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Ecancermedicalscience

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915165/implementation-of-diagnostic-resources-for-cancer-in-developing-countries-a-focus-on-pet-ct
#1
EDITORIAL
Haydeé C Verduzco-Aguirre, Gilberto Lopes, Enrique Soto-Perez-De-Celis
Positron emission tomography in conjunction with computed tomography (PET/CT) is a relatively novel diagnostic tool which has been proven to be clinically useful in various neoplasms. Currently, only a handful of developing countries have PET/CT capabilities, and in those that do units are mostly located in large urban areas, which limits their availability. The implementation of PET/CT units in low-and-middle income countries is hampered by their high cost, the difficulties associated with their operation, and the limited availability of trained personnel...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915164/younger-age-and-previous-exposure-to-radiation-therapy-are-correlated-with-the-severity-of-chemotherapy-induced-thrombocytopenia
#2
Sergo Mkhitaryan, Samvel Danielyan, Lilit Sargsyan, Lusine Hakobyan, Samvel Iskanyan, Samvel Bardakchyan, Ruzanna Papyan, Jemma Arakelyan, Karmen Sahakyan, Tatevik Avagyan, Armen Tananyan, Armen Muradyan, Gevorg Tamamyan
Background: Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is a significant complication of cancer therapy. Data on the optimal management approaches of this morbidity in children and young adults are still limited. Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate the frequency and severity of CIT and associated clinically significant bleeding in children and young adults with solid tumours and haematologic malignancies. Methods: For this retrospective, hospital-based study, children (0-18 y) and young adults (19-40 y) with different types of solid tumours and haematologic malignancies who received chemotherapy at the Muratsan Hospital Complex of Yerevan State Medical University were identified from the patients' database and included in the study (overall 122 patients)...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915163/the-use-of-intravesical-bcg-in-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-bladder
#3
REVIEW
Omar Alhunaidi, Alexandre R Zlotta
The high recurrence and progression rates of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) have led investigators to study the use of intravesical therapy in order to prevent them. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been successfully used for this indication to treat NMIBC for more than four decades. BCG is the only intravesical agent shown to reduce the risk of progression of NMIBC to muscle-invasive disease. Despite over 40 years of clinical use, the precise mechanism of action for what has often been considered the most successful cancer immunotherapy in humans remains largely unknown...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915162/women-s-cancers-how-the-discovery-of-brca-genes-is-driving-current-concepts-of-cancer-biology-and-therapeutics
#4
REVIEW
Pooja Murthy, Franco Muggia
Over the last two decades, discoveries related to the breast cancer susceptibility genes 1 and 2 ( BRCA1 and BRCA2 ) have profoundly changed our understanding and management of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. The concept of synthetic lethality, which arises when cells become vulnerable to a combination of deficiencies in DNA repair, has driven the expanding roles of poly (adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in breast and ovarian cancers, and prevention strategies are taking into account the tissue specificity, natural history (fallopian tube origin of some high-grade serous ovarian cancers) and hormone sensitivity of BRCA-associated cancers...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915161/plasma-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-and-factors-related-to-acute-kidney-injury-and-mortality-in-critically-ill-cancer-patients
#5
Bertha M Córdova-Sánchez, Erika B Ruiz-García, Alicia López-Yañez, Mireya Barragan-Dessavre, Andoreni R Bautista-Ocampo, Abelardo Meneses-García, Angel Herrera-Gómez, Silvio A Ñamendys-Silva
Rationale: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in critically ill cancer patients. Objectives: To assess plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels and risks factors associated with AKI and mortality. Methods: We recruited 96 critically ill cancer patients and followed them prospectively. Plasma NGAL levels were determined at intensive care unit (ICU) admission and at 48 hours. We generated receiver operating characteristic curves to assess the ability of NGAL to predict AKI...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915160/papillary-breast-lesions-diagnosed-by-percutaneous-needle-biopsy-management-approach
#6
Jorge Andrés Pérez Fuentes, Carmen Elena Marín Martínez, Ana Karina Ramírez Casadiego, Víctor Francisco Acosta Freites, Víctor Arturo Acosta Marín, Ariana Cecilia Ruiz Castellano
Papillary breast lesions are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms of diverse imagenological, clinical and morphological presentation that display different behaviour, prognosis and, therefore, controversial diagnosis and management. The aim of this study is to propose an algorithm for the management of mammary lesions. Materials and methods: We show a retrospective review of breast imaging reporting, percutaneous needle biopsy information, histological-pathological reports and subsequent management...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915159/barriers-to-the-non-acceptance-of-cervical-cancer-screenings-pap-smear-test-in-women-of-childbearing-age-in-a-rural-area-of-peru
#7
Augusto Felix Olaza-Maguiña, Yuliana Mercedes De la Cruz-Ramirez
Introduction: According to recent statistics, there is a high percentage of refusal of cervical cancer screening using the Pap smear test by women in rural communities in developing countries such as Peru. There are few studies on the reasons to explain said refusal in this country. The objective of this study was to determine the barriers related to the non-acceptance of cervical cancer screening using the Pap smear test in women of childbearing age from a rural Peruvian community. Methods: Cross-sectional study, with a total of 892 women of childbearing age from the rural Peruvian community of Marián, Huaraz province, Ancash region, who did not accept screening for cervical cancer using the Pap smear test during their care at the Marián Health Centre...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915158/ros1-mutation-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-access-to-optimal-treatment-and-outcomes
#8
Amit Joshi, Nikhil Pande, Vanita Noronha, Vijay Patil, Rajiv Kumar, Anuradha Chougule, Vaishakhi Trivedi, Amit Janu, Abhishek Mahajan, Kumar Prabhash
Introduction: ROS1 oncogenic fusion, which was first identified by Rikova et al, is reported to be present in 1%-2% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and is defined as a distinct molecular sub-group. Crizotinib is very effective in ROS1-positive patients and is now Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of patients with advanced ROS1-positive NSCLC. We report our experience in a tertiary cancer care hospital in India in ROS-1 positive patients. Materials and method: The present series is a retrospective analysis of 22 patients from the prospectively maintained lung cancer audit...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915157/the-first-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-centre-in-iraqi-kurdistan-nursing-perspectives-and-education
#9
Marta Canesi, Chiara Broggi, Kizhan Fazil, Mardin Jafr, Laura Russo, Valentina Panzetti, Gloria Ciabatti, Giulia De Riso, Andrea Mastria, Hiwa Sadiq Sidiq
Aim: To describe the nursing capacity-building process within the foundation of a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) centre at the Hiwa Cancer Hospital (HCH), Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan, referring to nursing education, empowerment and leadership. Methods: 1) Capacity building, the process by which individuals, organisations, institutions and societies develop abilities to perform functions, solve problems and set and achieve objectives, was implemented; 2) Nurse intervention was based exclusively on training and coaching on site, which is an innovative approach, since more often experts are brought to the centre to train people on site; 3) Nurses' personal skills, knowledge and training needs in the field at the HSCT centre were preliminarily explored through an online survey, and intervention was also addressed considering personal preferences and challenges; 4) Clinical documentation implementation and nursing professional organisation improvements were developed...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792815/access-to-high-cost-drugs-for-advanced-breast-cancer-in-latin-america-particularly-trastuzumab
#10
REVIEW
Carlos Henrique Barrios, Tomás Reinert, Gustavo Werutsky
Provision of high-level healthcare is a challenge for all low- to middle-income countries (LMICs) since healthcare systems are heterogeneous, face many challenges such as inadequate funding, inequitable distribution of resources and services and usually are not adequately equipped to deal with a huge problem such as breast cancer. The development of anti-HER2 therapies can be considered one of the most important examples of the translation of molecular biology knowledge into clinical benefits for cancer patients...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792814/barriers-in-latin-america-for-the-management-of-locally-advanced-breast-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Joseph A Pinto, Luis Pinillos, Cynthia Villarreal-Garza, Zaida Morante, Manuel V Villarán, Gerson Mejía, Christian Caglevic, Alfredo Aguilar, Williams Fajardo, Franz Usuga, Marcia Carrasco, Pamela Rebaza, Ana M Posada, Indira Tirado-Hurtado, Claudio Flores, Carlos S Vallejos
Breast cancer (BC) is a highly prevalent malignancy in Latin American women, most cases being diagnosed at locally advanced or metastatic stages when options for cancer care are limited. Despite its label as a public health problem in the region, Latin American BC patients face several barriers in accessing standard of care treatment when compared with patients from developed countries. In this review, we analyse the landscape of the four main identified barriers in the region: i) high burden of locally advanced/advanced BC; ii) inadequate access to medical resources; iii) deficient access to specialised cancer care and iv) insufficient BC research in Latin America...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792813/precision-medicine-for-locally-advanced-breast-cancer-frontiers-and-challenges-in-latin-america
#12
REVIEW
Joseph A Pinto, César H Saravia, Claudio Flores, Jhajaira M Araujo, David Martínez, Luis J Schwarz, Alberto Casas, Leny Bravo, Jenny Zavaleta, Brigitte Chuima, Hober Alvarado, Ricardo Fujita, Henry L Gómez
Advances in high-throughput technologies and their involvement in the 'omics' of cancer have made possible the identification of hundreds of biomarkers and the development of predictive and prognostic platforms that model the management of cancer from evidence-based medicine to precision medicine. Latin America (LATAM) is a region characterised by fragmented healthcare, high rates of poverty and disparities to access to a basic standard of care not only for cancer but also for other complex diseases. Patients from the public setting cannot afford targeted therapy, the facilities offering genomic platforms are scarce and the use of high-precision radiotherapy is limited to few facilities...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792812/locally-advanced-breast-cancer-in-brazil-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Gustavo Werutsky, Paulo Nunes, Carlos Barrios
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer and the main cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide and in Brazil. A high proportion of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) in Brazil, mainly due to limited coverage of screening programmes. A disparity in the access to optimal treatment is evident between the public and private health systems which impact patient outcomes. Clinical research is an opportunity for patients, institutions and investigators and therefore should be facilitated through a better regulatory environment...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792811/locally-advanced-breast-cancer-in-young-women-in-latin-america
#14
REVIEW
Cynthia Villarreal-Garza, Edna A Lopez-Martinez, Jose Felipe Muñoz-Lozano, Karla Unger-Saldaña
The purpose of this review is to organise, summarise and critically assess existing knowledge on locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) among young women in Latin America. We discuss the most relevant findings in six sections: 1) epidemiology of breast cancer in young women in Latin America; 2) being young as a factor for worse prognosis; 3) LABC in young women in the region; 4) aggressive tumour behaviour among young women; 5) delays in diagnosis and treatment and 6) burden of advanced disease. We point out the need to dedicate resources to enhance earlier diagnosis and prompt referrals of young women with breast cancer; promote research regarding prevalence, biologic characteristics, outcomes and reasons for diagnosis and treatment delays for this age group; and finally, implement supportive care programmes as a means of improving patients and their families' well-being...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792810/triple-negative-breast-cancer-the-reality-in-chile-and-in-latin-america
#15
REVIEW
Christian Caglevic, Jaime Anabalón, Cristian Soza, Elizabeth Milla, Fancy Gaete, Ana María Carrasco, Sergio Panay, Carlos Gallardo, Mauricio Mahave
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. While triple-negative breast cancer is less common among various sub-types of breast cancer, it tends to affect younger women and is more aggressive, having a higher rate of early recurrence and mortality compared to other sub-types. We know about the association between triple-negative breast cancer and BRCA mutations, which are highly prevalent in founding populations of European origin, but the true prevalence of these mutations in Latin American populations is unknown...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792809/conservative-treatment-for-well-differentiated-endometrial-cancer-when-and-why-it-should-be-considered-in-young-women
#16
REVIEW
Michele Peiretti, Francesca Congiu, Enzo Ricciardi, Paolo Maniglio, Valerio Mais, Stefano Angioni
The aim of this review was to update current knowledge on the conservative treatment of endometrial cancer (EC) based on a literature review. A web-based search in the MEDLINE database was carried out on EC management and treatment. All relevant information has been collected and analysed. Case series were mainly found in the literature search. Conservative treatments were offered to young patients with stage I low-grade endometrioid carcinomas of the endometrium. Different options included high/low dose progestin treatments, hysteroscopic resection of the disease, a levonorgestrel intrauterine device or a combination of various strategies...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792808/proteomics-characterisation-of-central-nervous-system-metastasis-biomarkers-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#17
Katerin Rojas L, Lucía Trilla-Fuertes, Angelo Gámez-Pozo, Cristina Chiva, Juan Sepúlveda, Luis Manso, Guillermo Prado-Vázquez, Andrea Zapater-Moros, Rocío López-Vacas, María Ferrer-Gómez, César Mendiola, Enrique Espinosa, Eduard Sabidó, Eva Ciruelos, Juan Ángel Fresno Vara
Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent tumour in women. Triple negative tumours (TNBC)-which are associated with minor survival rates-lack markers predictive of response to anticancer drugs. Triple negative tumours frequently metastasise to the central nervous system (CNS). Objective: The main objective of this study was to study differences in tumour protein expression between patients with CNS metastases and those without this kind of spread, and propose new biomarkers...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792807/anticancer-response-to-disulfiram-may-be-enhanced-by-co-treatment-with-mek-inhibitor-or-oxaliplatin-modulation-by-tetrathiomolybdate-kras-braf-mutations-and-c-myc-p53-status
#18
Ali Calderon-Aparicio, Alejandro Cornejo, Andrea Orue, Manuel Rieber
Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and disulfiram (DSF) are copper (Cu) chelators in cancer clinical trials partly because Cu chelation: a) restricts the activity of Cu-binding MEK1/2 enzymes which drive tumourigenesis by KRAS or BRAF oncogenic mutations and b) enhances uptake of oxaliplatin (OxPt), clinically used in advanced KRAS-mutant colorectal carcinomas (CRC). Whereas TTM decreases intracellular Cu trafficking, DSF can reach other Cu-dependent intracellular proteins. Since the use of individual or combined Cu chelation may help or interfere with anti-cancer therapy, this study investigated whether TTM modifies the response to DSF supplemented with: 1) UO126, a known MEK1/2 inhibitor; 2) other Cu chelators like neocuproine (NC) or 1, 10-o-phenanthroline (OPT) in wt p53 melanoma cells differing in BRAF or KRAS mutations; 3) OxPt in mutant p53 CRC cells devoid of KRAS and BRAF mutations or harbouring either KRAS or BRAF mutations...
2019: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792806/the-cardioprotective-effect-of-dexrazoxane-cardioxane-is-consistent-with-sequestration-of-poly-adp-ribose-by-self-assembly-and-not-depletion-of-topoisomerase-2b
#19
Keith McCormack
Following systematic scrutiny of the evidence in support of the hypothesis that the cardioprotective mechanism of action of dexrazoxane is mediated by a 'depletion' or 'downregulation' of Top2β protein levels in heart tissue, the author concludes that this hypothesis is untenable. In seeking to understand how dexrazoxane protects the heart, the outcomes of a customised association rule learning algorithm incorporating the use of antecedent surrogate variables (CEME, 2017 McCormack Pharma) reveal a previously unknown relationship between dexrazoxane and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792805/spontaneous-testicular-tumor-regression-case-report-and-historical-review
#20
REVIEW
Juan C Astigueta, Milagros A Abad-Licham, Folker M Agreda, Benjamin A Leiva, Jorge L De la Cruz
Spontaneous regression of a primary testicular germ-cell tumour (GCT), over time known as 'Burned out', 'Shrinking Seminoma', 'pT0', 'Burnout' or 'Spontaneous Regression', is an uncommon, generally metastatic phenomenon, which may present elevated tumour markers and a suspicious testicular ultrasound image. The histological study of the testicle demonstrated morphological changes of complete or partial tumour regression and found fibrous scarring and other characteristic changes of this phenomenon, which in some cases include vestiges of GCT...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
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