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Topics in Antiviral Medicine

Darcy A Wooten
The recent hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak in San Diego was driven by homelessness, associated sanitation conditions, and illicit drug use. As with an outbreak in Michigan, fueled by similar factors, morbidity and mortality were higher than what has been observed with post-vaccine era foodborne HAV outbreaks. Control of the outbreak in San Diego was accomplished with vaccine, sanitation, and education initiatives that targeted those at highest risk. Mass vaccination events and mobile foot teams and vans brought education and vaccine to high-risk individuals in affected areas...
January 2019: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Marion G Peters
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a lifelong dynamic disease that can be controlled with treatment but cannot yet be cured. Risk of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increases with ongoing inflammation and HBV viremia. Initial treatments consist of tenofovir or entecavir. Patients who require treatment include those with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, HCC, or HIV coinfection; patients receiving immunosuppressive treatments; and women in the third trimester of pregnancy who have elevated HBV DNA level...
January 2019: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Susanna Naggie
Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens now allow treatment of previously untreated or treated (including prior DAA failures) patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with 8 or 12 week regimens, largely without the use of ribavirin. Newer next-generation pan-genotypic regimens with activity against resistance-associated substitutions include glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB), a combination of a nonstructural protein (NS)3 protease inhibitor and an NS5A inhibitor, and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir (SOF/VEL/VOX), a combination of an NS5B polymerase inhibitor, NS5A inhibitor, and NS3 protease inhibitor...
January 2019: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Peter Chin-Hong
Individuals with HIV infection are living longer, and are at risk of autoimmune disorders and cancers associated with aging. Many of these conditions are treated with immunobiologic agents that affect immune function and may increase risk of opportunistic infections (OIs) and other immune disorders in individuals with HIV infection. For example, tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors, used to treat such disorders as Crohn's disease, are associated with risk of tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. Rituximab, used to treat lymphoma, has been associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy due to JC virus and reactivation of other viral infections...
January 2019: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Carlos Del Rio, Wendy S Armstrong
In no field of medicine has advocacy, including physician advocacy, been more crucial in shaping policy for delivery of care than in HIV/AIDS. Although the historic tradition is strong, there is an urgent need to re-energize advocacy efforts nationally and internationally to support programs that fund care, change policies that perpetuate stigma and discrimination, and change the public perception that the HIV/AIDS crisis is over. Established programs that require ongoing advocacy attention include the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act, a US program that serves as a payer of last resort for care for patients with HIV infection, and international programs like the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria...
September 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
R Douglas Bruce
Available data indicate that opioid substitution treatment can successfully reduce rates of HIV transmission and that patients receiving such treatment can adhere to therapies for HIV, hepatitis C, and tuberculosis infection. Integration of opioid substitution treatment into the HIV clinic setting can make such treatment easier and improve retention in treatment. This article summarizes a presentation by R. Douglas Bruce, MD, MA, MS, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in Chicago, Illinois, in May 2018...
September 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Timothy J Wilkin
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, including anal cancer and oropharyngeal cancer, occur more frequently in individuals living with HIV infection than in the general population. Strategies for prevention among individuals with HIV infection include HPV vaccination, anal cancer screening programs, and early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). HPV vaccination is not yet optimally used; a stronger and more persistent effort is needed to increase vaccination rates. Although anal cancer screening is not recommended by all authorities, there is a least some evidence that screening and treatment of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions may prevent progression to cancer...
September 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Henry Masur
The incidence of HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs) has dramatically declined with the ability to achieve viral suppression and immune reconstitution with potent antiretroviral therapy. However, a large number of patients remain at risk for OIs because they are diagnosed at late stages of HIV disease, fail to stay in treatment, or fail to maintain viral suppression. Clinicians should remain vigilant for OIs and for changes in recommended management strategies. Issues that often arise in this regard include how to interpret polymerase chain reaction diagnostic results in individuals with HIV infection; whether primary prophylaxis for Mycobacterium avium complex is still needed; whether clinicians should screen asymptomatic patients for cryptococcal antigen; and need for amphotericin B in treatment regimens for cryptococcal meningitis...
September 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Robert T Schooley
Our increased understanding of the human microbiome has brought insight into the role it plays in health and disease, including HIV infection. Studies have shown that the gut microbiome is less diverse in individuals with HIV infection than in noninfected control subjects. Efforts to modify the microbiome to bolster immune reconstitution in people with HIV infection have so far been unsuccessful. The vaginal microbiome affects risk of HIV acquisition, with Lactobacillus dominance being protective compared with vaginosis characterized by larger populations of Gardnerella...
September 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Thomas P Giordano
Retention of HIV-infected patients in care is crucial to optimizing individual patient outcomes and reducing transmission of HIV. A number of strategies are available to improve linkage to care; among them, the AntiRetroviral Treatment and Access Services intervention should be considered standard of care at the clinic level. With regard to retention in care, the Retention Through Enhanced Personal Contact intervention has been shown to improve retention rates and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Data to Care program has been successful in assisting public health authorities to locate and return to treatment patients presumed to be lost to follow-up...
June 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Susan Swindells
People with HIV infection with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are at a 10-fold greater risk of developing active disease. Interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing have approximately 65% to 70% specificity for diagnosing LTBI in HIV-infected patients. LTBI can be successfully treated with isoniazid preventive therapy and early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rapid molecular diagnostics have approximately 88% sensitivity and 98% specificity for identifying active TB. ART should be started early in patients with TB...
June 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Hong-Van Tieu, Barbara S Taylor, Joyce Jones, Timothy J Wilkin
The 2018 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) showcased exciting data on new investigational agents including MK-8591 and tri-specific antibody targeting 3 highly conserved epitopes on HIV-1 in a single antibody. Clinical trials of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) and switch studies involving bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide were presented. Intensification of initial ART with integrase strand transfer inhibitors did not increase the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome...
May 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Anne F Luetkemeyer, David L Wyles
At the 2018 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), there was a major focus on hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination and improving each component of the hepatitis C care cascade. Several countries and cohorts have demonstrated the remarkable impact that universal HCV testing and unrestricted access to hepatitis C treatment can have on markedly reducing incident HCV infections and HCV infection prevalence, including in people who inject drugs and HIV/HCV-coinfected populations. However, in many settings, substantial barriers to widespread HCV treatment remain, including undiagnosed HCV infection, particularly in populations outside the standard "baby boomer" birth cohort (ie, born 1945-1965); restricted access to hepatitis C treatment in those with known HCV infection; reinfection with HCV; and migration of HCV-infected populations...
May 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Judith S Currier, Diane V Havlir
This year marked the 25th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), and although there is much progress to celebrate in terms of treatment of HIV infection and expanding ART globally, many challenges remain. Tuberculosis is still the leading cause of death among people with HIV infection globally. This year, the results of investments in research to improve the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis were a highlight of the meeting. Noninfectious causes remain an important source of morbidity...
May 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Mario Stevenson
The conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections represents the most important venue for the dissemination of research advances in HIV and AIDS. The 25th conference, held in Boston, featured presentations that provided insight into the mechanisms of HIV-1 spread in tissues as well as new information on mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence in individuals on effective antiretroviral treatment. The ability of the conference to convey research findings for a general audience is enhanced, to a large part, by preconference workshops...
May 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Susan P Buchbinder, Albert Y Liu
At the 2018 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, trends in and risk factors for in HIV infection were highlighted. In the United States, new HIV diagnoses are highest in the South and among African Americans and are increasing in rural areas. Youth remain highly vulnerable to HIV infection globally. The epidemiology of HIV infections among people who inject drugs is changing, with overdose deaths, a major public health concern. Phylogenetics are being used to identify HIV transmission clusters and hotspots, which can inform prevention efforts...
May 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Judith S Currier
HIV-infected individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy experience a number of non-AIDS noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, more frequently than uninfected individuals. Common pathways for such diseases are chronic immune activation and inflammation, including the prolonged inflammation associated with lower nadir CD4+ cell count. Prevention and treatment of non-AIDS conditions include treatment of traditional risk factors, lifestyle interventions, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and potentially therapies specifically targeting inflammation and immune activation (eg, statins)...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Roy M Gulick
Over the past 30 years, antiretroviral drug regimens for treating HIV infection have become more effective, safer, and more convenient. Despite 31 currently approved drugs, the pipeline of investigational HIV drugs remains full. Investigational antiretroviral drugs include the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor (NRTTI) MK-8591, a long-acting compound that could be dosed once weekly. Investigational nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) include doravirine, which is active in vitro against NNRTI-resistant HIV and was potent and well-tolerated when used in combination with a dual-nucleoside analogue RTI (nRTI) backbone in treatment-naive individuals...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Susan P Buchbinder
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (slash indicates coformulation) is highly effective in preventing new HIV infections. PrEP efficacy is strongly associated with adherence. In clinical trials, PrEP has been more effective in men who have sex with men and HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples than in women, likely reflecting pharmacokinetic differences between levels of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in vaginal and rectal tissues, and poorer adherence in studies in women. Current guidelines recommend daily PrEP for men and women; however, PrEP taken at least 4 days per week for men may be as effective as daily PrEP, and women must take PrEP 6 to 7 days per week to maximize efficacy...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Chinazo O Cunningham
HIV-infected persons are more likely to have chronic pain, receive opioid analgesic treatment, receive higher doses of opioids, and to have substance use disorders and mental illness compared with the general population, putting them at increased risk for opioid use disorder. Management of opioid use in HIV-infected individuals can be complex, and the limited data on opioid treatment in this population are conflicting with regard to its effect on HIV outcomes. Buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder improves HIV outcomes and other outcomes...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
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