Farhan Anjum, Mahrukh Gilani, Maryam Latif, Aqsa Sattar, Habiba Ashraf, Saira Rafaqat
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes the role of coagulation factors in the pathophysiology of heart failure including D-dimer, fibrinogen and fibrin, prothrombin, p-selectin, tissue factor, tissue plasminogen activator, von Willebrand factor, β-thromboglobulin, Factor XI, tissue thromboplastin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), thrombomodulin, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and stuart-prower factor. RECENT FINDINGS: The D-dimer, P-selectin, prothrombin, von Willebrand factor, tissue plasminogen activator, fibrinogen, suPAR, tissue factor, thrombomodulin and Factor XI play significant roles the pathophysiology of heart failure...
June 13, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Simeng Li, Isabella Tan, Emily Atkins, Aletta E Schutte, Sonali R Gnanenthiran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarise the physiological changes and risk factors for hypertension in females, potential sex-specific management approaches, and long-term prognosis. KEY FINDINGS: Pregnancy and menopause are two key phases of the life cycle where females undergo significant biological and physical changes, making them more prone to developing hypertension. Gestational hypertension occurs from changes in maternal cardiac output, kidney function, metabolism, or placental vasculature, with one in ten experiencing pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction and delivery complications such as premature birth...
June 11, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Andrea Severo Sánchez, Javier González Martín, Javier de Juan Bagudá, Laura Morán Fernández, Christian Muñoz Guijosa, Fernando Arribas Ynsaurriaga, Juan Francisco Delgado, María Dolores García-Cosío Carmena
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Limited research has been conducted on sex disparities in heart transplant (HT). The aim of this review is to analyse the available evidence on the influence of sex and gender-related determinants in the entire HT process, as well as to identify areas for further investigation. RECENT FINDINGS: Although women make up half of the population affected by heart failure and related mortality, they account for less than a third of HT recipients. Reasons for this inequality include differences in disease course, psychosocial factors, concerns about allosensitisation, and selection or referral bias in female patients...
June 11, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Julia Vogel, Alexander Carpinteiro, Peter Luedike, Florian Buehning, Simon Wernhart, Tienush Rassaf, Lars Michel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is a condition characterized by misfolding and extracellular deposition of proteins, leading to organ dysfunction. While numerous forms of CA exist, two subtypes dominate clinical prevalence: Transthyretin amyloid (ATTR) and immunoglobulin light chain amyloid. RECENT FINDINGS: The current scientific landscape reflects the urgency to advance therapeutic interventions with over 100 ongoing clinical trials. Heart failure treatment is affected by CA phenotype with poor tolerance of otherwise frequently used medications...
May 29, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Arsalan Hamid, Stephen J Greene, Ankit Mehta, Javed Butler, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: End stage kidney disease can be a slow process and it may be challenging to achieve required follow-up for sufficient events. Therefore, a surrogate kidney endpoint, such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope maybe attractive to assess the kidney in cardiovascular trials, especially heart failure (HF). RECENT FINDINGS: eGFR slope can generate informative results in a shorter follow-up period, has decreased risk of type-2 error, and is less sensitive to eGFR shifts compared with other surrogate kidney endpoints (eGFR decline≥40% or doubling creatinine)...
May 25, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Silvia Vilches, María Martínez-Avial, Irene Méndez, Cristina Gómez González, María Ángeles Espinosa
Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA) is characterised by the deposition of transthyretin amyloid fibrils in the heart. ATTR-CA affects both men and women although there is evidence of sex differences in prevalence and clinical presentation. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review paper aims to comprehensively examine and synthesise the existing literature on sex differences in ATTR-CA. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of ATTR-CA is higher in males although the male predominance is more apparent in older patients in the wild type form and in TTR genetic variants that predominantly result in a cardiac phenotype in the hereditary variant...
May 22, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Ainhoa Robles-Mezcua, Nelsa González Aguado, Antonia Pilar Martin de la Rosa, Concepción Cruzado-Álvarez, Clara Jiménez Rubio, Alejandro IPérez Cabeza, Juan José Gómez-Doblas, Manuel F Jiménez-Navarro, Mora Murri Pierri, José M García-Pinilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Differences in HF biomarker levels by sex may be due to hormonal, genetic, and fat distribution differences. Knowledge of these differences is scarce, and it is not well established whether they may affect their usefulness in the management of HF. RECENT FINDINGS: The different biomarker profiles in women and men have been confirmed in recent studies: in women, markers of cardiac stretch and fibrosis (NP and galectin-3) are higher, whereas in men, higher levels of markers of cardiac injury and inflammation (cTn and sST2) are found...
May 20, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Ramón López-Palop, Pilar Carrillo, Íñigo Lozano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the available evidence concerning the incidence of heart failure in patients with chronic coronary syndrome, with a focus on gender differences. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of heart failure in the context of chronic coronary syndrome presents conflicting data. Most of the available information stems from studies involving stable patients' post-acute coronary syndrome, revealing a wide range of incidence rates, from less than 3% to over 20%, observed over 5 years of follow-up...
May 4, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Sara Álvarez-Zaballos, Manuel Martínez-Sellés
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome with a growing global health burden. This review explores the intersection of HF, diabetes mellitus, and sex, highlighting epidemiological patterns, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite similar HF prevalence in men and women, diabetes mellitus (DM) appears to exert a more pronounced impact on HF outcomes in women. Pathophysiological differences involve cardiovascular risk factors, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and coronary artery disease, as well as hormonal influences and inflammatory markers...
May 3, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Simon Wernhart, Tienush Rassaf
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) has been identified as a threat to overall and cancer-related survival. Although aerobic exercise training (AET) has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), the relationship between specific exercise regimens and cancer survival, heart failure development, and reduction of CTRCD is unclear. In this review, we discuss the impact of AET on molecular pathways and the current literature of sports in the field of cardio-oncology...
May 2, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Christian Elsner, Simon Bettin, Roland Tilz, Dennis Häckl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem worldwide, affecting more than 64 million people [1]. The complex and severe nature of HF presents challenges in providing cost-effective care as patients often require multiple hospitalizations and treatments. This review of relevant studies with focus on the last 10 years summarizes the health and economic implications of various HF treatment options in Europe and beyond. Although the main cost drivers in HF treatment are clinical (re)admission and decompensation of HF, an assessment of the economic impacts of various other device therapy options for HF care are included in this review...
April 25, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Simon Wernhart, Lars Michel, Alexander Carpinteiro, Peter Luedike, Tienush Rassaf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) constitutes an important etiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) or heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Since patients with CA show early exhaustion, we aimed to investigate whether non-exertional variables of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provide additional information in comparison to traditional peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak ). RECENT FINDINGS: We retrospectively investigated CPET variables of patients with HFpEF and HFmrEF with (n = 21) and without (n = 21, HF) CA at comparable age and ejection fraction...
April 18, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Josephine Harrington, Naveed Sattar, G Michael Felker, James L Januzzi, Carolyn S P Lam, Neha J Pagidipati, Ambarish Pandey, Harriette G C Van Spall, Darren K McGuire
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review ongoing and planned clinical trials of weight loss among individuals with or at high risk of heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: Intentional weight loss via semaglutide among persons with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction and obesity significantly improves weight loss and health status as assessed by the KCCQ-CSS score and is associated with improvements in 6-min walk test. Ongoing and planned trials will explore the role of intentional weight loss with treatments such as semaglutide or tirzepatide for individuals with heart failure across the entire ejection fraction spectrum...
April 15, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Joan Carles Trullàs, Jesús Casado, Marta Cobo-Marcos, Francesc Formiga, José Luís Morales-Rull, Julio Núñez, Luís Manzano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diuretics are the cornerstone therapy for acute heart failure (HF) and congestion. Patients chronically exposed to loop diuretics may develop diuretic resistance as a consequence of nephron remodelling, and the combination of diuretics will be necessary to improve diuretic response and achieve decongestion. This review integrates data from recent research and offers a practical approach to current pharmacologic therapies to manage congestion in HF with a focus on combinational therapy...
April 9, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Sergio Henrique Rodolpho Ramalho, André Luiz Pereira de Albuquerque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is common in heart failure (HF), and it has a significant impact on the prognosis and quality of life of patients. Additionally, COPD is independently associated with lower adherence to first-line HF therapies. In this review, we outline the challenges of identifying and managing HF with preserved (HFpEF) and reduced (HFrEF) ejection fraction with coexisting COPD. RECENT FINDINGS: Spirometry is necessary for COPD diagnosis and prognosis but is underused in HF...
March 28, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Pasquale Valerio Falzone, Sara Vazquez-Calvo, Ivo Roca-Luque
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to evaluate current evidence regarding ventricular tachycardia ablation in patients with ischemic heart disease and explore novel approaches currently developing to improve procedural and long-term outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently published trials (PARTITA, PAUSE-SCD, and SURVIVE-VT) have demonstrated the prognostic benefit of prophylactic ventricular tachycardia ablation compared to current clinical practice. Advanced cardiac imaging provides a valuable pre-procedural evaluation of the arrhythmogenic substrate, identifying ablation targets non-invasively...
March 27, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Petra Kleinbongard, Ioanna Andreadou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of (a) protective effects on mitochondria induced by remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) and (b) mitochondrial damage caused by anticancer therapy. We then discuss the available results of studies on mitochondrial protection via RIC in anticancer therapy-induced cardiotoxicity. RECENT FINDINGS: In three experimental studies in healthy mice and pigs, there was a RIC-mediated protection against anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and there was some evidence of improved mitochondrial function with RIC...
March 21, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Guillermo Moreno, Manuel Martínez-Sellés, María Jesús Vicente-Galán, Lourdes Vicent
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent evidence on female-specific risk factors related to reproductive status or pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Pregnancy-related factors, including hypertensive disorders and gestational diabetes, increase the risk of heart failure in women, while breastfeeding and hormone therapy may offer protection. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome, placental abruption, younger maternal age at first live birth, younger maternal age at last live birth, number of stillbirths, number of pregnancies, onset of menstruation before 12 years of age, shorter reproductive age, ovariectomy, and prolonged absence of ovarian hormones may increase the risk of heart failure in women...
March 20, 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Giulio M Mondellini, Frederik H Verbrugge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a contemporary overview of the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of hyponatremia in heart failure (HF). RECENT FINDINGS: Potassium and magnesium losses due to poor nutritional intake and treatment with diuretics cause an intracellular sodium shift in HF that may contribute to hyponatremia. Impaired renal blood flow leading to a lower glomerular filtration rate and increased proximal tubular reabsorption lead to an impaired tubular flux through diluting distal segments of the nephron, compromising electrolyte-free water excretion...
June 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
Harald Becher, Waleed Alhumaid, Jonathan Windram, Jonathan Choy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The application of ultrasound-enhancing agents (contrast agents) has improved the accuracy and reproducibility of echocardiography. The review focuses on the currently approved and evolving indications for contrast echocardiography in patients with heart failure, specifically examining clinical studies conducted after the publication of the guidelines in 2017 and 2018. RECENT FINDINGS: The current ASE/EACVI recommendations for contrast echocardiography are based on its accuracy and reproducibility in comparison to non-enhanced echocardiography or other imaging modalities like cardiac MRI...
April 2024: Current Heart Failure Reports
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