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Journal of Biological Engineering

Alex Eli Pottash, Christopher Kuffner, Madeleine Noonan-Shueh, Steven M Jay
Broad translational success of RNA interference (RNAi) technology depends on the development of effective delivery approaches. To that end, researchers have developed a variety of strategies, including chemical modification of RNA, viral and non-viral transfection approaches, and incorporation with delivery vehicles such as polymer- and lipid-based nanoparticles, engineered and native proteins, extracellular vesicles (EVs), and others. Among these, EVs and protein-based vehicles stand out as biomimetically-inspired approaches, as both proteins (e...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Jaehwan Ahn, Jun-Ho Ahn, Seokjoo Yoon, Yoon Sung Nam, Mi-Young Son, Jung-Hwa Oh
Background: Various hepatic models mimicking liver lobules have been investigated to evaluate the potential hepatotoxic effects of chemicals and drugs, but in vitro hepatic models of zonal hepatotoxicity have not yet been established. Herein, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) hepatic zonal channel to evaluate zone-specific hepatotoxicity. Based on the perivenous zone-3-like cytochrome P450 (CYP) expression patterns in metabolically active HepaRG cells treated with CHIR99021 (CHIR), which is an inducer of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, this culture model represents a novel tool for exploring hepatic zonation...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Fei Liu, Tao Li, Liqun Zhang, Guiming Xiang, Dongneng Jiang, Dianji Tu, Linlin Liu, Yi Li, Chang Liu, Xiaoyun Pu
Abstract: Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long non coding RNA (lncRNA) present in serum, is an important biomarker for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there are some shortcomings in current detection methods. So developing other novel MALAT1 detection methods is necessary. Electrochemical biosensors using different types of nanomaterials with various advantages may provide a suitable method for detection. Here, a new strategy for MALAT1 detection was proposed based on polyhedral nanogold-polyamide-amine dendrimers (PNG-PAMAMs)...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Kathakali Sarkar, Sayak Mukhopadhyay, Deepro Bonnerjee, Rajkamal Srivastava, Sangram Bagh
Background: Frame-shifted genes results in non-functional peptides. Because of this complete loss of function, frame-shifted genes have never been used in constructing synthetic gene circuits. Results: Here we report that the function of gene circuits is rescued by a frame-shifted gene, which functions by translating from a non-natural start codon. We report a single nucleotide deletion mutation that developed in the λ-repressor cI within a synthetic genetic NOT gate in Escherichia coli during growth and through this mutation, a non-functional synthetic gene circuit became functional...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
T Keil, B Dittrich, C Lattermann, T Habicher, J Büchs
Background: Fed-batch conditions are advantageous for industrial cultivations as they avoid unfavorable phenomena appearing in batch cultivations. Those are for example the formation of overflow metabolites, catabolite repression, oxygen limitation or inhibition due to elevated osmotic concentrations. For both, the early bioprocess development and the optimization of existing bioprocesses, small-scale reaction vessels are applied to ensure high throughput, low costs and prompt results...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Raj R Rao
Over the past two decades, the biological engineering research community has increased its efforts to promote 'Convergence'. Many research endeavors have thus involved the synergy of multiple perspectives and approaches from originally distinct fields towards driving creative innovative solutions to address many grand challenges that face our society. Here, we introduce the JBE thematic series on emerging leaders in biological engineering. The aim of the series is to disseminate the latest developments in research that integrate the principles of biology and engineering methodologies to address grand challenges in human health and the health of the planet...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Briana I Martinez, Sarah E Stabenfeldt
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 1.7 million people in the United States each year, causing lifelong functional deficits in cognition and behavior. The complex pathophysiology of neural injury is a primary barrier to developing sensitive and specific diagnostic tools, which consequentially has a detrimental effect on treatment regimens. Biomarkers of other diseases (e.g. cancer) have provided critical insight into disease emergence and progression that lend to developing powerful clinical tools for intervention...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Eric Krueger, Angela C Brown
Over recent years, the development of new antibiotics has not kept pace with the rate at which bacteria develop resistance to these drugs. For this reason, many research groups have begun to design and study alternative therapeutics, including molecules to specifically inhibit the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Because many of these pathogenic bacteria release protein toxins, which cause or exacerbate disease, inhibition of the activity of bacterial toxins is a promising anti-virulence strategy. In this review, we describe several approaches to inhibit the initial interactions of bacterial toxins with host cell membrane components...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Mi-Ok Lee, Kwang Bo Jung, Seong-Jae Jo, Sung-Ae Hyun, Kyoung-Sik Moon, Joung-Wook Seo, Sang-Heon Kim, Mi-Young Son
Background: Cardiac fibrosis is the most common pathway of many cardiac diseases. To date, there has been no suitable in vitro cardiac fibrosis model that could sufficiently mimic the complex environment of the human heart. Here, a three-dimensional (3D) cardiac sphere platform of contractile cardiac microtissue, composed of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), is presented to better recapitulate the human heart. Results: We hypothesized that MSCs would develop an in vitro fibrotic reaction in response to treatment with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a primary inducer of cardiac fibrosis...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Alexander Grath, Guohao Dai
Direct cell reprogramming, also called transdifferentiation, allows for the reprogramming of one somatic cell type directly into another, without the need to transition through an induced pluripotent state. Thus, it is an attractive approach to develop novel tissue engineering applications to treat diseases and injuries where there is a shortage of proliferating cells for tissue repair. In certain tissue damage, terminally differentiated somatic cells lose their ability to proliferate, as a result, damaged tissues cannot heal by themselves...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Sarah E Barlow, Mark A O'Neill, Bruce M Pavlik
Detecting the arbitrary movements of fast-moving insects under field conditions is notoriously difficult because existing technologies are limited by issues of size, weight, range and cost. Here, we establish proof-of-concept for a prototype long-range, passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging system for detecting bumblebees and similar sized insects. The prototype tags, weighing 81 mg (49% of mean bee body weight), were flown by bumblebees in a glasshouse and detected at a distance of 1.5 m from a 2 W UHF reader with two aerials...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Rajat Vashistha, Prasoon Kumar, Arun Kumar Dangi, Naveen Sharma, Deepak Chhabra, Pratyoosh Shukla
Digitalization of health care practices is substantially manifesting itself as an effective tool to diagnose and rectify complex cardiovascular abnormalities. For cardiovascular abnormalities, precise non-invasive imaging interventions are being used to develop patient specific diagnosis and surgical planning. Concurrently, pre surgical 3D simulation and computational modeling are aiding in the effective surgery and understanding of valve biomechanics, respectively. Consequently, 3D printing of patient specific valves that can mimic the original one will become an effective outbreak for valvular problems...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Hang Wu, Zuling Chu, Wanxiang Zhang, Chi Zhang, Jingshu Ni, Heshi Fang, Yuhong Chen, Yansheng Wang, Lixin Zhang, Buchang Zhang
Background: Erythromycin A (Er-A) produced by the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea is an important antibiotic extensively used in human medicine. Dissecting of transcriptional regulators and their target genes associated with erythromycin biosynthesis is crucial to obtain erythromycin overproducer strains through engineering of relevant regulatory elements in S. erythraea . Results: Here, we identified a TetR family transcriptional regulator (TFR), SACE_5754, negatively controlling erythromycin production...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Bryan W Berger, Nathanael D Sallada
Hydrophobins are highly surface-active proteins that have versatile potential as agents for interface engineering. Due to the large and growing number of unique hydrophobin sequences identified, there is growing potential to engineer variants for particular applications using protein engineering and other approaches. Recent applications and advancements in hydrophobin technologies and production strategies are reviewed. The application space of hydrophobins is large and growing, including hydrophobic drug solubilization and delivery, protein purification tags, tools for protein and cell immobilization, antimicrobial coatings, biosensors, biomineralization templates and emulsifying agents...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Shanshan Yu, Wang Liu, Jinhua Fang, Xiaozhong Shi, Jianhua Wu, Ying Fang, Jiangguo Lin
Background: ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin type 1 motif 13) cleaves Von Willebrand factor (VWF) to regulate its size, thereby preventing aberrant platelet aggregation and thrombus. Deficiency of ADAMTS13 caused by either genetic mutations or by inhibitory autoantibodies against ADAMTS13 leads to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Recently, ADAMTS13 was reported to adopt a "closed" conformation with lower activity and an "open" one resulting from the engagements of VWF D4-CK domains or antibodies to the distal domains of ADAMTS13, or mutations in its spacer domain...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Kealan Exley, Christopher Robert Reynolds, Lorna Suckling, Soo Mei Chee, Argyro Tsipa, Paul S Freemont, David McClymont, Richard Ian Kitney
Background: The automation of modular cloning methodologies permits the assembly of many genetic designs. Utilising characterised biological parts aids in the design and redesign of genetic pathways. The characterisation information held on datasheets can be used to determine whether a biological part meets the design requirements. To manage the design of genetic pathways, researchers have turned to modelling-based computer aided design software tools. Result: An automated workflow has been developed for the design and build of heterologous metabolic pathways...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Andrew Hamann, Albert Nguyen, Angela K Pannier
Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can be isolated and expanded from many tissues, and are being investigated for use in cell therapies. Though MSC therapies have demonstrated some success, none have been FDA approved for clinical use. MSCs lose stemness ex vivo, decreasing therapeutic potential, and face additional barriers in vivo, decreasing therapeutic efficacy. Culture optimization and genetic modification of MSCs can overcome these barriers...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
David J Lee, Maria A Cavasin, Adam J Rocker, Danielle E Soranno, Xianzhong Meng, Robin Shandas, Daewon Park
Background: Cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction are associated with high mortality and morbidity and a more effective treatment remains a major clinical need. The intramyocardial injection of biomaterials has been investigated as a potential treatment for heart failure by providing mechanical support to the myocardium and reducing stress on cardiomyocytes. Another treatment approach that has been explored is therapeutic angiogenesis that requires careful spatiotemporal control of angiogenic drug delivery...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Kara A Davis, Pei-Jung Wu, Calvin F Cahall, Cong Li, Anuhya Gottipati, Brad J Berron
The research community is intent on harnessing increasingly complex biological building blocks. At present, cells represent a highly functional component for integration into higher order systems. In this review, we discuss the current application space for cellular coating technologies and emphasize the relationship between the target application and coating design. We also discuss how the cell and the coating interact in common analytical techniques, and where caution must be exercised in the interpretation of results...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
Shreyas S Rao, Raghu Vamsi Kondapaneni, Akshay A Narkhede
The onset of cancer metastasis is the defining event in cancer progression when the disease is considered lethal. The ability of metastatic cancer cells to stay dormant for extended time periods and reawaken at later stages leading to disease recurrence makes treatment of metastatic disease extremely challenging. The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in deciding the ultimate fate of tumor cells, yet the mechanisms by which this occurs, including dormancy, is not well understood. This mini-review discusses bioengineered models inspired from tissue engineering strategies that mimic key aspects of the tumor microenvironment to study tumor dormancy...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
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