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Özgü İlkcan Karadağlıoğlu, Nuran Ulusoy, Kemal Hüsnü Can Başer, Azmi Hanoğlu, İrem Şık
In recent years, people have become more conscious about the side-effects of fluoride toothpastes and herbal products have drawn attention as alternatives in the struggle against caries. Studies have focused on the benefits of essential oils obtained from herbs because of their antibacterial effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial activity of Origanum dubium and Cinnamomum cassia oils combined with herbal toothpastes against Streptococcus mutans . The antibacterial activity of the test materials was determined using the agar well diffusion method before and after the addition of essential oils...
February 1, 2019: Pathogens
Joana Campos, Joana Mourão, Luísa Peixe, Patrícia Antunes
Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent foodborne zoonosis, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. The most frequent sources of human infections are food products of animal origin, being pork meat one of the most relevant. Currently, particular pig food production well-adapted and persistent Salmonella enterica serotypes (e.g., Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Rissen) are frequently reported associated with human infections in diverse industrialized countries...
January 29, 2019: Pathogens
Alexander Malko, Pavel Frantsuzov, Maksim Nikitin, Natalia Statsyuk, Vitaly Dzhavakhiya, Alexander Golikov
Viral and bacterial diseases of potato cause significant yield loss worldwide. The current data on the occurrence of these diseases in Russia do not provide comprehensive understanding of the phytosanitary situation. Diagnostic systems based on disposable stationary open qPCR micromatrices intended for the detection of eight viral and seven bacterial/oomycetal potato diseases have been used for wide-scale screening of target pathogens to estimate their occurrence in 11 regions of Russia and to assess suitability of the technology for high-throughput diagnostics under conditions of field laboratories...
January 29, 2019: Pathogens
María Eugenia Loureiro, Alejandra D'Antuono, Nora López
Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa fever, a human hemorrhagic disease associated with high mortality and morbidity rates, particularly prevalent in West Africa. Over the past few years, a significant amount of novel information has been provided on cellular factors that are determinant elements playing a role in arenavirus multiplication. In this review, we focus on host proteins that intersect with the initial steps of the LASV replication cycle: virus entry and genome replication. A better understanding of relevant virus⁻host interactions essential for sustaining these critical steps may help to identify possible targets for the rational design of novel therapeutic approaches against LASV and other arenaviruses that cause severe human disease...
January 29, 2019: Pathogens
Jake A Lacey, Priscilla A Johanesen, Dena Lyras, Robert J Moore
Clostridium perfringens causes a wide range of diseases in a variety of hosts, due to the production of a diverse set of toxins and extracellular enzymes. The C. perfringens toxins play an important role in pathogenesis, such that the presence and absence of the toxins is used as a typing scheme for the species. In recent years, several new toxins have been discovered that have been shown to be essential or highly correlated to diseases; these include binary enterotoxin (BecAB), NetB and NetF. In the current study, genome sequence analysis of C...
January 29, 2019: Pathogens
Adrian Man, Luigi Santacroce, Romeo Jacob, Anca Mare, Lidia Man
Essential oils are concentrated natural extracts derived from plants, which were proved to be good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. This study followed the effect of some commonly used essential oils in micellar and aqueous extract on some of the most common pathogenic bacteria. Frankincense, myrtle, thyme, lemon, oregano and lavender essential oils were tested against Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
January 28, 2019: Pathogens
Signe M Nielsen, Line N Penstoft, Niels Nørskov-Lauritsen
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an innately multidrug-resistant bacterium capable of forming biofilms in the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. During the transition from the planktonic stage to biofilm growth, bacteria undergo a transcriptionally regulated differentiation. An isolate of A. xylosoxidans cultured from the sputum of a CF patient was separated into sessile and planktonic stages in vitro, and the transcriptomes were compared. The selected genes of interest were subsequently inactivated, and flagellar motility was found to be decisive for biofilm formation in vitro...
January 27, 2019: Pathogens
Markus Hoffmann, Enrika Schütze, Andreas Bernhard, Lennart Schlaphoff, Artur Kaul, Sandra Schöniger, Stefan Pöhlmann
Pan paniscus Papillomavirus 1 (PpPV1) causes focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in infected animals. Here, we analyzed the present disease manifestation and PpPV1 genomic sequence of an animal that was afflicted by an FEH epizootic outbreak in 1987 for which the sequence of the responsible PpPV1 was determined. The animal displayed FEH more than 30 years after the initial diagnosis, indicating persistence or recurrence of the disease, and evidence for active PpPV1 infection was obtained. Moreover, the sequences of the viral genomes present in the late 1980s and in 2018 differed at 23 nucleotide positions, resulting in 11 amino acid exchanges within coding regions...
January 26, 2019: Pathogens
Majed M Masadeh, Karem H Alzoubi, Wesam S Ahmed, Aisha S Magaji
An in vitro overview of the inhibitory effects of selected fluoroquinolones against planktonic and biofilm cells of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain American type culture collection (ATCC) 43300 and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ATCC 27853 was carried out. Biofilm cells of both strains were less susceptible to the selected antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts. In addition, certain antibiotics were more effective against biofilm cells, while others performed better on the planktonic cells...
January 24, 2019: Pathogens
J Luis Espinoza
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium ( P [...] .
January 18, 2019: Pathogens
Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Noyise Ntshobeni, Usha Govinden, Linda Antoinette Bester, Hafizah Yousuf Chenia, Cyrille Finyom Djoko, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) represent a significant public health concern globally and are recognized by the World Health Organization as pathogens of critical priority. However, the prevalence of ESBL-PE in food animals and humans across the farm-to-plate continuum is yet to be elucidated in Sub-Saharan countries including Cameroon and South Africa. This work sought to determine the risk factors, carriage, antimicrobial resistance profiles and genetic relatedness of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) amid pigs and abattoir workers in Cameroon and South Africa...
January 16, 2019: Pathogens
Dylan M Johnson, Jenny D Jokinen, Igor S Lukashevich
Lassa virus (LASV), a highly prevalent mammalian arenavirus endemic in West Africa, can cause Lassa fever (LF), which is responsible for thousands of deaths annually. LASV is transmitted to humans from naturally infected rodents. At present, there is not an effective vaccine nor treatment. The genetic diversity of LASV is the greatest challenge for vaccine development. The reassortant ML29 carrying the L segment from the nonpathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV) and the S segment from LASV is a vaccine candidate under current development...
January 15, 2019: Pathogens
Michele Totaro, Anna Laura Costa, Beatrice Casini, Sara Profeti, Antonio Gallo, Lorenzo Frendo, Andrea Porretta, Paola Valentini, Gaetano Privitera, Angelo Baggiani
International literature data report that the increase of infectious risk may be due to heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems contaminated by airborne pathogens. Moreover, the presence of complex rotating dehumidification wheels (RDWs) may complicate the cleaning and disinfection procedures of the HVAC systems. We evaluated the efficacy of a disinfection strategy applied to the RDW of two hospitals' HVAC systems. Hospitals have four RDW systems related to the surgical areas (SA1 and SA2) and to the intensive and sub-intensive care (IC and sIC) units...
January 15, 2019: Pathogens
Marie Garvey, Rachel Lyons, Ralph D Hector, Cathal Walsh, Sean Arkins, Ann Cullinane
Multiple locus typing based on sequencing heterologous regions in 26 open reading frames (ORFs) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) strains Ab4 and V592 was used to characterise 272 EHV-1 isolates from 238 outbreaks of abortion, respiratory or neurological disease over a 28-year period. The analysis grouped the 272 viruses into at least 10 of the 13 unique long region (UL ) clades previously recognised. Viruses from the same outbreak had identical multi-locus profiles. Sequencing of the ORF68 region of EHV-1 isolates from 222 outbreaks established a divergence into seven groups and network analysis demonstrated that Irish genotypes were not geographically restricted but clustered with viruses from all over the world...
January 15, 2019: Pathogens
Sang-Jae Won, Jun-Hyeok Kwon, Dong-Hyun Kim, Young-Sang Ahn
This study investigated the control of foliar fungal diseases and growth promotion of Camellia oleifera seedlings in coastal reclaimed land through the use of Bacillus licheniformis MH48. B. licheniformis MH48 can produce lytic enzymes chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase that can inhibit foliar pathogens by 37.4 to 50.5%. Nevertheless, foliar diseases appeared in the seedlings with bacterial inoculation, and their survival rate decreased because they were unable to withstand salt stress. However, B. licheniformis MH48 significantly increased the total nitrogen and phosphorus contents in the soils through fixing atmospheric nitrogen and solubilizing phosphorus...
January 9, 2019: Pathogens
Hana Barak, Pradeep Kumar, Arieh Zaritsky, Zvi Mendel, Dana Ment, Ariel Kushmaro, Eitan Ben-Dov
The bacterial biota in larvae of Capnodis tenebrionis , a serious pest of cultivated stone-fruit trees in the West Palearctic, was revealed for the first time using the MiSeq platform. The core bacterial community remained the same in neonates whether upon hatching or grown on peach plants or an artificial diet, suggesting that C. tenebrionis larvae acquire much of their bacterial biome from the parent adult. Reads affiliated with class levels Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria (phylum Proteobacteria ca...
January 6, 2019: Pathogens
Valentina Virginia Ebani
Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are tick-borne bacteria of veterinary concern. Indirect immunofluorescent assay was carried out to detect antibodies against E. canis and A. phagocytophilum in 1026 owned dogs living in Central Italy during the period 2013⁻2017. One hundred and eighty-six (18.12%) dogs were positive for at least one pathogen and 14 (1.36%) for both agents. More in detail, 166 (16.18%) samples were positive for E. canis and 34 (3.31%) for A. phagocytophilum . No statistically significant differences in the seroprevalence values related to gender were detected, whereas the highest rate to E...
January 4, 2019: Pathogens
Aihua Tang, Armando R Caballero, Michael A Bierdeman, Mary E Marquart, Timothy J Foster, Ian R Monk, Richard J O'Callaghan
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of corneal infections that can cause reduced vision, even blindness. Secreted toxins cause tissue damage and inflammation resulting in scars that lead to vision loss. Identifying tissue damaging proteins is a prerequisite to limiting these harmful reactions. The present study characterized a previously unrecognized S. aureus toxin. This secreted toxin was purified from strain Newman ΔhlaΔhlg , the N-terminal sequence determined, the gene cloned, and the purified recombinant protein was tested in the rabbit cornea...
January 1, 2019: Pathogens
Katherine A Willard, Jacob T Alston, Marissa Acciani, Melinda A Brindley
Lassa virus (LASV) is an Old World arenavirus, endemic to West Africa, capable of causing hemorrhagic fever. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or effective antivirals for LASV. However, thorough understanding of the LASV glycoprotein and entry into host cells could accelerate therapeutic design. LASV entry is a two-step process involving the viral glycoprotein (GP). First, the GP subunit 1 (GP1) binds to the cell surface receptor and the viral particle is engulfed into an endosome. Next, the drop in pH triggers GP rearrangements, which ultimately leads to the GP subunit 2 (GP2) forming a six-helix-bundle (6HB)...
December 26, 2018: Pathogens
Yara Faustino Pereira, Maria do Socorro Costa, Saulo Relison Tintino, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, Fábio Fernandes Galvão Rodrigues, Maria Karine de Sá Barreto Feitosa, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Erlânio Oliveira de Sousa
Mauritia flexuosa (buriti) is a typical Brazilian palm tree found in swampy regions with many plant forms. The fruit has various purposes with the pulps to the seeds being used for ice creams, sweets, creams, jellies, liqueurs, and vitamin production. A physicochemical characterization of the fixed pulp oil and its antibacterial and aminoglycoside antibiotic modifying activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative multiresistant bacterial strains were performed using broth microdilution assays. Physical properties, such as moisture, pH, acidity, peroxide index, relative density, and refractive index, indicated oil stability and chemical quality...
December 10, 2018: Pathogens
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