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World Journal of Biological Chemistry

Mariana Bertini Teixeira, Marcos Rodrigo Alborghetti, Jörg Kobarg
Fasciculation and elongation zeta/zygin (FEZ) proteins are a family of hub proteins and share many characteristics like high connectivity in interaction networks, they are involved in several cellular processes, evolve slowly and in general have intrinsically disordered regions. In 1985, unc-76 gene was firstly described and involved in axonal growth in C. elegans , and in 1997 Bloom and Horvitz enrolled also the human homologues genes, FEZ1 and FEZ2 , in this process. While nematodes possess one gene ( unc-76 ), mammalians have one more copy ( FEZ1 and FEZ2 )...
February 21, 2019: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yuri N Utkin
Three-finger toxins (TFTs) comprise one of largest families of snake venom toxins. While they are principal to and the most toxic components of the venoms of the Elapidae snake family, their presence has also been detected in the venoms of snakes from other families. The first TFT, α-bungarotoxin, was discovered almost 50 years ago and has since been used widely as a specific marker of the α7 and muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. To date, the number of TFT amino acid sequences deposited in the UniProt Knowledgebase free-access database is more than 700, and new members are being added constantly...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Caroline Demarquoy, Jean Demarquoy
Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present deficits in social interactions and communication, they also show limited and stereotypical patterns of behaviors and interests. The pathophysiological bases of ASD have not been defined yet. Many factors seem to be involved in the onset of this disorder. These include genetic and environmental factors, but autism is not linked to a single origin, only. Autism onset can be connected with various factors such as metabolic disorders: including carnitine deficiency...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fabio Sallustio, Loreto Gesualdo, Anna Gallone
In 1975, Holliday and Pugh as well as Riggs independently hypothesized that DNA methylation in eukaryotes could act as a hereditary regulation mechanism that influences gene expression and cell differentiation. Interest in the study of epigenetic processes has been inspired by their reversibility as well as their potentially preventable or treatable consequences. Recently, we have begun to understand that the features of DNA methylation are not the same for all cells. Major differences have been found between differentiated cells and stem cells...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Vsevolod V Gurevich, Eugenia V Gurevich
The activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 was traditionally used as a readout of signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) via arrestins, as opposed to conventional GPCR signaling via G proteins. Several recent studies using HEK293 cells where all G proteins were genetically ablated or inactivated, or both non-visual arrestins were knocked out, demonstrated that ERK1/2 phosphorylation requires G protein activity, but does not necessarily require the presence of non-visual arrestins...
December 12, 2018: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Carlos Pascual-Caro, Noelia Espinosa-Bermejo, Eulalia Pozo-Guisado, Francisco Javier Martin-Romero
STIM1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein with a key role in Ca2+ mobilization. Due to its ability to act as an ER-intraluminal Ca2+ sensor, it regulates store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), which is a Ca2+ influx pathway involved in a wide variety of signalling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Despite its important role in Ca2+ transport, current knowledge about the role of STIM1 in neurons is much more limited. Growing evidence supports a role for STIM1 and SOCE in the preservation of dendritic spines required for long-term potentiation and the formation of memory...
November 16, 2018: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Junichi Fujii, Takujiro Homma, Sho Kobayashi, Han Geuk Seo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced during normal physiologic processes with the consumption of oxygen. While ROS play signaling roles, when they are produced in excess beyond normal antioxidative capacity this can cause pathogenic damage to cells. The majority of such oxidation occurs in polyunsaturated fatty acids and sulfhydryl group in proteins, resulting in lipid peroxidation and protein misfolding, respectively. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is enhanced under conditions of oxidative stress and results in ER stress, which, together, leads to the malfunction of cellular homeostasis...
October 18, 2018: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
María Ángeles Pajares
PDRG1 is a small oncogenic protein of 133 residues. In normal human tissues, the p53 and DNA damage-regulated gene 1 ( PDRG1 ) gene exhibits maximal expression in the testis and minimal levels in the liver. Increased expression has been detected in several tumor cells and in response to genotoxic stress. High-throughput studies identified the PDRG1 protein in a variety of macromolecular complexes involved in processes that are altered in cancer cells. For example, this oncogene has been found as part of the RNA polymerase II complex, the splicing machinery and nutrient sensing machinery, although its role in these complexes remains unclear...
November 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Amy L Samuels, Alison Louw, Reza Zareie, Evan Ingley
AIM: To identify and characterize the effect of phosphorylation on the subcellular localization of Ankrd54. METHODS: HEK293T cells were treated with calyculin A, staurosporin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Cells were transfected with eGFP-tagged Ankrd54 with or without Lyn tyrosine kinase (wild-type, Y397F mutant, or Y508F mutant). The subcellular localization was assessed by immunofluorescence imaging of cells, immunoblotting of subcellular fractionations...
August 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Angelica F Arcanjo, Marise P Nunes, Elias B Silva-Junior, Monique Leandro, Juliana Dutra Barbosa da Rocha, Alexandre Morrot, Debora Decote-Ricardo, Celio Geraldo Freire-de-Lima
AIM: To investigate the modulatory effect of B-1 cells on murine peritoneal macrophages infected with Leishmania major (L. major) in vitro. METHODS: Peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c and BALB/c XID mice were infected with L. major and cultured in the presence or absence of B-1 cells obtained from wild-type BALB/c mice. Intracellular amastigotes were counted, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production was quantified in the cellular supernatants using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Maya Otto-Duessel, Ben Yi Tew, Steven Vonderfecht, Roger Moore, Jeremy O Jones
AIM: To identify neuron-selective androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitors, which could be useful in the treatment of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), or Kennedy's disease, a neuromuscular disorder in which deterioration of motor neurons leads to progressive muscle weakness. METHODS: Cell lines representing prostate, kidney, neuron, adipose, and muscle tissue were developed that stably expressed the CFP-AR-YFP FRET reporter. We used these cells to screen a library of small molecules for cell type-selective AR inhibitors...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ken-Ichi Isobe, Naomi Nishio, Tadao Hasegawa
The proportion of elderly people rises in the developed countries. The increased susceptibility of the elderly to infectious diseases is caused by immune dysfunction, especially T cell functional decline. Age-related hematopoietic stem cells deviate from lymphoid lineage to myeloid lineage. Thymus shrinks early in life, which is followed by the decline of naïve T cells. T-cell receptor repertoire diversity declines by aging, which is caused by cytomegalovirus-driven T cell clonal expansion. Functional decline of B cell induces antibody affinity declines by aging...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Luciano Pirola, José Candido Ferraz
In obesity, persistent low-grade inflammation is considered as a major contributor towards the progression to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes while in lean subjects the immune environment is non-inflammatory. Massive adipose tissue (AT) infiltration by pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and several T cell subsets as obesity develops leads to the accumulation - both in the AT and systemically - of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α, IL-17 and IL-6 which are strongly associated with the progression of the obese phenotype towards the metabolic syndrome...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Brigitte Le Magueresse-Battistoni, Emmanuel Labaronne, Hubert Vidal, Danielle Naville
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders represent a major societal challenge in health and quality of life with large psychological consequences in addition to physical disabilities. They are also one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Although, different etiologic factors including excessive food intake and reduced physical activity have been well identified, they cannot explain the kinetics of epidemic evolution of obesity and diabetes with prevalence rates reaching pandemic proportions...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yie-Hwa Chang
Obesity and cancer are two interrelated conditions of high epidemiological need, with studies showing that obesity is responsible for nearly 25% of the relative contribution to cancer incidence. Given the connection between these conditions, a drug that can operate on both obesity and cancer is highly desirable. Such a drug is accomplishable through the development of potent anti-angiogenesis agents due to the shared underlying role of angiogenesis in the development of both diseases. Prior research has demonstrated a key role of type-2 methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP2) for angiogenesis, which has led to the development of numerous of novel inhibitors...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Estuardo Salgado Yepez, Maria M Bovera, Victor D Rosenthal, Hugo A González Flores, Leonardo Pazmiño, Francisco Valencia, Nelly Alquinga, Vanessa Ramirez, Edgar Jara, Miguel Lascano, Veronica Delgado, Cristian Cevallos, Gasdali Santacruz, Cristian Pelaéz, Celso Zaruma, Diego Barahona Pinto
AIM: To report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) study conducted in Quito, Ecuador. METHODS: A device-associated healthcare-acquired infection (DA-HAI) prospective surveillance study conducted from October 2013 to January 2015 in 2 adult intensive care units (ICUs) from 2 hospitals using the United States Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and INICC methods. RESULTS: We followed 776 ICU patients for 4818 bed-days...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Françoise Le Borgne, Gaétan Ravaut, Arnaud Bernard, Jean Demarquoy
AIM: To identify and characterize the protective effect that L-carnitine exerted against an oxidative stress in C2C12 cells. METHODS: Myoblastic C2C12 cells were treated with menadione, a vitamin K analog that engenders oxidative stress, and the protective effect of L-carnitine (a nutrient involved in fatty acid metabolism and the control of the oxidative process), was assessed by monitoring various parameters related to the oxidative stress, autophagy and cell death...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Buddhike Sri Harsha Indrasena
It is worthwhile to measure serum thyroglobulin (TG) level in thyroid cancer before subjecting patients to surgery for two reasons. Firstly, if the level is high, it may give a clue to the local and metastatic tumour burden at presentation; secondly, if the level is normal, it identifies the patients who are unlikely to show rising TG levels in the presence of thyroid cancer. Those who have high serum TG before surgery will show up recurrence as rising serum TG during the postoperative period. Those who do not have high serum TG before surgery will not show up rising serum TG in the presence of recurrent disease...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Vitor Sueth-Santiago, Debora Decote-Ricardo, Alexandre Morrot, Celio Geraldo Freire-de-Lima, Marco Edilson Freire Lima
Almost 110 years after the first studies by Dr. Carlos Chagas describing an infectious disease that was named for him, Chagas disease remains a neglected illness and a death sentence for infected people in poor countries. This short review highlights the enormous need for new studies aimed at the development of novel and more specific drugs to treat chagasic patients. The primary tool for facing this challenge is deep knowledge about the similarities and differences between the parasite and its human host.
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Stefania Oliveto, Marilena Mancino, Nicola Manfrini, Stefano Biffo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pervasively expressed and regulate most biological functions. They function by modulating transcriptional and translational programs and therefore they orchestrate both physiological and pathological processes, such as development, cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and tumor growth. miRNAs work as small guide molecules in RNA silencing, by negatively regulating the expression of several genes both at mRNA and protein level, by degrading their mRNA target and/or by silencing translation...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
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