. For the end-of-life products containing POP-BFRs, material recycling and reuse in new articles is the favorite approach widely adopted by recyclers. This would result in POP-BFRs being transferred into daily-use consumer products...
January 24, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Fatemeh S Mirnaghi, Natalie P Pinchin, Zeyu Yang, Bruce P Hollebone, Patrick Lambert, Carl E Brown
Fluorescence spectroscopy analysis of oil and environmental samples collected from four oil spill incidents in Canada-a 2016 pipeline spill into the North Saskatchewan River (NSR), Saskatchewan; a 2015 train derailment in Gogama, Ontario; the 1970 sinking of the SS Arrow ship in Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia; and the 1970 sinking of the Irving Whale barge in the Gulf of St. Lawrence-permitted assessment of the PAH content of environmentally weathered samples. A recently developed fluorescence fingerprinting model based on excitation-emission matrix-parallel factor analysis-principal component analysis (EEM-PARAFAC-PCA) was applied to (i) evaluate the intensity of the abundant PAH groups in the samples, (ii) investigate changes in the PAH composition of environmental samples over time due to weathering, and (iii) classify the original spilled oil and environmental samples within the already established classes of the fingerprinting PCA model...
January 17, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Seong-Joon Kim, Min-Kyu Park, Sung-Eun Lee, Hye-Jung Go, Byung-Chae Cho, Yoon-Se Lee, Sung-Deuk Choi
Vehicular exhaust is one of the important sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas, and roadside soils can be directly contaminated with PAHs released from traffic emissions. In this study, roadside soils were collected at 10 sites in Ulsan, the largest industrial city in South Korea, to investigate the relationship between the traffic volume and the contamination characteristics of PAHs. The total concentrations of 16 US EPA priority PAHs (∑16 PAHs, mean: 1079 ng g-1) and organic-matter-normalized ∑16 PAHs (mean: 224 ng g-1 OM) were positively correlated with traffic volumes (Pearson correlation, r = 0...
January 11, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Qun Guo, Fengchao Liang, Lin Tian, Tamara Schikowski, Wei Liu, Xiaochuan Pan
BACKGROUND: Eczema and dermatitis are a group of common skin conditions with multiple risk factors. Evidence of the effects of air pollutants on eczema and dermatitis remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on eczema and dermatitis in Beijing. METHODS: A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to assess the associations between short-term changes in air pollution and the hospital outpatient visits for eczema and dermatitis in Beijing...
January 11, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Ya-Nan Zhang, Jianchen Zhao, Yangjian Zhou, Jiao Qu, Jingwen Chen, Chao Li, Weichao Qin, Yahui Zhao, Willie J G M Peijnenburg
Estuarine waters of variable compositions are sinks for many micropollutants. The varying water properties can impact the photodegradation of organic pollutants. In this study, the combined effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM), pH, ionic strength, and halides on the photodegradation of the model organic pollutant oxytetracycline (OTC) were investigated. Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) was used as a representative DOM. The results showed that the observed photolysis rate constant (kobs) of OTC increased rapidly upon increase of pH...
January 8, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Tao Wen, Amal Agarwal, Lingzhou Xue, Alex Chen, Alison Herman, Zhenhui Li, Susan L Brantley
With recent improvements in high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF, known to the public as fracking), vast new reservoirs of natural gas and oil are now being tapped. As HVHF has expanded into the populous northeastern USA, some residents have become concerned about impacts on water quality. Scientists have addressed this concern by investigating individual case studies or by statistically assessing the rate of problems. In general, however, lack of access to new or historical water quality data hinders the latter assessments...
January 4, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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