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World Journal of Diabetes

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697371/early-vs-late-oral-nutrition-in-patients-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis-admitted-to-a-medical-intensive-care-unit
#1
Kirill Lipatov, Kevin K Kurian, Courtney Shaver, Heath D White, Shekhar Ghamande, Alejandro C Arroliga, Salim Surani
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has an associated mortality of 1% to 5%. Upon admission, patients require insulin infusion and close monitoring of electrolyte and blood sugar levels with subsequent transitioning to subcutaneous insulin and oral nutrition. No recommendations exist regarding the appropriate timing for initiation of oral nutrition. AIM: To assess short-term outcomes of oral nutrition initiated within 24 h of patients being admitted to a medical intensive care unit (MICU) for DKA...
January 15, 2019: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697370/relationship-between-sonographically-measured-median-nerve-cross-sectional-area-and-presence-of-peripheral-neuropathy-in-diabetic-subjects
#2
Fredrick Andrew Attah, Christianah Mopelola Asaleye, Adeleye Dorcas Omisore, Babatope Ayodeji Kolawole, Adeniyi Sunday Aderibigbe, Mathew Alo
BACKGROUND: Neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus resulting from direct damage by hyperglycemia to the nerves and/or ischemia by microvascular injury to the endoneurial vessels which supply the nerves. Median nerve is one of the peripheral nerves commonly affected in diabetic neuropathy. The median nerve size has been studied in non-Nigerian diabetic populations. In attempt to contribute to existing literature, a study in a Nigerian population is needed. AIM: To evaluate the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve using B-mode ultrasonography (USS) and the presence of peripheral neuropathy (PN) in a cohort of adult diabetic Nigerians...
January 15, 2019: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697369/diabetes-in-the-kokan-region-of-india
#3
Patil Suvarna, Kadam Shruti, Desai Maruti, Joglekar Charudatta
BACKGROUND: BKL Walawalkar Hospital is situated near the village of Dervan in the Kokan region of the state of Maharashtra in India. A survey of 2200 surrounding villages showed 51.8% adults had body mass index (BMI) below <18.5 kg/m2 and only 4.5% were overweight. A survey of 11521 adolescent girls from rural schools showed 64% prevalence of thinness. In the same region, government survey reported the prevalence of diabetes around 7%, and 70% prevalence of leanness. This reinforced the fact that the overall population of Kokan is lean...
January 15, 2019: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697368/exploratory-metabolomics-of-metabolic-syndrome-a-status-report
#4
REVIEW
Daniella Lent-Schochet, Matthew McLaughlin, Neeraj Ramakrishnan, Ishwarlal Jialal
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is as a cluster of cardio-metabolic factors that greatly increase the risk of chronic diseases such as type II diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In the United States, obesity, physical inactivity, aging, and genetics (to a minor extent) have arisen as risk factors for developing MetS. Although 35% of American adults suffer from MetS, its pathogenesis largely remains unknown. Worse, there is a lack of screening and optimum therapy for this disease. Researchers have consequently turned towards metabolomics to identify biomarkers to better understand MetS...
January 15, 2019: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697367/effects-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-the-respiratory-system
#5
REVIEW
Alice Gallo de Moraes, Salim Surani
Diabetes affects approximately 30 million persons in the United States. Diabetes ketoacidosis is one of the most serious and acute complications of diabetes. At the time of presentation and during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), several metabolic and electrolyte derangements can ultimately result in respiratory compromise. Most commonly, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia can eventually lead to respiratory muscles failure. Furthermore, tachypnea, hyperpnea and more severely, Kussmaul breathing pattern can develop...
January 15, 2019: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697366/update-on-biomarkers-of-glycemic-control
#6
REVIEW
Maja Krhač, Marijana Vučić Lovrenčić
Attaining and maintaining good glycemic control is a cornerstone of diabetes care. The monitoring of glycemic control is currently based on the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and laboratory testing for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), which is a surrogate biochemical marker of the average glycemia level over the previous 2-3 mo period. Although hyperglycemia is a key biochemical feature of diabetes, both the level of and exposure to high glucose, as well as glycemic variability, contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and follow different patterns in type 1 and type 2 diabetes...
January 15, 2019: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30588287/using-real-world-data-to-assess-cardiovascular-outcomes-of-two-antidiabetic-treatment-classes
#7
Manfred Paul Stapff
AIM: To evaluate the effect on cardiovascular outcomes of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in a real world setting by analyzing electronic medical records. METHODS: We used TriNetX, a global federated research network providing statistics on electronic health records (EHR). The analytics subset contained EHR from approximately 38 Million patients in 35 Health Care Organizations in the United States. The records of 46,909 patients who had taken SGLT2 inhibitors were compared to 189,120 patients with dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 inhibitors...
December 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30588286/pathological-changes-in-the-cellular-structures-of-retina-and-choroidea-in-the-early-stages-of-alloxan-induced-diabetes
#8
Irina Danilova, Svetlana Medvedeva, Svetlana Shmakova, Margarita Chereshneva, Alexey Sarapultsev, Petr Sarapultsev
AIM: To investigate the temporal sequence of pathological changes in the cellular structures of retina and choroidea in the early stages of diabetes in laboratory animals. METHODS: Experimental type 1 diabetes was modeled by three intraperitoneal injections of an alloxan solution into 30 male nonlinear rats at 16 wk of age. The 30th and 60th days from the final alloxan injection were chosen as the endpoints. Light and electron microscopy and morphometric and immunohistochemical studies were performed on histological slices of eyeballs from experimental animals...
December 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30588285/effects-of-glucose-lowering-agents-on-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#9
REVIEW
Hidetaka Hamasaki
Exercise therapy is essential for the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, patients with T2D show lower physical activity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness than healthy individuals. It would be ideal for clinicians to co-prescribe glucose-lowering agents that improve cardiorespiratory fitness or exercise capacity in conjunction with exercise therapy. Metformin does not improve cardiorespiratory fitness and may attenuate any beneficial effect of exercise in patients with T2D. In contrast, thiazolidinediones appear to improve cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with T2D...
December 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30588284/guidelines-and-controversies-in-the-management-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-mini-review
#10
REVIEW
Tasnim Islam, Khalid Sherani, Salim Surani, Abhay Vakil
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complication seen in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Due to its large, growing economic impact with associated morbidity, closer look at proper management is important. Factors involved in appropriate management involves fluid resuscitation, insulin regimen, and electrolyte replacement including types of fluid and insulin treatment. The caveat with generalized protocol is application to special populations such as renal or heart failure patients the sequelae of complications due to pathophysiology of the disease processes...
December 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30588283/unexpected-alliance-between-syndecan-1-and-innate-like-t-cells-to-protect-host-from-autoimmune-effects-of-interleukin-17
#11
REVIEW
Anil Kumar Jaiswal, Mohanraj Sadasivam, Abdel Rahim A Hamad
Innate-like T cells, namely natural killer T (NKT) and γδ T cells, play critical roles in linking innate and adaptive immune responses through rapid production of cytokines. Prominent among these cytokines is interleukin-17 (IL-17), which is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in host defense against fungi and extracellular bacteria. However, excessive IL-17-production promotes autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus...
December 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30588282/treatment-approach-to-type-2-diabetes-past-present-and-future
#12
REVIEW
Kristina Blaslov, Fran Stjepan Naranđa, Ivan Kruljac, Ivana Pavlić Renar
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a lifelong metabolic disease, characterized by hyperglycaemia which gradually leads to the development and progression of vascular complications. It is recognized as a global burden disease, with substantial consequences on human health (fatality) as well as on health-care system costs. This review focuses on the topic of historical discovery and understanding the complexity of the disease in the field of pathophysiology, as well as development of the pharmacotherapy beyond insulin...
December 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30588281/role-of-vitamin-c-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-it-ready-for-prime-time
#13
EDITORIAL
Sebastian Casillas, Alan Pomerantz, Salim Surani, Joseph Varon
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is life-threatening acute metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that is characterized by acidosis, ketosis, and hyperglycemia, currently affecting mostly patients under 30 years of age with diabetes mellitus type 1. In both, DM and DKA, a pro-inflammatory state exists. This clinical entity occurs as a result of hyperglycemia-induced disturbances, resulting in an increased oxidative metabolism. For the latter reason, the use of vitamin C seems promising in DKA due to its antioxidant role in reducing the superoxide radicals that are consequence of the oxidative stress...
December 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30479686/use-of-sodium-bicarbonate-and-blood-gas-monitoring-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Mit P Patel, Ali Ahmed, Tharini Gunapalan, Sean E Hesselbacher
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe and too-common complication of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Acidosis is one of the fundamental disruptions stemming from the disease process, the complications of which are potentially lethal. Hydration and insulin administration have been the cornerstones of DKA therapy; however, adjunctive treatments such as the use of sodium bicarbonate and protocols that include serial monitoring with blood gas analysis have been much more controversial. There is substantial literature available regarding the use of exogenous sodium bicarbonate in mild to moderately severe acidosis; the bulk of the data argue against significant benefit in important clinical outcomes and suggest possible adverse effects with the use of bicarbonate...
November 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30479685/circadian-rhythms-of-hormone-secretion-and-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Rajendra Raghow
The adipose tissue homeostasis is profoundly affected by circadian rhythms of corticosteroid secretion and chronic loss of hormonal oscillations is associated with obesity. How adipose tissue differentially responds to pulsatile vs continuous presence of glucocorticoids is poorly defined. To address this question, Bahrami-Nejad et al studied differentiation of pre-adipocytes, containing endogenously tagged CCAAT/enhancer binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ (key regulators of adipocyte differentiation), in response to corticosteroids that were delivered either in an oscillatory fashion or continuously...
November 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30479684/unhealthy-eating-habits-around-sleep-and-sleep-duration-to-eat-or-fast
#16
EDITORIAL
Kei Nakajima
Traditionally, breakfast skipping (BS), and recently late-night dinner eating (LNDE), have attracted attention in public health because they can predispose to cardiometabolic conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Intriguingly, it has become evident that short duration of sleep elicits similar health risks. As LNDE, BS, and short sleep can be closely related and can aggravate each other, these three should not be considered separately. In this context, LNDE (or its equivalents, snacking or heavy alcohol consumption after dinner) and BS may be representative unhealthy eating habits around sleep (UEHAS)...
November 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30479683/current-and-future-impact-of-clinical-gastrointestinal-research-on-patient-care-in-diabetes-mellitus
#17
EDITORIAL
Timothy R Koch, Timothy R Shope, Michael Camilleri
The worldwide rise in the prevalence of obesity supports the need for an increased interaction between ongoing clinical research in the allied fields of gastrointestinal medicine/surgery and diabetes mellitus. There have been a number of clinically-relevant advances in diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome emanating from gastroenterological research. Gastric emptying is a significant factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is not the only mechanism whereby such symptoms occur in patients with diabetes...
November 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30364787/topical-application-of-platelet-rich-plasma-for-diabetic-foot-ulcers-a-systematic-review
#18
Takashi Hirase, Eric Ruff, Salim Surani, Iqbal Ratnani
AIM: To determine if topical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) results in superior healing rates. METHODS: A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed using PRISMA guidelines. Level I-IV investigations of topical PRP application in DFUs were sought in multiple databases including: MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The search terms used were "platelet rich plasma", "diabetes", "ulcers", and "wound"...
October 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30364744/efficacy-of-anagliptin-as-compared-to-linagliptin-on-metabolic-parameters-over-2-years-of-drug-consumption-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Hidetaka Hamasaki, Yasuteru Hamasaki
AIM: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of anagliptin and linagliptin on the clinical parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).METHODSA 2-year retrospective cohort study was conducted in patients with T2DM who received anagliptin and linagliptin. We enrolled 234 patients (anagliptin group, 117 patients; linagliptin group, 117 patients). RESULTS: The glycemic control considerably improved 3, 6, 12, and 24 mo after the administration of both dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors...
October 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30254725/association-of-tcf7l2-mutation-and-atypical-diabetes-in-a-uruguayan-population
#20
Carolina Beloso, Jorge Souto, Matias Fabregat, Gerardo Romanelli, Gerardo Javiel, Adriana Mimbacas
AIM: To investigate if mutations in TCF7L2 are associated with "atypical diabetes" in the Uruguayan population. METHODS: Healthy, nondiabetic controls ( n = 133) and patients with type 2 diabetes ( n = 177) were selected from among the presenting population at level-3 referral healthcare centers in Uruguay. Patients with type 2 diabetes were subgrouped according to "atypical diabetes" ( n = 92) and "classical diabetes" ( n = 85). Genotyping for the rs12255372 and rs7903146 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TCFTL2 gene was carried out with Taq Man® probes...
September 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
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