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Pediatric Obesity

Laura Nabors, Cathy Odar Stough, Katlyn Garr, Ashley Merianos
OBJECTIVES: The current cross-sectional study examined whether children who are overweight experience greater levels of parent-reported bullying behaviors and victimization using a national sample. Additionally, the relations among child (mental health), family (parent-child sharing of information), and contextual factors (neighborhood safety, school engagement) and risk of victimization in children who are overweight were assessed. METHODS: Caregivers provided data via the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health...
February 14, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Sarvenaz Vandyousefi, Michael I Goran, Erica P Gunderson, Erfan Khazaee, Matthew J Landry, Reem Ghaddar, Fiona M Asigbee, Jaimie N Davis
BACKGROUND: The effects of breastfeeding (BF) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus in children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in utero have rarely been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed BF and GDM in relation to the prevalence of prediabetes and MetS in Hispanic children and adolescents (8-19 y). METHODS: This is a longitudinal study with 229 Hispanic children (8-13 y) with overweight/obesity, family history of diabetes, and an average of four annual visits (AV)...
February 8, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Rebecca M Puhl, Mary S Himmelstein, Ryan J Watson
OBJECTIVES: Children and adolescents with overweight and obesity are vulnerable to weight-based victimization. Research on weight-based victimization and sexual identity have been largely isolated from one another; little is known about the nature of weight-based victimization in sexual and gender minority (SGM: eg, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth. Our study is the first to examine the nature, extent, and sources of weight-based victimization in a large sample of SGM adolescents...
February 6, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Haider Raza, Shang-Ming Zhou, Charlotte Todd, Danielle Christian, Emily Marchant, Kelly Morgan, Ashrafunnesa Khanom, Rebecca Hill, Ronan A Lyons, Sinead Brophy
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) levels are associated with long-term health, and levels of PA when young are predictive of adult activity levels. OBJECTIVES: This study examines factors associated with PA levels in 12-month infants. METHOD: One hundred forty-one mother-infant pairs were recruited via a longitudinal birth cohort study (April 2010 to March 2013). The PA level was collected using accelerometers and linked to postnatal notes and electronic medical records via the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage databank...
February 6, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Tao Zhang, Paul K Whelton, Bo Xi, Marie Krousel-Wood, Lydia Bazzano, Jiang He, Wei Chen, Shengxu Li
BACKGROUND: Childhood body mass index (BMI) predicts adult obesity. How growth trajectories during childhood relate to adult obesity risk is not well defined. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize BMI growth trajectories from childhood to midlife and to examine the associations between BMI growth rates at childhood age points and adult obesity risk. METHODS: The longitudinal study included 2732 participants with repeated BMI measurements from childhood (4-19 y) to adulthood (20-51 y)...
January 31, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Sarah J Mi, Nichole R Kelly, Robert J Brychta, Anne Claire Grammer, Manuela Jaramillo, Kong Y Chen, Laura A Fletcher, Shanna B Bernstein, Amber B Courville, Lisa M Shank, Jeremy J Pomeroy, Sheila M Brady, Miranda M Broadney, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Jack A Yanovski
BACKGROUND: Self-reported short sleep duration is associated with greater risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity, and higher energy intake (EI). However, studies of these associations in children using objective methods are sparse. OBJECTIVES: The study aims to determine the associations for sleep patterns with MetS indices, body composition, and EI using objective measures in children. METHODS: Free-living sleep and physical activity were measured in 125 children (aged 8-17 years, BMI z = 0...
January 31, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain, Yves Akoli Koudou, Jérémie Botton, Anne Forhan, Sophie Carles, Véronique Pelloux, Karine Clément, Ken K Ong, Marie Aline Charles, Barbara Heude
BACKGROUND: Many genetic polymorphisms identified by genome-wide association studies for adult body mass index (BMI) have been suggested to regulate food intake. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the associations between a genetic obesity risk score, appetitive traits, and growth of children up to age 5 years, with a longitudinal design. METHODS: In 1142 children from the Etude des Déterminants pre et post natals de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) birth cohort, a combined obesity risk-allele score (BMI genetic risk score [GRS]) was related to appetitive traits (energy intake up to 12 mo, a single item on appetite from 4 mo to 3 y, a validated appetite score at 5 y) using Poisson regressions with robust standard errors...
January 31, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Monique Potvin Kent, Elise Pauzé, Elisabeth-Anne Roy, Nicholas de Billy, Christine Czoli
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy food marketing is a powerful determinant of unhealthy diets and obesity among children. Although it is known that food marketers target young people on social media, no study has yet quantified children's exposure on these platforms. OBJECTIVES: To compare the frequency and healthfulness of food marketing seen by children and adolescents on social media apps as well as estimate their weekly exposure. METHODS: 101 children and adolescents (ages 7-16 years) completed a survey on their media use and were recorded using their two favourite social media apps for 5 minutes each on the mobile device they usually use...
January 28, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Catherine E Cioffi, Jessica A Alvarez, Jean A Welsh, Miriam B Vos
BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe patterns of truncal versus peripheral fat deposition measured by truncal-to-leg fat ratio (TLR) in adolescents and examine associations of TLR with cardiometabolic (CMD) risk factors. METHODS: Data were from 3810 adolescents (12-19 years old) in the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. Body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and CMD risk factors were determined by blood samples and physical examination...
January 25, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Rachel P Kolko Conlon, Kelly T Hurst, Jacqueline F Hayes, Katherine N Balantekin, Richard I Stein, Brian E Saelens, Mackenzie L Brown, Daniel H Sheinbein, R Robinson Welch, Michael G Perri, Kenneth B Schechtman, Leonard H Epstein, Denise E Wilfley
BACKGROUND: Studies of the association between children's depressive symptoms and obesity treatment response show mixed results. Different measurement may contribute to the inconsistent findings, as children's depressive symptoms are often based on parent-report about their child rather than child self-report. OBJECTIVES: We assessed both child- and parent-report of child depressive symptoms as predictors of children's obesity treatment response. METHODS: Children with overweight/obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 85th percentile; N = 181) and their parents reported on children's depressive symptoms prior to family-based behavioral weight loss treatment...
January 21, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Lu Wang, Wilma Jansen, Magda M Boere-Boonekamp, Eline Vlasblom, Monique P L'Hoir, Maaike Beltman, Amy van Grieken, Hein Raat
BACKGROUND: Relatively, few longitudinal studies have evaluated the association between sleep and body mass index (BMI) among younger children. In addition, few studies have evaluated the bidirectional longitudinal association between sleep duration and child BMI. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to determine in children aged 6 to 36 months (1) the cross-sectional association of sleep duration and sleep problems with child BMI z score, (2) whether sleep duration predicts changes in child BMI z score, and (3) and whether BMI z score can predict changes in child sleep duration...
January 18, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Kristin Bernard, Allison Frost, Caitlin Jelinek, Mary Dozier
BACKGROUND: Children who experience early adversity are at risk for obesity; secure attachment may be a protective factor as it has been linked to reduced obesity risk. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether (1) participation in a parenting intervention and (2) secure attachment were associated with body mass index (BMI) among young children with histories of child protective services (CPS) involvement. METHODS: A total of 105 parent-child dyads referred following CPS involvement were randomly assigned to receive Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), which was designed to increase parental sensitivity, or a control intervention...
January 18, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Lucy J Griffiths, Mario Cortina-Borja, Amrita Bandyopadhyay, Karen Tingay, Bianca L De Stavola, Helen Bedford, Ashley Akbari, Nicola Firman, Ronan A Lyons, Carol Dezateux
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined health service utilization of children with overweight or obesity by using linked electronic health records (EHRs). OBJECTIVE/METHODS: We analysed EHRs from 3269 children (1678 boys; 51.3% [weighted]) participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, living in Wales or Scotland at age seven whose parents consented to record linkage. We used height and weight measurements at age five to categorize children as obese (>98th centile) or overweight (>91st centile) (UK1990 clinical reference standards) and linked to hospital admissions, up to age 14 years, in the Patient Episode Database for Wales and Scottish Morbidity Records...
January 18, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Jose Miguel Pascual-Gamarra, Diego Salazar-Tortosa, Borja Martinez-Tellez, Idoia Labayen, Azahara I Rupérez, Laura Censi, Yannis Manios, Esther Nova, Eva Gesteiro, Luis A Moreno, Aline Meirhaeghe, Jonatan R Ruiz
AIMS: To examine the association between UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3 gene polymorphisms with adiposity markers in European adolescents and to test if there were gene interactions with objectively measured physical activity and adiposity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study that involves 1.057 European adolescents (12-18 years old) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study. A total of 18 polymorphisms in UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3 genes were genotyped...
January 18, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Allison L B Shapiro, Susan L Johnson, Brianne Sutton, Kristina T Legget, Dana Dabelea, Jason R Tregellas
BACKGROUND: Recent work has implicated disinhibited eating behaviours (DEB) as a potential pathway toward obesity development in children. However, the underlying neurobiology of disinhibited eating behaviours in young, healthy weight children, prior to obesity development, remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the relationship between DEB and intrinsic neuronal activity and connectivity in young children without obesity. METHODS: Brain networks implicated in overeating including reward, salience and executive control networks, and the default mode network were investigated...
January 18, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Yenni E Cedillo, Anarina L Murillo, José R Fernández
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated if levels of allostatic load (ALoad) differed according to race/ethnicity in children and if ALoad was associated with obesity-related measures. METHODS: A multiethnic sample of 307 children aged seven to 12 was evaluated, composed of 39% European American (EA), 35% African American (AA), and 26% Hispanic American (HA) youth. Anthropometric measurements were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and other measurements included body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)...
January 17, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Rita Malpique, David Sánchez-Infantes, Cristina Garcia-Beltran, Siri D Taxerås, Abel López-Bermejo, Francis de Zegher, Lourdes Ibáñez
S100A4 is a marker of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often driven by hepato-visceral adiposity. PCOS phenotypes are normalized more by reduction of central fat with spironolactone/pioglitazone/metformin (SPIOMET) than by oral contraceptive (OC) treatment. We studied whether circulating S100A4 concentrations are high in adolescents with PCOS and, if so, whether they normalize more with OC or SPIOMET. Assessments included circulating S100A4, endocrine markers, body composition, abdominal fat partitioning in controls (n = 12) and girls with PCOS (n = 51; age 15...
January 17, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Lindsay D Plank, Vladimir Obolonkin, Melody B Smith, Fa'asisila Savila, Shabnam Jalili-Moghaddam, El-Shadan Tautolo, Elaine C Rush
BACKGROUND: The relationships between the trajectories of weight gain from early childhood to adolescence and risk for metabolic disease are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to examine the relationships between weight gain from 2 to 14 years and metabolic risk factors at age 14 years in Pacific Island children. METHODS: z scores for weight were calculated at each of the ages 2.5, 4, 6, 9, 11, and 13.5 years in 1053 children...
January 17, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Lucy D Mastrandrea, Louise Witten, Kristin C Carlsson Petri, Paula M Hale, Hanna K Hedman, Robert A Riesenberg
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with limited treatment options. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics during short-term treatment with liraglutide in children (7-11 y) with obesity. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 24 children received at least one dose of once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (n = 16) or placebo (n = 8) starting at 0...
January 17, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Danielle K Longmore, Elizabeth L M Barr, I-Lynn Lee, Federica Barzi, Marie Kirkwood, Cherie Whitbread, Vanya Hampton, Sian Graham, Paula Van Dokkum, Christine Connors, Jacqueline A Boyle, Patrick Catalano, Alex D H Brown, Kerin O'Dea, Jeremy Oats, H David McIntyre, Jonathan E Shaw, Louise J Maple-Brown
BACKGROUND: In-utero exposures likely influence the onset and severity of obesity in youth. With increasing rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and maternal adiposity in pregnancy globally, it is important to assess the impact of these factors on neonatal adipose measures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the contribution of maternal ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and hyperglycaemia to neonatal adiposity. METHODS: Pregnancy and Neonatal Diabetes Outcomes in Remote Australia (PANDORA) is a longitudinal cohort study of Australian mother and neonate pairs...
January 16, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
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