journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787262/leucoverdazyls-as-novel-potent-inhibitors-of-enterovirus-replication
#21
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alexandrina S Volobueva, Tatyana G Fedorchenko, Galina N Lipunova, Marina S Valova, Valeriya A Sbarzaglia, Anna S Gladkikh, Olga I Kanaeva, Natalia A Tolstykh, Andrey N Gorshkov, Vladimir V Zarubaev
Enteroviruses (EV) are important pathogens causing human disease with various clinical manifestations. To date, treatment of enteroviral infections is mainly supportive since no vaccination or antiviral drugs are approved for their prevention or treatment. Here, we describe the antiviral properties and mechanisms of action of leucoverdazyls-novel heterocyclic compounds with antioxidant potential. The lead compound, 1a , demonstrated low cytotoxicity along with high antioxidant and virus-inhibiting activity...
May 15, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787261/the-impact-of-enterococcus-spp-in-the-immunocompromised-host-a-comprehensive-review
#22
REVIEW
Giuseppe Sangiorgio, Maddalena Calvo, Giuseppe Migliorisi, Floriana Campanile, Stefania Stefani
The immunocompromised host is usually vulnerable to infectious diseases due to broad-spectrum treatments and immunological dysregulation. The Enterococcus genus consists of normal gut commensals, which acquire a leading role in infective processes among individuals with compromised immune systems. These microorganisms may express a potential virulence and resistance spectrum, enabling their function as severe pathogens. The Enterococcus spp. infections in immunocompromised hosts appear to be difficult to resolve due to the immunological response impairment and the possibility of facing antimicrobial-resistant strains...
May 15, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787260/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-nasal-samples-of-healthy-dairy-goats-in-algeria
#23
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Yacine Titouche, Madjid Akkou, Allelen Campaña-Burguet, Carmen González-Azcona, Yasmina Djaoui, Donia Mechoub, Abdelhak Fatihi, Pascal Bouchez, Laurence Bouhier, Karim Houali, Yacine Nia, Carmen Torres, Jacques-Antoine Hennekinne
The present study aimed to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of S . aureus isolates from the nasal swabs of goats. A total of 232 nasal samples (one per animal) were collected from goats on 13 farms located in two regions of Algeria and were analyzed for the presence of S . aureus . The detection of virulence factors was carried out using PCR. The antibiotic susceptibility of the recovered isolates was assessed using the disc diffusion method. The biofilm formation ability was assessed by the Congo red agar method and a microtiter plate assay, and the molecular characterization of isolates was carried out by spa -typing, and for selected isolates also by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
May 15, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787259/role-of-type-4b-secretion-system-protein-icme-in-the-pathogenesis-of-coxiella-burnetii
#24
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rajesh Palanisamy, Yan Zhang, Guoquan Zhang
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that causes Q fever, a life-threatening zoonotic disease. C. burnetii replicates within an acidified parasitophorous vacuole derived from the host lysosome. The ability of C. burnetii to replicate and achieve successful intracellular life in the cell cytosol is vastly dependent on the Dot/Icm type 4B secretion system (T4SSB). Although several T4SSB effector proteins have been shown to be important for C. burnetii virulence and intracellular replication, the role of the icmE protein in the host- C...
May 14, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787258/the-host-range-of-fusarium-proliferatum-in-western-canada
#25
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Haitian Yu, Sheau-Fang Hwang, Stephen E Strelkov
Fusarium proliferatum is associated with the root rot of many plant species, but knowledge of its impact on western Canadian field crops is limited. This study assessed the host range of this fungus and its effect on plant emergence, plant height, and shoot and root dry weights in repeated greenhouse experiments with wheat, barley, faba beans, peas, lentils, canola, lupine, and soybeans. Infection was confirmed via PCR, and principal component analysis determined the utility of different parameters in assessing host responses...
May 14, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787257/infectivity-of-wild-bird-origin-influenza-a-viruses-in-minnesota-wetlands-across-seasons
#26
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rebecca L Poulson, Andrew B Reeves, Christina A Ahlstrom, Laura C Scott, Laura E Hubbard, Alinde Fojtik, Deborah L Carter, David E Stallknecht, Andrew M Ramey
The environmental tenacity of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in the environment likely plays a role in their transmission; IAVs are able to remain infectious in aquatic habitats and may have the capacity to seed outbreaks when susceptible wild bird hosts utilize these same environments months or even seasons later. Here, we aimed to assess the persistence of low-pathogenicity IAVs from naturally infected ducks in Northwestern Minnesota through a field experiment. Viral infectivity was measured using replicate samples maintained in distilled water in a laboratory setting as well as in filtered water from four natural water bodies maintained in steel perforated drums (hereafter, mesocosms) within the field from autumn 2020 to spring 2021...
May 14, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787256/metagenomics-to-identify-viral-communities-associated-with-porcine-respiratory-disease-complex-in-tibetan-pigs-in-the-tibetan-plateau-china
#27
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Long Zhou, Han Zhou, Yandi Fan, Jinghao Wang, Rui Zhang, Zijing Guo, Yanmin Li, Runmin Kang, Zhidong Zhang, Danjiao Yang, Jie Liu
Tibetan pig is a unique pig breed native to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. To investigate viral communities associated with porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC), 167 respiratory samples were collected from Tibetan pigs in the Ganzi Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Sichuan province. Following library construction and Illunima Novaseq sequencing, 18 distinct viruses belonging to 15 viral taxonomic families were identified in Tibetan pigs with PRDC. Among the 18 detected viruses, 3 viruses were associated with PRDC, including porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), and porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV)...
May 13, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787255/htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-ham-incidence-in-asymptomatic-carriers-and-intermediate-syndrome-is-patients
#28
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rosa Maria do Nascimento Marcusso, Tatiane Assone, Michel E Haziot, Jerusa Smid, Victor A Folgosi, Carolina Rosadas, Jorge Casseb, Augusto C Penalva de Oliveira, The Htlv-Clinical Definition Working Group
Several studies suggest that HTLV-1 infection may be associated with a wider spectrum of neurological and clinical manifestations that do not meet diagnostic criteria for HAM. These conditions may later progress to HAM or constitute an intermediate clinical form: intermediate syndrome (IS), a mid-point between asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and those with full myelopathy. Thus, we determined the incidence of HAM cases in the HTLV-1-asymptomatic and IS patients, and the clinical/laboratory associated markers. A total of 204 HTLV-1-positive patients were included in this study, divided into two groups: Group 1, including 145 asymptomatic HTLV-1 subjects (ASY), and Group 2, including 59 patients with inflammatory clinical symptoms in more than three systems and a high proviral load (PVL)...
May 13, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787254/oncolytic-tanapoxvirus-recombinants-expressing-flagellin-c-or-mouse-interleukin-2-are-capable-of-regressing-human-triple-negative-breast-cancer-xenografts-in-immuno-competent-balb-c-nude-mice
#29
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Michael L Monaco, Grace A Filpi, Steven L Kohler, Robert Eversole, Omer A Idris, Karim Essani
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in humans is the most aggressive and deadly form of BC. Although TNBCs are about 15 percent of the total number of BC cases, they are associated with the highest mortalities. Current treatment options are limited, and most modalities are toxic and have not increased the 5-year survival rates of TNBC. Many oncolytic viruses are emerging as potential therapies for TNBC. In this study, two Tanapoxvirus (TPV) recombinants, one expressing FliC and the other expressing mouse interleukin-2 (mIL-2), were assessed for their efficacy in an immuno-competent xenograft mouse model...
May 13, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787253/neutrophils-expressing-programmed-death-ligand-1-play-an-indispensable-role-in-effective-bacterial-elimination-and-resolving-inflammation-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#30
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Azusa Terasaki, Faizan Ahmed, Alato Okuno, Zhenzi Peng, Duo-Yao Cao, Suguru Saito
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a co-inhibitory molecule expressed on the surface of various cell types and known for its suppressive effect on T cells through its interaction with PD-1. Neutrophils also express PD-L1, and its expression is elevated in specific situations; however, the immunobiological role of PD-L1+ neutrophils has not been fully characterized. Here, we report that PD-L1-expressing neutrophils increased in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection are highly functional in bacterial elimination and supporting inflammatory resolution...
May 11, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787252/prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-profile-of-clostridium-perfringens-isolated-from-pork-and-chicken-meat-in-vietnam
#31
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hoang Minh Duc, Tran Thi Khanh Hoa, Cam Thi Thu Ha, Le Van Hung, Nguyen Van Thang, Hoang Minh Son, Gary A Flory
Clostridium perfringens is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens as it can cause food poisoning in humans and necrotic enteritis in both animals and humans. Meat, especially pork and chicken meat, is considered the main vehicle for the transmission of C. perfringens from animals to humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, toxinotype, and antimicrobial resistance profile of C. perfringens isolated from pork and chicken meat sold in Vietnam. The isolation results showed that 15/50 (30%) of pork samples and 8/50 (16%) of chicken meat samples were contaminated with C...
May 10, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787251/comparative-minimum-inhibitory-and-mutant-prevention-drug-concentrations-for-pradofloxacin-and-seven-other-antimicrobial-agents-tested-against-bovine-isolates-of-mannheimia-haemolytica-and-pasteurella-multocida
#32
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Joseph M Blondeau, Shantelle D Fitch
Pradofloxacin-a dual-targeting fluoroquinolone-is the most recent approved for use in food animals. Minimum inhibitory and mutant prevention concentration values were determined for pradofloxacin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, marbofloxacin, tildipirosin, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin. For M. haemolytica strains, MIC50/90/100 values were ≤0.016/≤0.016/≤0.016 and MPC50/90/100 values were 0.031/0.063/0.063; for P. multocida strains, the MIC50/90/100 values ≤0.016/≤0...
May 9, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787250/a-comparison-study-of-lymph-node-tuberculosis-and-sarcoidosis-involvement-to-facilitate-differential-diagnosis-and-to-establish-a-predictive-score-for-tuberculosis
#33
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ellen Hoornaert, Halil Yildiz, Lucie Pothen, Julien De Greef, Olivier Gheysens, Alexandra Kozyreff, Diego Castanares-Zapatero, Jean Cyr Yombi
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and sarcoidosis are two common granulomatous diseases involving lymph nodes. Differential diagnosis is not always easy because pathogen demonstration in tuberculosis is not always possible and both diseases share clinical, radiological and histological patterns. The aim of our study was to identify factors associated with each diagnosis and set up a predictive score for TB. Methods: All cases of lymph node tuberculosis and sarcoidosis were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging data, and microbiological and histological results were collected and compared...
May 9, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787249/veev-tc-83-triggers-dysregulation-of-the-tryptophan-kynurenine-pathway-in-the-central-nervous-system-that-correlates-with-cognitive-impairment-in-tg2576-mice
#34
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Chanida Fongsaran, Kelly T Dineley, Slobodan Paessler, Irma E Cisneros
Neurodegenerative diseases are chronic conditions affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta in the limbic and cortical brain regions. AD is presumed to result from genetic abnormalities or environmental factors, including viral infections, which may have deleterious, long-term effects. In this study, we demonstrate that the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) commonly induces neurodegeneration and long-term neurological or cognitive sequelae...
May 9, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787248/secondary-analysis-of-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome-patients-enrolled-in-a-recurrent-urinary-tract-infection-prevention-study-provides-a-novel-paradigm-for-etio-pathogenesis-and-practical-management-of-this-infection-phenotype
#35
JOURNAL ARTICLE
J Curtis Nickel, Tiziana Cotechini, R Christopher Doiron
INTRODUCTION: A subset of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) patients experience recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) associated with symptom flares. Recurrent UTI subjects with associated IC/BPS were enrolled in the first North American early clinical experience trial evaluating a new sublingual UTI preventative vaccine, MV140. It has been shown that women with rUTI develop an imbalance in the T helper 1 and 2 (Th2 over-expression) in the bladder mucosa. Our hypothesis-generating secondary analysis will suggest that this infection subcategory of IC/BPS patients develop a similar imbalance of Th1-Th2 response type to bacteria present in their urinary microbiome, leading to a bladder hypersensitivity that responds to mucosal immune modulation...
May 9, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787247/cumin-seed-oil-induces-oxidative-stress-based-antifungal-activities-on-fusarium-graminearum
#36
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Emre Yörük, Zeynep Danışman, Murat Pekmez, Tapani Yli-Mattila
In this study, the antifungal activity of cumin seed oil (CSO) was tested on Fusarium graminearum . (i) Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and related concentrations (IC75 , IC50 , and IC25 ) were detected; (ii) toxicity was evaluated by a water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 (WST-1) assay; (iii) genomic/epigenomic alterations were evaluated by the coupled restriction enzyme digestion-random amplification (CRED-RA) method; (iv) oxidative stress was investigated by CAT expression, catalase activity, and DCF-DA staining; (v) deoxynivalenol biosynthesis was evaluated by tri6 expression; (vi) and potential effects of CSO on wheat were tested by a water loss rate (WLR) assay...
May 8, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787246/medical-device-associated-biofilm-infections-and-multidrug-resistant-pathogens
#37
REVIEW
Nesrine Bouhrour, Peter H Nibbering, Farida Bendali
Medical devices such as venous catheters (VCs) and urinary catheters (UCs) are widely used in the hospital setting. However, the implantation of these devices is often accompanied by complications. About 60 to 70% of nosocomial infections (NIs) are linked to biofilms. The main complication is the ability of microorganisms to adhere to surfaces and form biofilms which protect them and help them to persist in the host. Indeed, by crossing the skin barrier, the insertion of VC inevitably allows skin flora or accidental environmental contaminants to access the underlying tissues and cause fatal complications like bloodstream infections (BSIs)...
May 8, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787245/predictor-variables-in-the-spread-of-chagas-disease-in-rural-areas
#38
REVIEW
Liziana de Sousa Leite, Valéria Christina de Rezende Feres, Paulo Sérgio Scalize
Over a hundred years ago after the discovery of Chagas disease (CD) in Brazil, the World Health Organization estimates a number of 6 to 7 million people infected by Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide. Therefore, the goal of this work was to identify variables related to the spread of infection by T. cruzi in humans living in rural areas, seeking predictor variables. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted, with a search in the Scopus platform, using the search string "Chagas disease" and "rural", resulting in 85 valid and analyzed scientific studies (1977 and 2022)...
May 8, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787244/-helicobacter-pylori-outer-membrane-proteins-and-virulence-factors-potential-targets-for-novel-therapies-and-vaccines
#39
REVIEW
Zahra Sedarat, Andrew W Taylor-Robinson
Helicobacter pylori is a gastric oncopathogen that infects over half of the world's human population. It is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, helix-shaped bacterium that is equipped with flagella, which provide high motility. Colonization of the stomach is asymptomatic in up to 90% of people but is a recognized risk factor for developing various gastric disorders such as gastric ulcers, gastric cancer and gastritis. Invasion of the human stomach occurs via numerous virulence factors such as CagA and VacA. Similarly, outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play an important role in H...
May 8, 2024: Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38787243/association-of-mycoplasma-canis-with-fertility-disorders-in-dogs-a-case-study-supported-by-clinical-examination-pcr-16s-microbiota-profiling-and-serology
#40
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sara Suhadolc Scholten, Brigita Slavec, Primož Klinc, Nataša Tozon, Bojan Papić, Saša Koprivec
The role of Mycoplasma canis in canine fertility disorders is still poorly understood. As infection is often asymptomatic, there is an increasing need for appropriate diagnostic methods and treatment plans that would allow the reliable detection of M. canis infection and rapid alleviation of infection symptoms in affected dogs. In this study, we included 14 dogs with fertility problems and 16 dogs without fertility disorder signs. We compared clinical examination data and selected laboratory parameters (hematology and biochemistry) between the groups...
May 8, 2024: Pathogens
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