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Journal of the Royal Society, Interface

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30518566/community-dynamics-and-sensitivity-to-model-structure-towards-a-probabilistic-view-of-process-based-model-predictions
#1
Clement Aldebert, Daniel B Stouffer
Statistical inference and mechanistic, process-based modelling represent two philosophically different streams of research whose primary goal is to make predictions. Here, we merge elements from both approaches to keep the theoretical power of process-based models while also considering their predictive uncertainty using Bayesian statistics. In environmental and biological sciences, the predictive uncertainty of process-based models is usually reduced to parametric uncertainty. Here, we propose a practical approach to tackle the added issue of structural sensitivity, the sensitivity of predictions to the choice between quantitatively close and biologically plausible models...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30518565/habitat-fragmentation-biodiversity-loss-and-the-risk-of-novel-infectious-disease-emergence
#2
David A Wilkinson, Jonathan C Marshall, Nigel P French, David T S Hayman
The number of microbes on Earth may be 1030 , exceeding all other diversity. A small number of these can infect people and cause disease. The diversity of parasitic organisms likely correlates with the hosts they live in and the number mammal hosts for zoonotic infections increases with species richness among mammalian orders. Thus, while habitat loss and fragmentation may reduce species diversity, the habitat encroachment by people into species-rich areas may increase the exposure of people to novel infectious agents from wildlife...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30487240/enhanced-locomotion-effective-diffusion-and-trapping-of-undulatory-micro-swimmers-in-heterogeneous-environments
#3
Arshad Kamal, Eric E Keaveny
Swimming cells and microorganisms must often move through complex fluids that contain an immersed microstructure such as polymer molecules or filaments. In many important biological processes, such as mammalian reproduction and bacterial infection, the size of the immersed microstructure is comparable to that of the swimming cells. This leads to discrete swimmer-microstructure interactions that alter the swimmer's path and speed. In this paper, we use a combination of detailed simulation and data-driven stochastic models to examine the motion of a planar undulatory swimmer in an environment of spherical obstacles tethered via linear springs to random points in the plane of locomotion...
November 28, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30487239/characterization-of-chloroplast-iridescence-in-selaginella-erythropus
#4
Nathan J Masters, Martin Lopez-Garcia, Ruth Oulton, Heather M Whitney
Iridescence in shade-dwelling plants has previously been described in only a few plant groups, and even fewer where the structural colour is produced by intracellular structures. In contrast with other Selaginella species, this work reports the first example in the genus of structural colour originating from modified chloroplasts. Characterization of these structures determines that they form one-dimensional photonic multilayers. The Selaginella bizonoplasts present an analogous structure to recently reported Begonia iridoplasts; however, unlike Begonia species that produce iridoplasts, this Selaginella species was not previously described as iridescent...
November 28, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30487238/the-attenuated-spline-reconstruction-technique-for-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography
#5
Nicholas E Protonotarios, Athanassios S Fokas, Kostas Kostarelos, George A Kastis
We present the attenuated spline reconstruction technique (aSRT) which provides an innovative algorithm for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image reconstruction. aSRT is based on an analytic formula of the inverse attenuated Radon transform. It involves the computation of the Hilbert transforms of the linear attenuation function and of two sinusoidal functions of the so-called attenuated sinogram These computations are achieved by employing the attenuation information provided by computed tomography (CT) scans and by utilizing custom-made cubic spline interpolation...
November 28, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30487237/a-stochastic-model-that-explains-axonal-organelle-pileups-induced-by-a-reduction-of-molecular-motors
#6
Xiulan Lai, Anthony Brown, Chuan Xue
Nerve cells are critically dependent on the transport of intracellular cargoes, which are moved by motor proteins along microtubule tracks. Impairments in this movement are thought to explain the focal accumulations of axonal cargoes and axonal swellings observed in many neurodegenerative diseases. In some cases, these diseases are caused by mutations that impair motor protein function, and genetic depletion of functional molecular motors has been shown to lead to cargo accumulations in axons. The evolution of these accumulations has been compared to the formation of traffic jams on a highway, but this idea remains largely untested...
November 28, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30464060/correction-to-uncovering-the-underlying-mechanism-of-cancer-tumorigenesis-and-development-under-immune-microenvironment-from-global-quantification-of-the-landscape
#7
Wenbo Li, Jin Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30464059/measuring-bilayer-surface-energy-and-curvature-in-asymmetric-droplet-interface-bilayers
#8
Nathan E Barlow, Halim Kusumaatmaja, Ali Salehi-Reyhani, Nick Brooks, Laura M C Barter, Anthony J Flemming, Oscar Ces
For the past decade, droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) have had an increased prevalence in biomolecular and biophysical literature. However, much of the underlying physics of these platforms is poorly characterized. To further our understanding of these structures, lipid membrane tension on DIB membranes is measured by analysing the equilibrium shape of asymmetric DIBs. To this end, the morphology of DIBs is explored for the first time using confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. The experimental results confirm that, in accordance with theory, the bilayer interface of a volume-asymmetric DIB is curved towards the smaller droplet and a lipid-asymmetric DIB is curved towards the droplet with the higher monolayer surface tension...
November 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30464058/estimating-the-relative-importance-of-demic-and-cultural-diffusion-in-the-spread-of-the-neolithic-in-scandinavia
#9
Joaquim Fort, Maria Mercè Pareta, Lasse Sørensen
Using a database of early farming sites in Scandinavia, we estimate that the spread rate of the Neolithic was in the range 0.44-0.66 km yr-1 This is substantially slower (by about 50%) than the rate in continental Europe. We interpret this result in the framework of a new mathematical model that includes horizontal cultural transmission (acculturation), vertical cultural transmission (interbreeding) and demic diffusion (reproduction and dispersal of farmers). To parametrize the model, we estimate reproduction rates of early farmers using archaeological data (sum-calibrated probabilities for the dates of early Neolithic Scandinavian sites) and use them in a wave-of-advance model for the first time...
November 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30464057/metabolic-cost-underlies-task-dependent-variations-in-motor-unit-recruitment
#10
Adrian K M Lai, Andrew A Biewener, James M Wakeling
Mammalian skeletal muscles are comprised of many motor units, each containing a group of muscle fibres that have common contractile properties: these can be broadly categorized as slow and fast twitch muscle fibres. Motor units are typically recruited in an orderly fashion following the 'size principle', in which slower motor units would be recruited for low intensity contraction; a metabolically cheap and fatigue-resistant strategy. However, this recruitment strategy poses a mechanical paradox for fast, low intensity contractions, in which the recruitment of slower fibres, as predicted by the size principle, would be metabolically more costly than the recruitment of faster fibres that are more efficient at higher contraction speeds...
November 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30464056/eumobot-replicating-euglenoid-movement-in-a-soft-robot
#11
Krishna Manaswi Digumarti, Andrew T Conn, Jonathan Rossiter
Swimming is employed as a form of locomotion by many organisms in nature across a wide range of scales. Varied strategies of shape change are employed to achieve fluidic propulsion at different scales due to changes in hydrodynamics. In the case of microorganisms, the small mass, low Reynolds number and dominance of viscous forces in the medium, requires a change in shape that is non-invariant under time reversal to achieve movement. The Euglena family of unicellular flagellates evolved a characteristic type of locomotion called euglenoid movement to overcome this challenge, wherein the body undergoes a giant change in shape...
November 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30429266/cellular-geometry-controls-the-efficiency-of-motile-sperm-aggregates
#12
D J G Pearce, L A Hoogerbrugge, K A Hook, H S Fisher, L Giomi
Sperm that swim collectively to the fertilization site have been observed across several vertebrate and invertebrate species, with groups ranging in size from sperm pairs to massive aggregates containing hundreds of cells. Although the molecular mechanisms that regulate sperm-sperm adhesion are still unclear, aggregation can enhance sperm motility and thus offer a fertilization advantage. Here, we report a thorough computational investigation on the role of cellular geometry in the performance of sperm aggregates...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30429265/the-future-of-quantum-biology
#13
REVIEW
Adriana Marais, Betony Adams, Andrew K Ringsmuth, Marco Ferretti, J Michael Gruber, Ruud Hendrikx, Maria Schuld, Samuel L Smith, Ilya Sinayskiy, Tjaart P J Krüger, Francesco Petruccione, Rienk van Grondelle
Biological systems are dynamical, constantly exchanging energy and matter with the environment in order to maintain the non-equilibrium state synonymous with living. Developments in observational techniques have allowed us to study biological dynamics on increasingly small scales. Such studies have revealed evidence of quantum mechanical effects, which cannot be accounted for by classical physics, in a range of biological processes. Quantum biology is the study of such processes, and here we provide an outline of the current state of the field, as well as insights into future directions...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30429264/pillar-versus-dimple-patterned-surfaces-for-wettability-and-adhesion-with-varying-scales
#14
Meng Li, Qingwen Dai, Wei Huang, Xiaolei Wang
Inspired by biological topographical surfaces, micropatterned elastomeric surfaces with square pillars and dimples of different geometry scales were fabricated. Their wettability and adhesion properties with various liquids were systematically investigated and compared with flat surfaces. Interesting results were obtained in the case of silicone oil (the toe-pad-like wetting case) in that the scale-dependent wettability and adhesion performed inversely for pillars and dimples. Micropillars significantly enhanced the surface wettability with a geometry scale dependence, whereas the dimples suppressed the wettability independent of the geometry scale...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30429263/experimental-degradation-of-helicoidal-photonic-nanostructures-in-scarab-beetles-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-implications-for-the-identification-of-circularly-polarizing-cuticle-in-the-fossil-record
#15
Giliane P Odin, Maria E McNamara, Hans Arwin, Kenneth Järrendahl
Scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) can exhibit striking colours produced by pigments and/or nanostructures. The latter include helicoidal (Bouligand) structures that can generate circularly polarized light. These have a cryptic evolutionary history in part because fossil examples are unknown. This suggests either a real biological signal, i.e. that Bouligand structures did not evolve until recently, or a taphonomic signal, i.e. that conditions during the fossilization process were not conducive to their preservation...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30429262/multiscale-modelling-of-the-human-lumbar-facet-capsular-ligament-analysing-spinal-motion-from-the-joint-to-the-neurons
#16
Vahhab Zarei, Rohit Y Dhume, Arin M Ellingson, Victor H Barocas
Due to its high level of innervation, the lumbar facet capsular ligament (FCL) is suspected to play a role in low back pain (LBP). The nociceptors in the lumbar FCL may experience excessive deformation and generate pain signals. As such, understanding the mechanical behaviour of the FCL, as well as that of its underlying nerves, is critical if one hopes to understand its role in LBP. In this work, we constructed a multiscale structure-based finite-element (FE) model of a lumbar FCL on a spinal motion segment undergoing physiological motions of flexion, extension, ipsilateral and contralateral bending, and ipsilateral axial rotation...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30429261/emergence-of-form-in-embryogenesis
#17
Murat Erkurt
The development of form in an embryo is the result of a series of topological and informational symmetry breakings. We introduce the vector-reaction-diffusion-drift (VRDD) system where the limit cycle of spatial dynamics is morphogen concentrations with Dirac delta-type distributions. This is fundamentally different from the Turing reaction-diffusion system, as VRDD generates system-wide broken symmetry. We developed 'fundamental forms' from spherical blastula with a single organizing axis (rotational symmetry), double axis (mirror symmetry) and triple axis (no symmetry operator in three dimensions)...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30429260/variability-in-life-history-switch-points-across-and-within-populations-explained-by-adaptive-dynamics
#18
Pietro Landi, James R Vonesh, Cang Hui
Understanding the factors that shape the timing of life-history switch points (SPs; e.g. hatching, metamorphosis and maturation) is a fundamental question in evolutionary ecology. Previous studies examining this question from a fitness optimization perspective have advanced our understanding of why the timing of life-history transitions may vary across populations and environments. However, in nature we also often observe variability among individuals within populations. Optimization theory, which typically predicts a single optimal SP under physiological and environmental constraints for a given environment, cannot explain this variability...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30429259/initial-scaffold-thickness-affects-the-emergence-of-a-geometrical-and-mechanical-equilibrium-in-engineered-cardiovascular-tissues
#19
M A J van Kelle, P J A Oomen, W J T Janssen-van den Broek, R G P Lopata, S Loerakker, C V C Bouten
In situ cardiovascular tissue-engineering can potentially address the shortcomings of the current replacement therapies, in particular, their inability to grow and remodel. In native tissues, it is widely accepted that physiological growth and remodelling occur to maintain a homeostatic mechanical state to conserve its function, regardless of changes in the mechanical environment. A similar homeostatic state should be reached for tissue-engineered (TE) prostheses to ensure proper functioning. For in situ tissue-engineering approaches obtaining such a state greatly relies on the initial scaffold design parameters...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30404907/social-eavesdropping-allows-for-a-more-risky-gliding-strategy-by-thermal-soaring-birds
#20
Hannah J Williams, Andrew J King, Olivier Duriez, Luca Börger, Emily L C Shepard
Vultures are thought to form networks in the sky, with individuals monitoring the movements of others to gain up-to-date information on resource availability. While it is recognized that social information facilitates the search for carrion, how this facilitates the search for updrafts, another critical resource, remains unknown. In theory, birds could use information on updraft availability to modulate their flight speed, increasing their airspeed when informed on updraft location. In addition, the stylized circling behaviour associated with thermal soaring is likely to provide social cues on updraft availability for any bird operating in the surrounding area...
November 7, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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