Minjie Fu, John A Eimes, Bruce Waldman
Genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may be associated with resistance to the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). The pathogen originated in Asia, then spread worldwide, causing amphibian population declines and species extinctions. We compared the expressed MHC IIβ1 alleles of a Bd-resistant toad species, Bufo gargarizans, from South Korea with those of a Bd-susceptible Australasian frog species, Litoria caerulea. We found at least six expressed MHC IIβ1 loci in each of the two species...
March 27, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jorge Levican, Manuel Ampuero, Camila Rabello, Ignacio Venegas, Jorge Quarleri, Aldo Gaggero
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis A (HAV) virus causes asymptomatic to life-treating fulminant hepatitis. During infection, patients show large viral excretion in their stools. Resistance of HAV to environmental conditions, allows us to recover viral nucleotide sequences from wastewater and trace its evolutionary history. METHODS: We characterize twelve years of HAV circulation in wastewater from Santiago, Chile, and conducted phylogenetic analyses to decipher the dynamics of circulating lineages...
March 27, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Caroline Wielinga, Andrew Williams, Paul Monis, R C Andrew Thompson
Giardia duodenalis, Giardia enterica, Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia are the synonyms for a species complex of 8-11 phylogenetically distinct species of Giardia infecting a broad range of animals including humans. Retrospective alignment of 8409 gene sequences from 3 loci confirmed host associations of Assemblages and sub-Assemblages within this species complex and molecular species delimitation testing confirmed that the Assemblages and sub-Assemblages AI and AII should be recognised as distinct species...
March 25, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Dominika Bębnowska, Rafał Hrynkiewicz, Izabela Korona-Głowniak, Paulina Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej
Lagovirus europaeus/GI.1 is the virus that causes severe and dangerous rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in rabbits. Recombination formation in RHD viruses is common. Recombination is thought to play a key role in the evolution of lagoviruses and therefore most likely influences the pathogenicity of L. europaeus/GI strains. Immunological events also play a key role in the control of RHD, and an in-depth knowledge of these phenomena provides insights into the characteristics of the infection, which can help implement appropriate infection control measures...
March 21, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Claudio Cappadona, Valeria Rimoldi, Elvezia Maria Paraboschi, Rosanna Asselta
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Clinical manifestations of the disease range from an asymptomatic condition to life-threatening events and death, with more severe courses being associated with age, male sex, and comorbidities. Besides these risk factors, intrinsic characteristics of the virus as well as genetic factors of the host are expected to account for COVID-19 clinical heterogeneity. Genetic studies have long been recognized as fundamental to identify biological mechanisms underlying congenital diseases, to pinpoint genes/proteins responsible for the susceptibility to different inherited conditions, to highlight targets of therapeutic relevance, to suggest drug repurposing, and even to clarify causal relationships that make modifiable some environmental risk factors...
March 17, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Uttaran Bhattacharjee, Alok Kumar Chakrabarti, Suman Kanungo, Shanta Dutta
Influenza A viruses (IAV) are fast-evolving pathogens with a very high mutation rate (2.0 × 10-6 to 2.0 × 10-4 ) compared to the influenza B (IBV) and influenza C (ICV) viruses. Generally, the tropical regions are considered as the reservoir for the IAV's genetic and antigenic evolutionary modification to be reintroduced into the temperate region. Therefore, in connection to the above facts, the present study emphasized on the evolutionary dynamic of the pandemic-2009 H1N1 (pdmH1N1) influenza virus in India...
March 11, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Witchuta Junsiri, Patchana Kamkong, Teerapol Chinkangsadarn, Suraseha Ouisuwan, Piyanan Taweethavonsawat
Equine ocular setariasis is mainly caused by Setaria digitata, and the identification of this filarial nematode is based on morphology. However, morphological characterization alone is insufficient for the detection and differentiation of S. digitata from its congeners. In Thailand, the molecular detection of S. digitata is lacking and its genetic diversity is still unknown. This study aimed to phylogenetically characterize equine S. digitata from Thailand based on sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI), the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (12S rDNA), the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and Wolbachia surface protein (wsp)...
March 11, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Estelle Mezajou Mewamba, Harry Noyes, Arnol Auvaker Zebaze Tiofack, Rolin Mitterran Ndefo Kamga, Cyrille Nguemnang Kamdem, Loic Edmond Tekeu Mengoue, Elvis Ofon, Romuald Isaka Kamwa Ngassam, Oscar Nyangiri, Bruno Bucheton, Flobert Njiokou, Macaire Hilaire Womeni, Enock Matovu, Annette MacLeod, Gustave Simo
Eliminating schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2030 requires a better understanding of the disease transmission, especially the asymmetric distribution of worm burden in individuals living and sharing the same environment. It is in this light that this study was designed to identify human genetic determinants associated with high burden of S. mansoni and also with the plasma concentrations of IgE and four cytokines in children from two schistosomiasis endemic areas of Cameroon. In school-aged children of schistosomiasis endemic areas of Makenene and Nom-Kandi of Cameroon, S...
March 6, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Niina Tammiranta, Marja Isomursu, Alice Fusaro, Minna Nylund, Tiina Nokireki, Edoardo Giussani, Bianca Zecchin, Calogero Terregino, Tuija Gadd
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused widespread mortality in both wild and domestic birds in Europe during 2020-2022. Virus types H5N8 and H5N1 have dominated the epidemic. Isolated spill-over infections in mammals started to emerge as the epidemic continued. In autumn 2021, HPAI H5N1 caused a series of mass mortality events in farmed and released pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in a restricted area in southern Finland. Later, in the same area, an otter (Lutra lutra), two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and a lynx (Lynx lynx) were found moribund or dead and infected with H5N1 HPAI virus...
March 6, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Julia R Diller, Timothy W Thoner, Kristen M Ogden
Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are currently classified based on properties of the attachment protein, σ1. Four reovirus serotypes have been identified, three of which are represented by well-studied prototype human reovirus strains. Reoviruses contain ten segments of double-stranded RNA that encode 12 proteins and can reassort during coinfection. To understand the breadth of reovirus genetic diversity and its potential influence on reassortment, the sequence of the entire genome should be considered...
March 3, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Li-Li Wen, Pei-Yun Kuo, Tran Thi Dieu Thuy, Tran Thi Thuy Duong, Yu-Tsung Huang, Po-Ren Hsueh, Yu-Chen Chen, Cheng-Yen Kao
The wide dissemination of plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance determinants among bacteria is a severe threat to global public health. Here, we characterized an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae NTU107224 by whole genome sequencing (WGS) in combination with phenotypic tests. Broth dilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of NTU107224 to 24 antibiotics. The whole genome sequence of NTU107224 was determined by Nanopore/Illumina hybrid genome sequencing...
March 2, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Leila Nourani, Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Sakineh Pirahamdi, Zeinab Pourhashem, Elahe Asadollahi, Babak Jahangiri
Malaria as vector-borne disease remains important health concern with over 200 million cases globally. Novel antimalarial medicines and more effective vaccines must be developed to eliminate and eradicate malaria. Appraisal of preceding genome editing approaches confirmed the CRISPR-Cas nuclease system as a novel proficient genome editing system and a tool for species-specific diagnosis, and drug resistance researches for Plasmodium species, and gene drive to control Anopheles population. CRISPR-Cas technology, as a handy tool for genome editing can be justified for the production of transgenic malaria parasites like Plasmodium transgenic lines expressing Cas9, chimeric Plasmodium transgenic lines, knockdown and knockout transgenic parasites, and transgenic parasites expressing alternative alleles, and also mutant strains of Anopheles such as only male mosquito populations, generation of wingless mosquitoes, and creation of knock-out/ knock-in mutants...
February 24, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Cheikh Cambel Dieng, Colby T Ford, Anita Lerch, Dickson Doniou, Kovidh Vegesna, Daniel Janies, Liwang Cui, Linda Amoah, Yaw Afrane, Eugenia Lo
In October 2021, the world's first malaria vaccine RTS,S was endorsed by WHO for broad use in children, despite its low efficacy. This study examined polyclonal infections and the associations of parasite genetic variations with binding affinity to human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Multiplicity of infection was determined by amplicon deep sequencing of PfMSP1. Genetic variations in PfCSP were examined across 88 samples from Ghana and analyzed together with 1655 PfCSP sequences from other African and non-African isolates...
February 23, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Junying Lang, Junfeng Zhen, Guimei Li, Bin Li, Jianping Xie
Phage therapy is revitalized as an alternative to antibiotics therapy against antimicrobials resistant pathogens. Mycobacteriophages are genetically diverse viruses that can specifically infect Mycobacterium genus including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we isolated and annotated the genome of a mycobacteriophage Lang, a temperate mycobacteriophage isolated from the soil of Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China, by using Mycolicibacterium smegmatis mc2 155 as the host. It belongs to the Siphoviridae family of Caudovirales as determined by transmission electron microscopy...
February 15, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Kuralayanapalya Puttahonnappa Suresh, Uma Bharathi Indrabalan, Bhargav Shreevatsa, Chandan Dharmashekar, Pranav Singh, Sharanagouda S Patil, Asad Syed, Abdallah M Elgorban, Rajalakshmanan Eswaramoorthy, Raghavendra G Amachawadi, Chandan Shivamallu, Shiva Prasad Kollur
In the recent survey, Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most common mosquito-borne diseases, accounting for ∼30% of fatalities. The outbreaks of the JE virus (JEV) suggests that exhaustive study is essential for the prevention and management of the disease. The disease mainly spreads in humans and pigs by the vector: mosquito; as this is a major concern, this study had employed various bioinformatics tools to investigate the codon usage bias, evolutionary inference and selection pressure analysis of the Japanese encephalitis virus disease...
February 13, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Rabaa Y Athamneh, Rawan Abudalo, Malik Sallam, Abdelrahim Alqudah, Hasan Alquran, Kawther Faisal Amawi, Hashem A Abu-Harirah
Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a considerable public health concern in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The objectives of this study were to analyze the HCV genotype (GT) and sub-genotype (SGT) distribution in the MENA region and to assess the temporal change in the number of sequences within the MENA region. All HCV molecular sequences collected in the MENA region had been retrieved from GenBank as of 1 August 2022. The number of HCV sequences retrieved was 6740 representing sequences from a total of 17 MENA countries with a majority from Iran (n = 1969, 29...
February 13, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Xiangyu Cheng, Jianhao Yang, Xiaoqing Bi, Qi Yang, Defang Zhou, Shicheng Zhang, Longying Ding, Kang Wang, Shuhan Hua, Ziqiang Cheng
Tibetan chicken is found in China Tibet (average altitude; ˃4500 m). However, little is known about avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) found in Tibetan chickens. ALV-J is a typical alpharetrovirus that causes immunosuppression and myelocytomatosis and thus seriously affects the development of the poultry industry. In this study, Tibet-origin mutant ALV-J was isolated from Tibetan chickens and named RKZ-1-RKZ-5. A Myelocytomatosis outbreak occurred in a commercial Tibetan chicken farm in Shigatse of Rikaze, Tibet, China, in March 2022...
February 10, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Chimone S Dalton, Matthew L Workentine, Lisa-Marie Leclerc, Susan Kutz, Frank van der Meer
In 2016, an the first orf virus, a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus of the genus parapoxvirus, from a muskox was isolated on Victoria Island, Nunavut (NU), Canada. We used deep sequencing on DNA extracted from orf virus-positive tissues from wild muskoxen from locations on Victoria Island and the adjacent mainland. Orf virus sequence reads derived from four samples were nearly identical. The consensus sequences generated from pooled reads of MxOV comprises of a large contiguous sequence (contig) of 131,759 bp and a smaller right terminal contig of 3552 bp, containing all coding sequences identified as Parapoxvirus...
February 10, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Rowan Abuyadek, Francis Selvaraj, Sahar AlMarzooqi, Sally Mahmoud, Farida Al-Hosani
BACKGROUND: United Arab Emirates, has reported the first case of COVID-19 in January 2020 and by October 2022, a total of 1 Million cases and 2348 deaths due to COVID-19 have been reported. The Abu Dhabi Public Health Center, has led a novel initiative to conduct a large scale genomic surveillance project. The aim of this surveillance project is to generate data to guide public health pandemic response decision making. METHODS: Samples mainly from the community, points of entry to the emirate and healthcare facilities were collected for surveillance using both targeted PCR and/or Genome sequence analysis...
February 10, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jasmita Gill, Amit Sharma
Plasmodium parasites responsible for malaria follow a complex life cycle of which half takes place inside the human host. Parasites present diverse antigens at different stages of their life cycle and interact with many surface molecules to attach to and enter host cells. The CIDRα1 domain of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) in infected erythrocytes adheres to one such vascular receptor endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR). EPCR is implicated in the pathogenesis of severe malaria as preferential binding of CIDRα1 to endothelium results in widespread sequestration of infected erythrocytes leading to endothelium inflammation and severe disease...
February 10, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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