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Ashley V Whillans, Lara B Aknin, Colin J Ross, Lihan Chen, Frances S Chen
Who benefits most from helping others? Previous research suggests that common polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) predict whether people behave generously and experience increases in positive mood in response to socially focused experiences in daily life. Building on these findings, we conducted an experiment with a large, ethnically homogenous sample (N = 437) to examine whether individual differences in three frequently studied single nucleotide polymorphisms of OXTR (rs53576, rs2268498, rs2254298) also predict differences in the positive mood benefits of financial generosity...
April 25, 2019: Emotion
Jiyoung Park, Shinobu Kitayama, Yuri Miyamoto, Christopher L Coe
Prior research has demonstrated that the daily experience of negative affect is associated with increased levels of proinflammatory activity as evidenced by higher interleukin-6 among Americans but not among Japanese. This cultural difference may be driven by culturally divergent beliefs about negative affect as a source of threat to self-image versus as natural and integral to life. Here, we examined whether culture may moderate the relationship between negative affect and biological stress responses, with a focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity...
April 22, 2019: Emotion
Stephanie J Dimitroff, Ethan G Harrod, Karen E Smith, Kelly E Faig, Jean Decety, Greg J Norman
Humans routinely punish others for violating social norms. This behavior is referred to as third-party punishment. Much of the research on this topic has been done in the context of group cooperation and unjust economic interactions. However, little is known about punishment in response to other types of more personal transgressions. In the present study, we sought to determine whether adults would punish an individual after viewing them undeservingly reject a stranger. We experimentally demonstrate that after observing an individual socially reject an unknown victim, individuals will engage in third-party punishment...
April 22, 2019: Emotion
Annette Brose, Florian Schmiedek, Denis Gerstorf, Manuel C Voelkle
The number of intensive longitudinal studies that investigate affective experiences at the within-person rather than the between-person level is rapidly increasing. This paradigmatic shift comes with new challenges, such as questions revolving around how to measure within-person affect variation or more fundamental questions about the reliability and validity of constructs at the within-person level. We provide a review of substantive research published in Emotion since 2005, which revealed that to date no consensus has been established on measurement instruments for assessing within-person affective experiences...
April 22, 2019: Emotion
Eva R Kimonis, Jodie Kidd, Steven B Most, Ariana Krynen, Candy Liu
Emotional stimuli are typically prioritized in competition for attention in healthy individuals. In contrast, there is evidence that individuals high in psychopathic traits fail to similarly prioritize emotional stimuli. With aberrant attention to emotional stimuli implicated in the development and maintenance of other psychopathologies, attentional insensitivity to emotional stimuli may also be important in the callous-unemotional responding seen in psychopathy. This study assessed emotional attention in association with psychopathic traits in a community sample ( N = 121) using two commonly used emotional attention tasks-the dot probe and emotion-induced blindness tasks...
April 4, 2019: Emotion
Stephanie Simpson, Signy Sheldon
Autobiographical memory retrieval is impacted by emotion, whether from an individual's mood state or a retrieval cue. Here, we addressed two questions concerning how emotion from these two sources affects the remembering of autobiographical experiences. The first question concerns whether emotional mood and retrieval cues both reliably impact the details and content of a recalled autobiographical memory. The second question concerns to what extent distinct emotional dimensions of retrieval cues-valence and arousal-individually impact the way these memories are recalled...
April 4, 2019: Emotion
Emma Vilarem, Jorge L Armony, Julie Gr├Ęzes
When entering a subway car affording multiple targets for action, how do we decide, very quickly, where to sit, particularly when in the presence of a potential danger? It is unclear, from existing motor and emotion theories, whether our attention would be allocated toward the seat on which we intend to sit on or whether it would be oriented toward an individual that signals the presence of potential danger. To address this question, we explored spontaneous action choices and attention allocation in a realistic context, where a threat-related signal (an angry or fearful individual) and the target for action in that situation could compete for attentional priority...
April 4, 2019: Emotion
Katja Glinka, Ursula M Staudinger, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage, Ben Godde
Evidence suggests that reduced bottom-up processing due to aging-related brain deterioration needs to be considered when trying to understand how cognitive resources and processing arousing emotional information are associated in old age. Moreover, cognitive resources have been shown to decrease in older adults while high interindividual variability in cognitive functioning at higher ages is one of the hallmarks of cognitive aging research. It has been suggested that individual variations of biological aging trajectories contribute to described large interindividual differences in old age...
April 4, 2019: Emotion
Erik C Nook, Constanza M Vidal Bustamante, Hyun Young Cho, Leah H Somerville
Regulating one's emotions is an important psychological skill at all ages. Cognitive reappraisal-changing the meaning of a stimulus to alter its emotional impact-is an effective emotion regulation technique. Prior work shows that adults spontaneously reduce their use of present tense verbs and first-person singular pronouns (e.g., I, me, mine ) when engaging in cognitive reappraisal, a linguistic shift that is thought to track increased psychological distance. Here, we investigated whether such linguistic distancing during emotion regulation varied across age...
March 21, 2019: Emotion
Manoj K Doss, Jamila K Picart, David A Gallo
We investigated the impact of 2 hypothetical mechanisms of episodic memory reconstruction-perceptual recombination and conceptual fluency-on objectively measured recollection accuracy and false recollections of neutral and emotional stimuli. Participants encoded negative, neutral, and positive pictures depicting objects and scenes (i.e., target pictures), each accompanied with a descriptive verbal label (e.g., "boy crying at funeral," "wooden basket on floor," "four chimpanzees laughing together")...
March 21, 2019: Emotion
Catherine J Norris, Jeff T Larsen
Sometimes we come out ahead and sometimes we fall behind. Sometimes the status quo is maintained and we end up where we began. The status quo can be disappointing when things might have gone better and relieving when they might have gone worse, but it is not clear how the status quo will feel when things might have gone better or worse. Hume (1739/2000) and Bain (1859) would contend that feelings of disappointment and relief will neutralize one another. The evaluative space model (Cacioppo & Berntson, 1994), which conceptualizes the positive and negative substrates of the affect system as separable, raises the possibility that the status quo will elicit mixed feelings in such circumstances...
March 21, 2019: Emotion
Paul Rozin, Matthew B Ruby
It is often assumed that things that are disgusting to eat are, themselves, disgusting, and that things that are disgusting to eat are also contaminating. We present data that counters both of these assumptions. In adult American and Indian samples, Study 1 provides evidence that, in contrast to many other insects, participants have positive attitudes toward butterflies. Participants are relatively unbothered by touching them or eating food that they have contacted but are very disgusted by the thought of eating them...
March 21, 2019: Emotion
Brooke Wilken, Yuri Miyamoto
The present research proposes that Buddhist teachings involve a noninfluence emotion regulation strategy, an emotion regulation strategy that consists of individuals not influencing their emotions in any way, more so than do Protestant teachings. We examined religious teachings surrounding the strategy, practitioners' use of the strategy, and its links with depression. Further, the nature of this noninfluence strategy was explored. Across 3 studies that used student, community, and online samples, results showed that in fact Buddhist practitioners were more likely than were Protestant practitioners to report that their religion teaches them to use noninfluence strategies of emotion regulation, and that they use noninfluence strategies of emotion regulation...
March 21, 2019: Emotion
Karin G Coifman, Michael J Kane, Melissa Bishop, Lindsey M Matt, K Maria Nylocks, Pallavi Aurora
We tested the association of 2 versions of the Reading Span Task of working memory capacity, a conventional neutral version (RSPAN-N) and an adapted task with incidental negative content (RSPAN-E), for predicting objective indicators (behavioral displays; autonomic activation) of negative emotion regulation during a laboratory provocation, as well as reported negative emotion in daily life experience sampling. Across 2 samples, both tasks demonstrated utility as estimates of spontaneous negative emotion regulation capacity, predicting down-regulation of negative emotion in daily life and during a lab challenge...
March 18, 2019: Emotion
Anuja Ng, Peter F Lovibond
Future-directed intentions elicit emotional changes that may affect behavioral performance. We have previously shown that avoidance intentions can elicit a reduction in anxiety (Ng & Lovibond, 2017). In the present experiment, we manipulated within-participant self-efficacy for an avoidance behavior to determine whether self-efficacy moderates the relationship between avoidance intentions and anxiety. Anxiety was indexed through skin conductance response and self-report. Participants learned that certain stimuli signaled an aversive electric shock, which they could avoid by performing an easy task or a hard task...
March 18, 2019: Emotion
Elisabeth Vogl, Reinhard Pekrun, Kou Murayama, Kristina Loderer
Some epistemic emotions, such as surprise and curiosity, have attracted increasing scientific attention, whereas others, such as confusion, have yet to receive the attention they deserve. In addition, little is known about the relations between these emotions, their joint antecedents and outcomes, and how they differ from other emotions prompted during learning and knowledge generation (e.g., achievement emotions). In 3 studies ( N s = 102, 373, 125) using a trivia task with immediate feedback, we examined within-person interrelations, antecedents, and effects of 3 epistemic emotions (surprise, curiosity, and confusion)...
March 18, 2019: Emotion
David S Chester, Joseph M Dzierzewski
Sleep quality is a critical component of successful human functioning. Poor sleep quality is associated with aggressive behavior, yet the psychological mechanisms that drive this effect are incompletely understood. We tested the prediction that the association between poor sleep quality and aggression would be explained, in part, by a magnified experience of positive affect during aggression. We conducted 2 cross-sectional studies (Study 1, N = 388; Study 2, N = 317) and a third preregistered study (N = 379), which tested for mediation across 2 waves that were separated by 14-42 days...
March 14, 2019: Emotion
Andy Jeesu Kim, Brian A Anderson
What we direct our attention to is strongly influenced by both bottom-up and top-down processes. Moreover, the control of attention is biased by prior learning, such that attention is automatically captured by stimuli previously associated with either reward or threat. It is unknown whether value-oriented and threat-oriented mechanisms of selective information processing function independently of one another, or whether they interact with each other in the selection process. Here, we introduced the threat of electric shock into the value-driven attentional capture paradigm to examine whether the experience of threat influences the attention capturing quality of previously reward-associated stimuli...
March 14, 2019: Emotion
Casey L Brown, Natalia Van Doren, Brett Q Ford, Iris B Mauss, Jocelyn W Sze, Robert W Levenson
Emotion theorists have characterized emotions as involving coherent responding across various emotion response systems (e.g., covariation of subjective experience and physiology). Greater response system coherence has been theorized to promote well-being, yet very little research has tested this assumption. The current study examined whether individuals with greater coherence between physiology and subjective experience of emotion report greater well-being. We also examined factors that may predict the magnitude of coherence, such as emotion intensity, cognitive reappraisal, and expressive suppression...
March 14, 2019: Emotion
Karina Corona, Nicole Senft, Belinda Campos, Chuansheng Chen, Michelle Shiota, Yulia E Chentsova-Dutton
Gratitude is positively associated with health and well-being. Past studies of gratitude have primarily focused on the distinct cultural context of European Americans. The current studies aimed to extend gratitude research to Latino and East Asian Americans, 2 collectivistic contexts known to differently value positive emotions. Two studies explored whether Latino and East Asian Americans varied in gratitude experience and whether the disposition toward gratitude was associated with well-being for both. In Study 1, participants completed measures of the emotional experience and expression of gratitude...
March 14, 2019: Emotion
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