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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology

Rachel Andorfer, Joshua D Alper
As technology at the small scale is advancing, motile engineered microstructures are becoming useful in drug delivery, biomedicine, and lab-on-a-chip devices. However, traditional engineering methods and materials can be inefficient or functionally inadequate for small-scale applications. Increasingly, researchers are turning to the biology of the cytoskeleton, including microtubules, actin filaments, kinesins, dyneins, myosins, and associated proteins, for both inspiration and solutions. They are engineering structures with components that range from being entirely biological to being entirely synthetic mimics of biology and on scales that range from isotropic continuous networks to single isolated structures...
February 11, 2019: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Hossein Nejadnik, Jessica Tseng, Heike Daldrup-Link
"Off the shelf" allogeneic stem cell transplants and stem cell nano-composites are being used for the treatment of degenerative bone diseases. However, major and minor histocompatibility antigens of therapeutic cell transplants can be recognized as foreign and lead to their rejection by the host immune system. If a host immune response is identified within the first week post-transplant, immune modulating therapies could be applied to prevent graft failure and support engraftment. Ferumoxytol (Feraheme™) is an FDA approved iron oxide nanoparticle preparation for the treatment of anemia in patients...
February 7, 2019: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Zheng Han, Guanshu Liu
Sugar-based biopolymers have been recognized as attractive materials to develop macromolecule- and nanoparticle-based cancer imaging and therapy. However, traditional biopolymer-based imaging approaches rely on the use of synthetic or isotopic labeling, and because of it, clinical translation often is hindered. Recently, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology, chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST), has emerged, which allows the exploitation of sugar-based biopolymers as MRI agents by their hydroxyl protons-rich nature...
January 22, 2019: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Patricia Urbán, Neill J Liptrott, Susanne Bremer
As nanomedicines have the potential to address many currently unmet medical needs, the early identification of regulatory requirements that could hamper a smooth translation of nanomedicines from the laboratory environment to clinical applications is of utmost importance. The blood system is especially relevant as many nanomedicinal products that are currently under development are designed for intravenous administration and cells of the blood system will be among the first biological systems exposed to the injected nanomedicine...
December 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Dadi A Srinivasarao, Garima Lohiya, Dhirendra S Katti
The eye consists of sensitive, compactly adjoined tissue structures which act as strong physical (static) and physiological (dynamic) barriers that prevent entry of foreign bodies into the eye. Together, these barriers reduce the bioavailability of topically and intraocularly administered medicaments thus demanding frequent drug administration for the treatment of chronic eye diseases. Hence, development of drug delivery systems (DDS) that can be retained in ocular tissues for longer durations can help to reduce the frequency of drug administration, whereas, delivery systems that traverse through ocular barriers may offer higher bioavailability of administered drugs to otherwise inaccessible ocular tissues...
December 3, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Luke F Hartje, Christopher D Snow
The porosity, order, biocompatibility, and chirality of protein crystals has motivated interest from diverse research domains including materials science, biotechnology, and medicine. Porous protein crystals have the unusual potential to organize guest molecules within highly ordered scaffolds, enabling applications ranging from biotemplating and catalysis to biosensing and drug delivery. Significant research has therefore been directed toward characterizing protein crystal materials in hopes of optimizing crystallization, scaffold stability, and application efficacy...
November 28, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Maria Yanqing Chen, Susan S Butler, Weitong Chen, Junghae Suh
The fields of physical, chemical, and synthetic virology work in partnership to reprogram viruses as controllable nanodevices. Physical virology provides the fundamental biophysical understanding of how virus capsids assemble, disassemble, display metastability, and assume various configurations. Chemical virology considers the virus capsid as a chemically addressable structure, providing chemical pathways to modify the capsid exterior, interior, and subunit interfaces. Synthetic virology takes an engineering approach, modifying the virus capsid through rational, combinatorial, and bioinformatics-driven design strategies...
November 8, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Aniruddha M Kaushik, Kuangwen Hsieh, Tza-Huei Wang
Biomarkers are nucleic acids, proteins, single cells, or small molecules in human tissues or biological fluids whose reliable detection can be used to confirm or predict disease and disease states. Sensitive detection of biomarkers is therefore critical in a variety of applications including disease diagnostics, therapeutics, and drug screening. Unfortunately for many diseases, low abundance of biomarkers in human samples and low sample volumes render standard benchtop platforms like 96-well plates ineffective for reliable detection and screening...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Alexander Zheleznyak, Monica Shokeen, Samuel Achilefu
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an age-related hematological malignancy with an estimated 30,000 new cases and 13,000 deaths per year. A disease of antibody-secreting malignant plasma B-cells that grow primarily in the bone marrow (BM), MM causes debilitating fractures, anemia, renal failure, and hypercalcemia. In addition to the abnormal genetic profile of MM cells, the permissive BM microenvironment (BMM) supports MM pathogenesis. Although advances in treatment options have significantly enhanced survival in MM patients, transient perfusion of small-molecule drugs in the BM does not provide sufficient residence to enhance MM cell-drug interaction, thus allowing some myeloma cells to escape the first line of treatment...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Livia Angeloni, Melania Reggente, Daniele Passeri, Marco Natali, Marco Rossi
Identification of nanoparticles and nanosystems into cells and biological matrices is a hot research topic in nanobiotechnologies. Because of their capability to map physical properties (mechanical, electric, magnetic, chemical, or optical), several scanning probe microscopy based techniques have been proposed for the subsurface detection of nanomaterials in biological systems. In particular, atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to reveal stiff nanoparticles in cells and other soft biomaterials by probing the sample mechanical properties through the acquisition of local indentation curves or through the combination of ultrasound-based methods, like contact resonance AFM (CR-AFM) or scanning near field ultrasound holography...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Zhipeng Gu, Keqing Huang, Yan Luo, Laibao Zhang, Tairong Kuang, Zhou Chen, Guochao Liao
Double network (DN) hydrogels, a kind of promising soft and tough hydrogels, are produced by two unique contrasting networks with designed network entanglement burst into the field of materials science as versatile functional systems for a very broad range of applications. A part of the DN hydrogels is characterized by extraordinary mechanical properties providing efficient biocompatible and high strength for holding considerable promise in tissue engineering. Following DN hydrogels principles and consideration of biomedical applications, we provide an overall view of the present various DN hydrogels and look forward to the future of DN hydrogels for tissue engineering...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Ying Liu, Sriram Kumar, Rebecca E Taylor
The evergrowing need to understand and engineer biological and biochemical mechanisms has led to the emergence of the field of nanobiosensing. Structural DNA nanotechnology, encompassing methods such as DNA origami and single-stranded tiles, involves the base pairing-driven knitting of DNA into discrete one-, two-, and three-dimensional shapes at nanoscale. Such nanostructures enable a versatile design and fabrication of nanobiosensors. These systems benefit from DNA's programmability, inherent biocompatibility, and the ability to incorporate and organize functional materials such as proteins and metallic nanoparticles...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Bin Li, Lucas A Lane
Despite massive growth in nanomedicine research to date, the field still lacks fundamental understanding of how certain physical and chemical features of a nanoparticle affect its ability to overcome biological obstacles in vivo and reach its intended target. To gain fundamental understanding of how physical and chemical parameters affect the biological outcomes of administered nanoparticles, model systems that can systematically manipulate a single parameter with minimal influence on others are needed. Gold nanoparticles are particularly good model systems in this case as one can synthetically control the physical dimensions and surface chemistry of the particles independently and with great precision...
August 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Padmanaban Sivakumar, Sumin Kim, Han Chang Kang, Min Suk Shim
The sequence-specific gene-silencing ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been exploited as a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, efficient and safe delivery of siRNA into target cells is still a challenge in the clinical development of siRNA-based therapeutics. Recently, nucleic acid-based aptamers that target cell surface proteins have emerged as a new class of targeting moieties due to their high specificity and avidity. To date, various aptamer-mediated siRNA delivery systems have been developed to enhance the RNA interference (RNAi) efficacy of siRNA via targeted delivery...
August 2, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Benjamin Cline, Ian Delahunty, Jin Xie
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an attractive option for cancer treatment. However, conventional PDT is activated by light that has poor tissue penetration depths, limiting its applicability in the clinic. Recently the idea of using X-ray sources to activate PDT and overcome the shallow penetration issue has garnered significant interest. This can be achieved by external beam irradiation and using a nanoparticle scintillator as transducer. Alternatively, research on exploiting Cherenkov radiation from radioisotopes to activate PDT has also begun to flourish...
July 31, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Dan Stefan Petrescu, Amy Szuchmacher Blum
Over the last decade, viruses have established themselves as a powerful tool in nanotechnology. Their proteinaceous capsids benefit from biocompatibility, chemical addressability, and a variety of sizes and geometries, while their ability to encapsulate, scaffold, and self-assemble enables their use for a wide array of purposes. Moreover, the scaling up of viral-based nanotechnologies is facilitated by high capsid production yield and speed, which is particularly advantageous when compared with slower and costlier lithographic techniques...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Martin Humenik, Gregor Lang, Thomas Scheibel
Natural silk fibers represent one of the most advanced blueprints for (bio)polymer scientists, displaying highly optimized mechanical properties due to their hierarchical structures. Biotechnological production of silk proteins and implementation of advanced processing methods enabled harnessing the potential of these biopolymer not just based on the mechanical properties. In addition to fibers, diverse morphologies can be produced, such as nonwoven meshes, films, hydrogels, foams, capsules and particles. Among them, nanoscale fibrils and fibers are particularly interesting concerning medical and technical applications due to their biocompatibility, environmental and mechanical robustness as well as high surface-to-volume ratio...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Brittany A Weldon, William C Griffith, Tomomi Workman, David K Scoville, Terrance J Kavanagh, Elaine M Faustman
Engineered nanomaterials are currently under review for their potential toxicity; however, their use in consumer/commercial products has continued to outpace risk assessments. In vitro methods may be utilized as tools to improve the efficiency of risk assessment approaches. We propose a framework to compare relationships between previously published in vitro and in vivo toxicity assessments of cadmium-selenium containing quantum dots (QDs) using benchmark dose (BMD) and dosimetric assessment methods. Although data were limited this approach was useful for identifying sensitive assays and strains...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Yu-Qing Xie, Lixia Wei, Li Tang
Cancer immunotherapy has recently shown dramatic clinical success inducing durable response in patients of a wide variety of malignancies. Further improvement of the clinical outcome with immune related cancer treatment requests more exquisite manipulation of a patient's immune system with increased immunity against diseases while mitigating the toxicities. To meet this challenge, biomaterials applied to immunoengineering are being developed to achieve tissue- and/or cell-specific immunomodulation and thus could potentially enhance both the efficacy and safety of current cancer immunotherapies...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Andrew J Ford, Padmavathy Rajagopalan
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role in regulating cell behavior during tissue homeostasis and in disease progression. Through a combination of adhesion, contraction, alignment of ECM proteins and subsequent degradation, cells change the chemical, mechanical, and physical properties of their surrounding matrix. Other contributing factors to matrix remodeling are the de novo synthesis of ECM proteins, post-translational modifications and receptor-mediated internalization. In this review, we highlight how each of these processes contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis and in disease conditions such as cancer and liver fibrosis...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
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