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Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF

C Schiappa, S Scarpelli, A D'Atri, M Gorgoni, Luigi De Gennaro
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. This disease affects significantly the overall patient functioning, interfering with social, work, and affective life. Some symptoms of narcolepsy depend on emotional stimuli; for instance, cataplectic attacks can be triggered by emotional inputs such as laughing, joking, a pleasant surprise, and also anger. Neurophysiological and neurochemical findings suggest the involvement of emotional brain circuits in the physiopathology of cataplexy, which seems to depending on the dysfunctional interplay between the hypothalamus and the amygdala associated with an alteration of hypocretin levels...
December 26, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Aquiles Luna-Rodriguez, Mike Wendt, Julia Kerner Auch Koerner, Caterina Gawrilow, Thomas Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: Task switch protocols are frequently used in the assessment of cognitive control, both in clinical and non-clinical populations. These protocols frequently confound task switch and attentional set shift. The current study investigated the ability of adult ADHD patients to shift attentional set in the context of switching tasks. METHOD: We tested 38 adults with ADHD and 39 control adults with an extensive diagnostic battery and a task switch protocol without proactive interference...
November 10, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Morteza Zangeneh Soroush, Keivan Maghooli, Seyed Kamaledin Setarehdan, Ali Motie Nasrabadi
BACKGROUND: Emotion recognition is an increasingly important field of research in brain computer interactions. INTRODUCTION: With the advance of technology, automatic emotion recognition systems no longer seem far-fetched. Be that as it may, detecting neural correlates of emotion has remained a substantial bottleneck. Settling this issue will be a breakthrough of significance in the literature. METHODS: The current study aims to identify the correlations between different emotions and brain regions with the help of suitable electrodes...
October 31, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Vishwanath Vasudev Prabhu, Thong Ba Nguyen, Yin Cui, Young-Eun Oh, Keon-Hak Lee, Tarique R Bagalkot, Young-Chul Chung
BACKGROUND: Chronic social defeat stress induces depression and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents and also responsible for differentiating defeated animals into stress susceptible and resilient groups. The present study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on a variety of behavioral parameters like social behavior, spatial learning and memory and anxiety like behaviors. Additionally, the levels of various dopaminergic markers, including the long and short form of the D2 receptor, and total and phosphorylated dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate regulated phosphoprotein-32, and proteins involved in intracellular trafficking were assessed in several key brain regions in young adult mice...
October 8, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Chang-Hong Wang, Qiu-Fen Ning, Cong Liu, Ting-Ting Lv, En-Zhao Cong, Jing-Yang Gu, Ying-Li Zhang, Hui-Yao Nie, Xiao-Li Zhang, Yan Li, Xiang-Yang Zhang, Lin-Yan Su
BACKGROUND: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioral disorder that mainly refers to a recurrent pattern of disobedient, defiant, negativistic and hostile behaviors toward authority figures. Previous studies have showed associations of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with behavioral and psychiatric disorders. The purposes of this study were to investigate the potential association of 5-HTT gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and MAOA gene polymorphism with susceptibility to ODD in a Han Chinese school population...
August 20, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Sefirin Djiogue, Armando Blondel Djiyou Djeuda, Paul Faustin Seke Etet, Germain Jean Magloire Ketcha Wanda, Rudig Nikanor Djikem Tadah, Dieudonne Njamen
BACKGROUND: Estrogen deficiency is linked to changes in several physiological processes, but the extent to which it associates with cognitive changes in menopause context is controversial. RATIONALE: We evaluated the impact of ovariectomy on memory processes and normal exploratory behavior in Wistar rats. METHODS: Young adult rats (4-6 months) were either ovariectomized (OVX group) (N = 10), sham operated (N = 10), or untouched (naïve controls) (N = 8)...
July 16, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Shuhui Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Mingzhu Sun, Qiuping Zhang, Teng Li, Xiang Li, Jia Xu, Xin Zhao, Dongyan Chen, Xizeng Feng
BACKGROUND: With increased social pressure, individuals face a high risk of depression. Subsequently, depression affects cognitive behaviour and negatively impacts daily life. Fortunately, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Jia Wei Xiao Yao (JWXY) capsule is effective in reducing depression and improving cognitive behaviour. METHODS: The constituents of JWXY capsule were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses...
June 14, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Jiacai Yang, Lin Zhang, Jian-Ping Dai, Jun Zeng, Xiao-Xuan Chen, Ze-Feng Xie, Kang-Sheng Li, Yun Su
BACKGROUND: Predatory stress as a psychological stressor can elicit the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is involved in the dialogue of the neuroimmunoendocrine network. The brain has been proven to regulate the activity of the HPA axis by way of lateralization. In the present study, we probed the pivotal elements of the HPA circuitry including CRH, GR and a multifunctional cytokine in behavior-lateralized mice to determine their changes when the animals were subjected to predator exposure...
June 8, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Theresa S Emser, Blair A Johnston, J Douglas Steele, Sandra Kooij, Lisa Thorell, Hanna Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic guidelines recommend using a variety of methods to assess and diagnose ADHD. Applying subjective measures always incorporates risks such as informant biases or large differences between ratings obtained from diverse sources. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that ratings and tests seem to assess somewhat different constructs. The use of objective measures might thus yield valuable information for diagnosing ADHD. This study aims at evaluating the role of objective measures when trying to distinguish between individuals with ADHD and controls...
May 18, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Hongyu Xu, Yuqin Ye, Yelu Hao, Fei Shi, Zhiqiang Yan, Guohao Yuan, Yuefan Yang, Zhou Fei, Xiaosheng He
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adverse early-life experiences have been suggested as one of the key contributors to neurodevelopmental disorders, such that these experiences influence brain development, cognitive ability and mental health. Previous studies indicated that hippocampal levels of the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CALR) and calbindin-D28k (CALB) changed in response to maternal deprivation (MD), a model for adverse early-life experiences. We investigated the effects of MD on hippocampal CALR and CALB protein levels and cognitive behaviors, and explored whether these effects were sex-related...
May 15, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Julia Mock, Stefan Huber, Johannes Bloechle, Julia F Dietrich, Julia Bahnmueller, Johannes Rennig, Elise Klein, Korbinian Moeller
BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that processing proportion magnitude is associated with activation in the intraparietal sulcus. Thus, brain areas associated with the processing of numbers (i.e., absolute magnitude) were activated during processing symbolic fractions as well as non-symbolic proportions. Here, we investigated systematically the cognitive processing of symbolic (e.g., fractions and decimals) and non-symbolic proportions (e.g., dot patterns and pie charts) in a two-stage procedure...
May 10, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Yuqin Deng, Xiaochun Wang, Yan Wang, Chenglin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Interference resolution refers to cognitive control processes enabling one to focus on task-related information while filtering out unrelated information. But the exact neural areas, which underlie a specific cognitive task on interference resolution, are still equivocal. The multi-source interference task (MSIT), as a particular cognitive task, is a well-established experimental paradigm used to evaluate interference resolution. Studies combining the MSIT with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that the MSIT evokes the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and cingulate-frontal-parietal cognitive-attentional networks...
April 10, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Chu-Chu Qi, Qing-Jun Wang, Xue-Zhu Ma, Hai-Chao Chen, Li-Ping Gao, Jie Yin, Yu-Hong Jing
BACKGROUND: Following a social defeat, the balanced establishment and extinction of aversive information is a beneficial strategy for individual survival. Abnormal establishment or extinction is implicated in the development of mental disorders. This study investigated the time course of the establishment and extinction of aversive information from acute social defeat and the temporal responsiveness of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this process...
March 19, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Yi-Tzu Chang, Hsiang-Yu Chen, Yuan-Chieh Huang, Wan-Yu Shih, Hsiao-Lung Chan, Ping-Yi Wu, Ling-Fu Meng, Chen-Chi Chen, Ching-I Wang
BACKGROUND: Action semantics have been investigated in relation to context violation but remain less examined in relation to the meaning of gestures. In the present study, we examined tool-gesture incongruity by event-related potentials (ERPs) and hypothesized that the component N400, a neural index which has been widely used in both linguistic and action semantic congruence, is significant for conditions of incongruence. METHODS: Twenty participants performed a tool-gesture judgment task, in which they were asked to judge whether the tool-gesture pairs were correct or incorrect, for the purpose of conveying functional expression of the tools...
March 13, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Christina Artemenko, Mojtaba Soltanlou, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Thomas Dresler
BACKGROUND: Arithmetic processing in adults is known to rely on a frontal-parietal network. However, neurocognitive research focusing on the neural and behavioral correlates of arithmetic development has been scarce, even though the acquisition of arithmetic skills is accompanied by changes within the fronto-parietal network of the developing brain. Furthermore, experimental procedures are typically adjusted to constraints of functional magnetic resonance imaging, which may not reflect natural settings in which children and adolescents actually perform arithmetic...
March 10, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Noémi Ágnes Varga, Klára Pentelényi, Péter Balicza, András Gézsi, Viktória Reményi, Vivien Hársfalvi, Renáta Bencsik, Anett Illés, Csilla Prekop, Mária Judit Molnár
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is very heterogeneous. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been described in ASD; however, primary mitochondrial disease has been genetically proven in a small subset of patients. The main goal of the present study was to investigate correlations between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) changes and alterations of genes associated with mtDNA maintenance or ASD. METHODS: Sixty patients with ASD and sixty healthy individuals were screened for common mtDNA mutations...
February 20, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Renee Dufault, Roseanne Schnoll, Walter J Lukiw, Blaise LeBlanc, Charles Cornett, Lyn Patrick, David Wallinga, Steven G Gilbert, Raquel Crider
The original version of this article [1] unfortunately contained an error which has since been acknowledged in this Correction article. The URL link in the Reference 19 was broken and it needs to be replaced with the active link given below.
February 7, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Leah M Mattiaccio, Ioana L Coman, Carlie A Thompson, Wanda P Fremont, Kevin M Antshel, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with deficits in cognitive and emotional processing. This syndrome represents one of the highest risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Previous studies of functional connectivity (FC) in 22q11DS report aberrant connectivity patterns in large-scale networks that are associated with the development of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: In this study, we performed a functional connectivity analysis using the CONN toolbox to test for differential connectivity patterns between 54 individuals with 22q11DS and 30 healthy controls, between the ages of 17-25 years old...
January 20, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Yongfeng Yang, Hongyan Yu, Wenqiang Li, Bing Liu, Hongxing Zhang, Shuang Ding, Yanli Lu, Tianzi Jiang, Luxian Lv
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex polygenic psychiatric disorder caused in part by abnormal dopamine levels. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) 2 is known to protect and repair the dopaminergic system. Dopamine dysfunction is one of the pathogenesis of SZ. However, the relationship between CDNF2 and SZ has not been previously investigated. We speculated that CDNF2 may be a susceptibility factor for SZ. METHODS: To address this issue, we carried out a study to investigate the association between CDNF2 and SZ in the total sample 1371 (670 SZ patients and 701 healthy controls) Han Chinese population...
January 3, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Arvind Palanisamy, Gregory Crosby, Deborah J Culley
BACKGROUND: Our previous research showed that 4 h of maternal anesthesia with isoflurane during early gestation in pregnant rats leads to a deficit in spatial memory of adult male offspring. Because spatial memory is predominantly a hippocampally-mediated task, we asked the question if early gestational exposure to isoflurane affects development of the hippocampus in the offspring. FINDINGS: Previously behaviorally characterized adult male rats that were exposed to isoflurane during second trimester were sacrificed at 4 months of age (N = 10 and 13, control and isoflurane groups, respectively) for quantitative histology of hippocampal subregions...
December 26, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
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