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Hepatology International

Leon A Adams
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an increasingly common cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related death (LRD). Consequently, there is a critical need for effective drug therapy that improves clinically relevant end-points. Hepatic steatosis assessed by magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction is increasingly used in the early phase trials examining drugs with anti-steatotic effects. However, the prognostic significance of a reduction in steatosis is unknown, and thus, phase 3 trials require a histological end-point of NASH resolution without fibrosis progression...
February 19, 2019: Hepatology International
Amr Shaaban Hanafy, Mohamed A Bassiony, Mohammad Abd Alkhalik Basha
BACKGROUND: Medical treatment of decompensated cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a clinical challenge even in the era of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DAAs in the management of HCV genotype 4-related decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: The study included a treatment group (n = 160) composed of HCV patients with decompensated cirrhosis who received DAAs for 3 months and a matched control group (n = 80) who preferred not to receive DAAs, follow-up was for 24-31 months...
February 13, 2019: Hepatology International
Raj A Shah, Kris V Kowdley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2019: Hepatology International
Kenta Yamamoto, Masatoshi Ishigami, Takashi Honda, Tomoaki Takeyama, Takanori Ito, Yoji Ishizu, Teiji Kuzuya, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Hidemi Goto, Yoshiki Hirooka
BACKGROUND: Current knowledge suggests that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with an increased risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). These conditions and PPI use are related to gut microbiota. The aim of this study is to research the changes in gut microbiota caused by PPI in patients with chronic liver disease. METHODS: From 198 Japanese patients, 31 patients in the PPI and non-PPI groups were matched using propensity score matching (PSM) based on age, sex, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh class...
February 8, 2019: Hepatology International
Shih-Yung Su
BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, the national hepatitis B virus vaccination program and national viral hepatitis therapy program were implemented to control the infections of hepatitis viruses and their progressive illnesses. Studies have evaluated the impacts of two national health programs on many liver-related diseases, but not on acute and chronic viral hepatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact on the mortality of acute and chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: Poisson regression models were used to estimate the adjusted rate ratios of the different period groups and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for childhood, adulthood and elderhood, and to estimate the adjusted rate ratios of vaccinated cohorts and corresponding 95% confidence intervals...
January 31, 2019: Hepatology International
Meena B Bansal, Naichaya Chamroonkul
The original article can be found online.
January 30, 2019: Hepatology International
Donghee Kim, Won Kim, Adeyinka C Adejumo, George Cholankeril, Sean P Tighe, Robert J Wong, Stevan A Gonzalez, Stephen A Harrison, Zobair M Younossi, Aijaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Advanced fibrosis associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported to have a higher risk of hepatic and non-hepatic mortality. We aim to study the recent trends in the prevalence of NAFLD-related advanced fibrosis in a large population sample. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 28,739 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2016 were utilized. NAFLD was defined using the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and the US fatty liver index (USFLI) in the absence of other causes of chronic liver disease...
January 29, 2019: Hepatology International
Ashokkumar Jain, Danielle Miller, Ian Schreibman, Thomas R Riley, Karen L Krok, Takehiko Dohi, Rajeev Sharma, Zakiyah Kadry
BACKGROUND: Recently, a controversy has emerged: is the rate of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) higher following treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy? However, the risk of HCC recurrence has not been studied in liver transplant (LTx) recipients who received DAA therapy. The aim of the present study is to compare the rate of HCC recurrence in LTx recipients who did or did not receive DAA therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-three patients received LTx with HCC...
January 24, 2019: Hepatology International
Shuntaro Obi, Takahisa Sato, Shinpei Sato, Miho Kanda, Yuta Tokudome, Yuichiro Kojima, Yoji Suzuki, Kenji Hosoda, Toshihiro Kawai, Yuji Kondo, Yoshihiro Isomura, Hiroshi Ohyama, Keiko Nakagomi, Hiroshi Ashizawa, Yuko Miura, Hiroyuki Amano, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Masao Omata
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Lenvatinib (an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (GF) receptors 1-3, fibroblast GF receptors 1-4, platelet-derived GF receptor α, rearranged during transfection, and stem cell factor receptor) was non-inferior to sorafenib in a phase 3 (REFLECT) trial of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. This study examined the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in a real-world setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter, observational study...
January 22, 2019: Hepatology International
Lung-Yi Mak, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, Wai-Kay Seto, Qin Ning, Ka-Shing Cheung, James Fung, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mac-2-binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) is a novel serum diagnostic marker for liver fibrosis in various liver diseases. We aimed to evaluate its role in assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) with reference to liver stiffness measurement (LSM). METHODS: CHB patients with LSM by transient elastography technology and retrievable serum samples were recruited. Ten-year re-assessments of LSM and M2BPGi were repeated in a patient subgroup...
January 22, 2019: Hepatology International
Xiaoyuan Xu, Zhongping Duan, Huiguo Ding, Wengang Li, Jidong Jia, Lai Wei, Enqiang Linghu, Hui Zhuang
The Chinese Society of Hepatology developed the current guidelines for the Management of Ascites and Its Related Complications in Cirrhosis based on the published evidences and the panelists' consensus. The guidelines provided recommendations for the diagnosis and management of cirrhotic ascites emphasizing a step-wise approach with the first-, second-, and third-line therapy. For refractory ascites, vasoconstrictors and albumin are recommended for splanchnic vasodilation and selective vasopressin (V2) receptor antagonists for moderate-to-severe hyponatremia...
January 18, 2019: Hepatology International
Akash Shukla, Abhinav Jain, Vinit Kahalekar, Sheetal Bendkhale, Nithya Gogtay, Urmila Thatte, Shobna Bhatia
INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulation is universally recommended in Budd-Chiari syndrome [BCS]. Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) and CYP2C9 are involved in the metabolism of warfarin. The present study was done to assess whether these mutations are associated with the risk of bleeding in patients with BCS receiving warfarin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with BCS underwent genotyping for three single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]-two for the CYP2C9 and one for the VKORC1 haplotype...
January 8, 2019: Hepatology International
Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming one of the key agents of systemic treatment of cancer. The anti-cancer mechanism of this type of agent is totally different from that of conventional therapies; blockade of regulatory receptors and ligand of immune checkpoint molecules arose anti-tumor immunity with durable response. However, owing to its unique action to host immune system, immune checkpoint inhibitors sometimes induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs) which has not been observed for conventional chemotherapies...
January 3, 2019: Hepatology International
Julia Lang, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Robert Thimme
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health burden and cure is rarely achieved by current antiviral therapies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic options. Immune modulation with the goal to restore dysfunctional HBV-specific immunity is an interesting target for new therapeutic strategies. Based on the current evidence on immunology in resolving and persistent HBV infection, we will review the growing field of immunotherapeutic approaches for treatment of chronic HBV infection...
January 2, 2019: Hepatology International
Beatriz Aguilar-Bravo, Pau Sancho-Bru
Routine transcriptomic and proteomic analysis are usually performed at a whole organ or tissue level. These approaches provide an average readout of all cell types present within the tissue but do not allow differentiating the profile of specific cell populations. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) constitutes an excellent tool to isolate cell populations or areas of interest within a tissue. By direct visualization, the selected area is excised by a laser and can be further processed for a variety of downstream analyses...
January 1, 2019: Hepatology International
Thomas Couri, Anjana Pillai
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and its incidence continues to rise. While cirrhosis underlies most cases of HCC, many molecular pathways are implicated in HCC carcinogenesis, including the TERT promoter mutation, Wnt/β-catenin, P53, Akt/mTOR, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), and endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR)/RAS/MAPK pathways. While the most widely used staging and treatment algorithm for HCC-the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) system-does not recommend systemic molecular therapy for early HCC, a variety of treatment options are available depending upon the stage of HCC at diagnosis...
January 1, 2019: Hepatology International
Ye Jin, Zhi-Yong Liang, Wei-Xun Zhou, Li Zhou
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI2) has been shown to be associated with invasive phenotypes and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its biological roles and underlying mechanisms in invasion of HCC have not been explored. The present study aimed to address the issues. METHODS: First, sub-lines in that PAI2 was stably overexpressed and silenced were established based on MHCC97H and BEL7402 cell lines, respectively. Wound-healing and transwell assays were applied to evaluate cell migration and invasion...
January 1, 2019: Hepatology International
Umair Iqbal, Brittany B Dennis, Andrew A Li, George Cholankeril, Donghee Kim, Muhammad Ali Khan, Aijaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While the association between platelet activation and hepatic fibrosis has been previously demonstrated in animal studies; the utility of anti-platelet agents in reversing the progression of hepatic fibrosis requires further review. Utilizing systematic review methods, we provide to our knowledge the first meta-analysis combining evidence from all studies aimed to establish the effect of anti-platelet agents in the prevention of hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE and PubMed databases from inception to October 2018 to identify all studies aimed at evaluating the role of anti-platelet agents in the prevention of hepatic fibrosis...
December 12, 2018: Hepatology International
Tatsuo Kanda, George K K Lau, Lai Wei, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Ming-Lung Yu, Wang-Long Chuang, Alaaeldin Ibrahim, Cosmas Rinaldi Adithya Lesmana, Jose Sollano, Manoj Kumar, Ankur Jindal, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Saeed S Hamid, A Kadir Dokmeci, Mamun-Al-Mahtab, Geofferey W McCaughan, Jafri Wasim, Darrell H G Crawford, Jia-Horng Kao, Osamu Yokosuka, Shiv Kumar Sarin, Masao Omata
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and those on hemodialysis due to nosocomial infections and past blood transfusions. While a majority of HCV-infected patients with end-stage renal disease are asymptomatic, some may ultimately experience decompensated liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Administration of a combination of elbasvir/grazoprevir for 12 weeks leads to high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients with HCV genotypes (GTs) 1a, 1b or 4 and stage 4 or 5 CKD...
December 11, 2018: Hepatology International
Madunil Anuk Niriella, A Kasturiratne, A Pathmeswaran, S T De Silva, K R Perera, S K C E Subasinghe, S K Kodisinghe, T A C L Piyaratna, K Vithiya, A S Dassanayaka, A P De Silva, A R Wickramasinghe, F Takeuchi, N Kato, H J de Silva
INTRODUCTION: While patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are mostly overweight or obese, some are lean. METHODS: In a community-based follow-up study (baseline and follow-up surveys performed in 2007 and 2014), we investigated and compared the clinical characteristics, body composition, metabolic associations and outcomes, and other risk factors among individuals with lean (BMI < 23 kg/m2 ) NAFLD, non-lean (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 ) NAFLD and those without NAFLD...
December 11, 2018: Hepatology International
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