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Local and Regional Anesthesia

Gijsbert J van der Veen, Cornelis Slagt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Charlotte Hofhuizen, Joris Lemson, Marc Snoeck, Gert-Jan Scheffer
Background: Hypotension is common during spinal anesthesia (SA) and is caused by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and/or cardiac output (CO). The effect of the dose of bupivacaine administered intrathecally on the changes in CO in elderly patients is largely unknown. This study investigated the hemodynamic effect of SA in elderly patients by studying the effect of two different dosages of intrathecal bupivacaine. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 64 patients aged >65 years scheduled for procedures under SA; the patients received either 15 mg bupivacaine (the medium dose [MD] group) or 10 mg bupivacaine and 5 μg sufentanil (the low dose [LD] group)...
2019: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Bright Jebaraj Selvaraj, Minal Joshi, Garret Weber, Joel Yarmush
We report the use of celiac plexus block (CPB) as a diagnostic aid in the evaluation of median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) in a pediatric patient. MALS is a rare cause of severe, debilitating, abdominal postprandial pain associated with nausea, vomiting, occasional diarrhea, unintentional weight loss, and abdominal bruit. MALS is a diagnosis of exclusion, after multiple investigations. This is the first case report where CPB was used to confirm candidacy for corrective surgery in the pediatric population and has served as the cornerstone in diagnosis of MALS...
2019: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Jacob L Hutchins, Leslie Renfro, Florin Orza, Cody Honl, Sagar Navare, Aaron A Berg
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if the standardization of using liposomal bupivacaine in transversus abdominis plane (LB TAP) blocks eliminated the benefit of intrathecal morphine (ITM) in patients after undergoing a cesarean section. Methods: This was a retrospective review of 358 patients who underwent cesarean section over an 11-month period. Patients were divided into two groups: those who received only an LB TAP (67 patients) vs those who received an LB TAP and ITM (291 patients)...
2019: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Wael Fathy, Mona Hussein, Hossam Khalil
Purpose: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction has gained much attention over the last years. Multiple clinical trials have attempted to differentiate the effect of local vs general anesthesia on postoperative cognitive function. The aim of this work was to study the effect of local anesthesia with lidocaine vs bupivacaine on cognitive function. Patients and methods: This was a prospective randomized trial carried out on 61 patients undergoing elective cataract surgery by phacoemulsification under local anesthesia...
2019: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Thomas Michels, Seifollah Ahmadi, Nicole Graf
Objectives: The efficiency of local anesthetics (LAs) in the treatment of peripheral pain is commonly attributed to their capacity to block the axon conduction of sensory nerves. LAs even in non-blocking concentration suppress oscillations of the resting membrane potential. Spiking in sensory neurons is triggered by subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (SMPOs), which reach threshold and is maintained by depolarizing impulse after oscillations. The suppression of these oscillations abolishes sustained afferent discharge in sensory nerves without blocking the axon conduction...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Ahmed Zaghloul Foad, Mohammed Ahmed Mansour, Mahmoud Badry Ahmed, Hany R Elgamal, Hany Elmekawey Elmekawey Ibrahim, Abdelraheem Elawamy
Background: Retrobulbar regional eye block aims to ensure eye globe akinesia and anesthesia during ophthalmic surgery, and despite the rarity of occurrence of complications due to the blind needle passage while performing either peribulbar or retrobulbar block, some of them are serious and may be life threatening. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy and safety of real-time ultrasound-guided retrobulbar regional anesthesia in comparison with the blind technique for cataract surgery...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Nguyen Truong Giang, Nguyen Van Nam, Nguyen Ngoc Trung, Le Viet Anh, Nguyen Manh Cuong, Ngo Van Dinh, Dinh Cong Pho, Phillip Geiger, Nguyen Trung Kien
Background: Paravertebral block has been proven to be an efficient method to provide post-thoracotomy pain management. This study aimed to compare patient-controlled paravertebral analgesia (PCPA) and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) in terms of analgesic efficiency, respiratory function, and adverse effects after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy. Patients and methods: The prospective randomized trial study was carried out on 60 patients who underwent VATS lobectomy (randomly allocated 30 patients in each group)...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Rawéléguinbasba Armel Flavien Kaboré, Ibrahim Alain Traore, Salah Idriss Séif Traore, Cheik Tidiane Hafi Wind-Pouiré Bougouma, Pascal Augustin, Aboudoul-Fataou Ouro-Bang'na Maman
The occurrence of a needle breaking is a very rare complication of spinal anesthesia (SA). We report a case of a broken spinal needle occurring in a morbid obese pregnant woman during SA indicated for an emergent cesarean section. Multiple puncture attempts due to difficult identification of lumbar spine, associated with an inadequate use of the introducer, contributed to this complication. The recognition of predictive factors for difficult neuraxial anesthesia, the use of ultrasound in obese patients, and a properly executed technique may have allowed avoiding this complication...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Mark C Kendall, Lucas J Castro Alves, Edward I Suh, Zachary L McCormick, Gildasio S De Oliveira
Regional anesthesia is becoming increasingly popular among anesthesiologists in the management of postoperative analgesia following pediatric surgery. The main objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the last 5 years of randomized controlled trials on the role of regional anesthesia techniques in alleviating postoperative pain associated with various pediatric surgical procedures. Forty studies on 2,408 pediatric patients were evaluated. The majority of the articles published from 2013 to 2017 reported that the use of regional anesthesia minimized postoperative pain and reduced opioid consumption...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Johanna Blair de Haan, Nadia Hernandez, Sudipta Sen
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the terminal hair follicle of the apocrine gland-bearing skin, presenting with inflamed nodules, abscesses, and sinus tracts. Autoimmune, genetic, and infectious factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. HS can be managed medically using topical and systemic antibiotics and with tumor necrosis factor antibody therapy in severe cases. Surgical treatment can range from local excision, deroofing or excision of sinus tracts, or wide radical excision of severe lesions...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Makoto Komatsuzaki, Toshifumi Takasusuki, Shigeki Yamaguchi
Purpose: The interval from the peak to the end of the T wave (Tp-Te) on electrocardiography is considered a marker of ventricular arrhythmias. A previous study suggested that right stellate ganglion block prolonged QT and QT dispersion (QTD). We investigated the effect of thoracic epidural sympathetic block with 1% mepivacaine on QT, QTD, Tp-Te, and Tp-Te/QT by using computerized measurement. Patients and methods: After obtaining the approval of the ethics committee of Dokkyo Medical University Hospital, 23 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II who were scheduled to undergo thoracic surgery were enrolled...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Shabana Z Shafy, Mohammed Hakim, Mauricio Arce Villalobos, Gregory D Pearson, Giorgio Veneziano, Joseph D Tobias
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), first described in 1834, is an X-linked dystrophinopathy, leading to early onset skeletal muscle weakness. Life expectancy is reduced to early adulthood as a result of involvement of voluntary skeletal muscles with respiratory failure, orthopedic deformities, and associated cardiomyopathy. Given its multisystem involvement, surgical intervention may be required to address the sequelae of the disease process. We present a 36-year-old adult with DMD, who required anesthetic care during surgical debridement of an ischial pressure sore...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Hui-Shan Lin, Rebecca L McBride, Ruth E Hubbard
Frailty is a state of decreased physiologic reserve and resistance to stressors. Its prevalence increases with age and is estimated to be 26% in those aged above 85 years. As the population ages, frailty will be increasingly seen in surgical patients receiving anesthesia. Here, we evaluate the instruments which have been developed and validated for measuring frailty in surgical patients and summarize frailty tools used in 110 studies linking frailty status with adverse outcomes post-surgery. Frail older people are vulnerable to geriatric syndromes, and complications such as postoperative cognitive dysfunction and delirium are explored...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Takashi Ishida, Satoshi Tanaka, Akiyuki Sakamoto, Takanobu Hirabayashi, Mikito Kawamata
We report a successful ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block as an analgesic option for minor abdominal surgery in a 66-year-old patient with cardiac, respiratory, and renal dysfunction caused by primary systemic amyloidosis. Bilateral TAP blocks with 120 mg (1.8 mg/kg) of ropivacaine provided sufficient intra- and postoperative analgesia for insertion of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis catheter. However, the plasma concentration of ropivacaine reached a maximum of 2.5 µg/mL at 15 minutes after the TAP block, a concentration that was potentially neurotoxic...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Tabish Aijaz, Kenneth D Candido, Utchariya Anantamongkol, Gleb Gorelick, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic
Background: Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) provides superior postoperative pain control compared to parenteral opioids after major thoracic and abdominal surgeries. However, some studies with respect to benefits of continuous TEA have shown mixed results. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of successful TEA catheter insertion into the epidural space using contrast fluoroscopy and the impact of placement location on postoperative analgesia and opioid use. Patients and methods: After Advocate health care institutional review board approval, we conducted a prospective, open-label, single intervention study on patients undergoing thoracic or upper abdominal surgery...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Ali Dastkhosh, Majid Razavi, Mehryar Taghavi Gilani
Objective: Spinal anesthesia is the preferred anesthetic technique for cesarean section. Neurological complications are very rare and often transient after spinal anesthesia. Case report: In the present case, a 37-year-old woman was considered eligible for cesarean section due to fetal distress. She underwent spinal anesthesia with a 25-gauge pencil-point spinal needle. In the sitting position, 3 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine was injected following free flow of cerebrospinal fluid...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Kariem El-Boghdadly, Amit Pawa, Ki Jinn Chin
Local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) is a life-threatening adverse event that may occur after the administration of local anesthetic drugs through a variety of routes. Increasing use of local anesthetic techniques in various healthcare settings makes contemporary understanding of LAST highly relevant. Recent data have demonstrated that the underlying mechanisms of LAST are multifactorial, with diverse cellular effects in the central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Although neurological presentation is most common, LAST often presents atypically, and one-fifth of the reported cases present with isolated cardiovascular disturbance...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Mohammed Hakim, Alexander B Froyshteter, Hina Walia, Dmitry Tumin, Giorgio Veneziano, Tarun Bhalla, Joseph D Tobias
Introduction: Epidural anesthesia is frequently used to provide postoperative analgesia following major surgical procedures. Secure fixation of the epidural catheter is necessary to prevent premature dislodgment and loss of epidural analgesia. Using an in vitro model, the current prospective study evaluates different types of dressings for securement of an epidural catheter by quantifying the force in Newtons (N) required for dislodgment using a digital force gage. Methods: Four methods of epidural catheter securement were used on a simulator mannequin: 1) Suresite® Window Clear Dressing, 2) Op-Site Post-Op® Visible Dressing, 3) Steri-Strips® and Suresite Window Clear Dressing, and 4) Steri-Strips and Op-Site Post-Op Visible Dressing...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Mohammad AlSuhebani, David P Martin, Lance M Relland, Tarun Bhalla, Allan C Beebe, Amanda T Whitaker, Walter Samora, Joseph D Tobias
Spinal anesthesia (SA) has been used relatively sparingly in the pediatric population, as it is typically reserved for patients in whom the perceived risk of general anesthesia is high due to comorbid conditions. Recently, concern has been expressed regarding the potential long-term neurocognitive effects of general anesthesia during the early stages of life. In view of this, our center has developed a program in which SA may be used as the sole agent for applicable surgical procedures. While this approach in children is commonly used for urologic or abdominal surgical procedures, there have been a limited number of reports of its use for orthopedic procedures in this population...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
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