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Frontiers in Oncology

Muhammad Khan, Jie Lin, Guixiang Liao, Yunhong Tian, Yingying Liang, Rong Li, Mengzhong Liu, Yawei Yuan
Background: Significantly better local control is achieved with combination of whole brain radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of multiple brain metastases. However, no survival benefit was reported from this advantage in local control. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the available evidence whether better local control achieved with whole brain radiotherapy plus stereotactic radiosurgery leads to any benefit in survival in patients with favorable prognostic factors...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Xiaoli Zhao, Hua Yin, Nianyi Li, Yu Zhu, Wenyi Shen, Sixuan Qian, Guangsheng He, Jianyong Li, Xiaoqin Wang
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, defective differentiation of hematopoietic precursors, and expansion of the abnormal clones. The prevalence of MDS has raised great concerns worldwide, but its pathogenetic mechanisms remain elusive. To provide insights on novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and therapy of MDS, we performed high-throughput genome-wide mRNA expression profiling, DNA methylation analysis, and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) analysis on bone marrows from four MDS patients and four age-matched healthy controls...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Muhammad Mohsin Fareed, Luke R G Pike, Andrew Bang, Mai Anh Huynh, Allison Taylor, Alexander Spektor, Mark M Awad, Patrick A Ott, Monica Krishnan, Tracy A Balboni, Jonathan D Schoenfeld
Background: There is increasing use of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) across multiple cancer types, including in patients at risk for vertebral metastases and cord compression. These patients are often treated with palliative radiotherapy (PRT); however, data evaluating the combination of PRT and ICB in patients with vertebral metastases is limited. Furthermore, patients with cord compression are generally excluded from prospective clinical trials. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated outcomes following PRT and PD-1 inhibition in patients with vertebral metastases...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Jose M Pacheco, D Ross Camidge, Robert C Doebele, Erin Schenk
Inhibitory antibodies targeting programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have resulted in improved outcomes for many patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer in (NSCLC) in the second-line setting due to their ability to lead to prolonged anti-tumor immune responses. Combining these immunotherapies with platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment has resulted in improved response rates and increased survival when compared to platinum-based chemotherapy alone...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Mei Han, Lina Jia, Wencai Lv, Lihui Wang, Wei Cui
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, result in heritable changes in gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. Epigenetic regulatory enzymes such as DNA methyltransferases, histone methyltransferases, and histone deacetylases are involved in epigenetic modification. Studies have shown that the dysregulation caused by changes in the amino acid sequence of these enzymes is closely correlated with tumor onset and progression. In addition, certain amino acid changes in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) are linked to altered epigenetic modifications in tumors...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Elisabet Cuyàs, Maria Buxó, Maria José Ferri Iglesias, Sara Verdura, Sonia Pernas, Joan Dorca, Isabel Álvarez, Susana Martínez, Jose Manuel Pérez-Garcia, Norberto Batista-López, César A Rodríguez-Sánchez, Kepa Amillano, Severina Domínguez, Maria Luque, Idoia Morilla, Agostina Stradella, Gemma Viñas, Javier Cortés, Jorge Joven, Joan Brunet, Eugeni López-Bonet, Margarita Garcia, Samiha Saidani, Xavier Queralt Moles, Begoña Martin-Castillo, Javier A Menendez
Background: The minor allele ( C ) of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11212617 , located near the ataxia telangiectasia mutated ( ATM ) gene, has been associated with an increased likelihood of treatment success with metformin in type 2 diabetes. We herein investigated whether the same SNP would predict clinical response to neoadjuvant metformin in women with early breast cancer (BC). Methods: DNA was collected from 79 patients included in the intention-to-treat population of the METTEN study, a phase 2 clinical trial of HER2-positive BC patients randomized to receive either metformin combined with anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy and trastuzumab or equivalent regimen without metformin, before surgery...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Qiang Wang, Longxiang Xie, Yifang Dang, Xiaoxiao Sun, Tiantian Xie, Jinshuai Guo, Yali Han, Zhongyi Yan, Wan Zhu, Yunlong Wang, Wei Li, Xiangqian Guo
The availability of transcriptome data and clinical annotation offers the opportunity to identify prognosis biomarkers in cancer. However, efficient online prognosis analysis tools are still lacking. Herein, we developed a user-friendly web server, namely O nline consensus S urvival analysis of l eio m yo s arcoma (OSlms), to centralize published gene expression data and clinical datasets of leiomyosarcoma (LMS) patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). OSlms comprises of a total of 268 samples from three independent datasets, and employs the Kaplan Meier survival plot with hazard ratio (HR) and log rank test to estimate the prognostic potency of genes of interests for LMS patients...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Geoffrey Martinage, Julien Geffrelot, Dinu Stefan, Emilie Bogart, Erwan Rault, Nicolas Reyns, Evelyne Emery, Samira Makhloufi-Martinage, Raphaelle Mouttet-Audouard, Laurent Basson, Xavier Mirabel, Eric Lartigau, David Pasquier
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess, in a large series, the efficacy and tolerance of post-operative adjuvant hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) for brain metastases (BMs). Materials and Methods: Between July 2012 and January 2017, 160 patients from 2 centers were operated for BM and treated by HFSRT. Patients had between 1 and 3 BMs, no brainstem lesions or carcinomatous meningitis. The primary endpoint was local control. Secondary endpoints were distant brain control, overall survival (OS) and tolerance to HFSRT...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Xi Zhong, Jiansheng Li, Linqi Zhang, Binggui Lu, Jinxue Yin, Zhijun Chen, Jian Zhang, Rijie Tang
Background: Insufficiency fracture (IF) can show increased uptake on a bone scan (BS). IFs are often misinterpreted as bone metastases if the characteristic "Honda sign" (H-sign) is invisible. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone for the characterization of IF and bone metastasis after radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer detected by BS. Materials and Methods: Our study included 40 patients with cervical cancer after radiotherapy that showed pelvic emerging increased uptake on a BS during follow-up...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Charles A Kunos, Jacek Capala, Shanda Finnigan, Gary L Smith, Susan Percy Ivy
Targeted radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic use deliver radionuclides directly to tumor anywhere in the body, and therefore, have renewed interest for clinical development in women with disseminated chemorefractory ovarian cancers. About two in every five women with advanced stage ovarian cancer outlive their disease after the first treatment phase, with the rest rendered incurable due to the chemorefractory nature of their disease. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program conducted 67 phase I or phase Ib trials among women with relapsed or refractory ovarian cancer between 1989 and 2017 in an effort to uncover tolerable and effective drug combinations intended to increase survival rates...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Louis Garnier, François Ducray, Clotilde Verlut, Marcella-Ionela Mihai, Françoise Cattin, Antoine Petit, Elsa Curtit
Spinal ganglioglioma is a rare low-grade, slow-growing tumor of the central nervous system affecting mostly children and young adults. After surgery, some patients show tumor recurrence and/or malignant transformation. Gangliogliomas harbor molecular deficiencies such as mutations in the B-rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma ( BRAF ) gene, resulting in activation of a downstream signaling pathway and cancer development. Vemurafenib is a BRAF inhibitor used to treat patients with BRAF V600E -mutated cancer. Although a few studies have reported the clinical responses in gangliogliomas, the sequence and duration of treatment have not been established...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Nicholas G Minutolo, Erin E Hollander, Daniel J Powell
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown great success in the treatment of CD19+ hematological malignancies, leading to their recent approval by the FDA as a new cancer treatment modality. However, their broad use is limited since a CAR targets a single tumor associated antigen (TAA), which is not effective against tumors with heterogeneous TAA expression or emerging antigen loss variants. Further, stably engineered CAR T cells can continually and uncontrollably proliferate and activate in response to antigen, potentially causing fatal on-target off-tumor toxicity, cytokine release syndrome, or neurotoxicity without a method of control or elimination...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Fabrizio Marcucci, Carmelo Antonio Caserta, Elisabetta Romeo, Cristiano Rumio
Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) represent a subpopulation of tumor cells with peculiar functionalities that distinguish them from the bulk of tumor cells, most notably their tumor-initiating potential and drug resistance. Given these properties, it appears logical that CSCs have become an important target for many pharma companies. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) have emerged over the last decade as one of the most promising new tools for the selective ablation of tumor cells. Three ADCs have already received regulatory approval and many others are in different phases of clinical development...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Amanda McBride, Sarah Houtmann, Lindsay Wilde, Carlos Vigil, Christine M Eischen, Margaret Kasner, Neil Palmisiano
Avoidance of apoptosis is a key mechanism that malignancies, including acute leukemias and MDS, utilize in order to proliferate and resist chemotherapy. Recently, venetoclax, an inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2, has been approved for the treatment of upfront AML in an unfit, elderly population. This paper reviews the pre-clinical and clinical data for apoptosis inhibitors currently in development for the treatment of AML, ALL, and MDS.
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Susanne Wiegand, Gunnar Wichmann, Andreas Dietz
Induction chemotherapy (ICT) is an attractive option for advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients which has been prospectively evaluated in the context of a multimodality treatment approach. The theoretical benefit is the ability to suppress distant metastases and shrink the tumor while chemotherapy is better tolerated when given sequentially than concurrently. However, clinical trials have failed to show consistent benefit of ICT over concurrent radio-chemotherapy and due to so far lacking level 1 evidence ICT outside larynx organ preservation remains rather investigational...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Shaochuan Liu, Tingting Qin, Yanan Jia, Kai Li
Objectives: To elucidate the relationship between VEGFA and PD-L1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Methods: PD-L1 and VEGFA expression were determined by immunohistochemistry with H-score on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded resected LADC specimens of 129 cases. Results: High PD-L1 expression in 53 (41.1%) patients, high VEGFA expression in 65 (50.4%), and co-expression in 18 (14.0%) were observed. Inverse correlation between expression of PD-L1 and VEGFA was found ( P = 0.002, r = -0.274). VEGFA and PD-L1 expression were not significantly associated with the clinicopathological features...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Tanja Eisemann, Barbara Costa, Heike Peterziel, Peter Angel
The dynamic and interactive tumor microenvironment is conceived as a considerable parameter in tumor development and therapy response. Implementing this knowledge in the development of future cancer treatments could provide novel options in the combat of highly aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors such as gliomas. One compartment of the tumor microenvironment that has gained growing interest is the immune system. As endogenous defense machinery the immune system has the capacity to fight against cancer cells...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Kwanza T Warren, Linxi Liu, Yang Liu, Michael T Milano, Kevin A Walter
Background: The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review of current evidence for the impact of time to initiation of chemoradiation on overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas treated with radiation and concurrent temozolomide chemotherapy. Methods: A literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Studies were included if they provided separate analysis for patients treated with current standard of care: radiation and concurrent temozolomide...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Pik Fang Kho, Dylan M Glubb, Deborah J Thompson, Amanda B Spurdle, Tracy A O'Mara
Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecological cancer in developed countries. Based on evidence from observational studies which suggest selenium inhibits the development of several cancers (including lung and prostate cancer), selenium supplementation has been touted as a potential cancer preventative agent. However, randomized controlled trials have not reported benefit for selenium supplementation in reducing cancer risk. For endometrial cancer, limited observational studies have been conducted assessing whether selenium intake, or blood selenium levels, associated with reduced risk, and no randomized controlled trials have been conducted...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Katsuyuki Shirai, Tatsuya Ohno, Jun-Ichi Saitoh, Masahiko Okamoto, Hiroyuki Katoh, Kazutoshi Murata, Hidemasa Kawamura, Atsushi Musha, Takanori Abe, Tatsuji Mizukami, Keiko Akahane, Takashi Nakano
Purpose: To perform a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of isolated recurrent tumor re-irradiation with carbon-ion radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The inclusion criteria were clinically proven recurrent tumors, measurable by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, patients ≥ 16 years old, performance status scores between 0 and 2, isolated tumor at a previously irradiated site, and a life expectancy > 6 months. The exclusion criteria were tumor invasion into the gastrointestinal tract or a major blood vessel, uncontrolled infection, early recurrence (<3 months), and severe concomitant diseases...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
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