Yamei Wei, Yanan Cai, Xu Han, Zhanying Han, Yanbo Zhang, Yonggang Xu, Qi Li
Seoul virus (SEOV) is a major pathogen which causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and is present all over the world. However, there are currently few long-term systematic studies of SEOV's phylogenetic and evolutionary mechanisms in epidemic areas. Thus, in this study, we used RT-PCR combined with NGS to obtain the genomes of six SEOV viruses from 1993, as well as 56 Hebei province-specific tissue samples from 1999 to 2022. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the SEOV samples could be divided into seven groups and showed geographic clustering...
September 15, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Gabriele Margos, Markus Hofmann, Sherwood Casjens, Marlene Dupraz, Susanne Heinzinger, Christine Hartberger, Sabrina Hepner, Mercy Schmeusser, Andreas Sing, Volker Fingerle, Karen D McCoy
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a species complex of spirochetal bacteria that occupy different ecological niches which is reflected in their reservoir host- and vector-associations. Borrelia genomes possess numerous linear and circular plasmids. Proteins encoded by plasmid genes play a major role in host- and vector-interaction and are important for Borrelia niche adaptation. However, the plasmid composition and therewith the gene repertoire may vary even in strains of a single species. Borrelia garinii, one of the six human pathogenic species, is common in Europe (vector Ixodes ricinus), Asia (vector Ixodes persulcatus) and in marine birds (vector Ixodes uriae)...
September 14, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Norah P Saarman, Jae Hak Son, Hongyu Zhao, Luciano V Cosme, Yong Kong, Mo Li, Shiyu Wang, Brian L Weiss, Richard Echodu, Robert Opiro, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
The primary vector of the trypanosome parasite causing human and animal African trypanosomiasis in Uganda is the riverine tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff). Our study improved the Gff genome assembly with whole genome 10× Chromium sequencing of a lab reared pupae, identified autosomal versus sex-chromosomal regions of the genome with ddRAD-seq data from 627 field caught Gff, and identified SNPs associated with trypanosome infection with genome-wide association (GWA) analysis in a subset of 351 flies...
September 12, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yousef Nami, Mohaddeseh Rostampour, Bahman Panahi
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (CAS) genes make up bacteria's adaptive immune system. These genes protect bacteria from being eaten by bacteriophages. In this study, CRISPR-Cas systems were characterized using a genomic approach. For this purpose, genome sequences of Lactobacillus johnsonii strains were retrieved, and the diversity, occurrence, and evolution of the CRISPR-Cas systems were analyzed. Then, homology analyses of spacer sequences in identified CRISPR arrays were performed to analyze and characterize the diversity of target phages and plasmids...
September 11, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Morgan C Metrailer, Thi Thu Ha Hoang, Treenate Jiranantasak, Tan Luong, Luong Minh Hoa, Do Bich Ngoc, Quang Thai Pham, Van Khang Pham, Tran Thi Mai Hung, Vu Thi Lan Huong, Thanh Long Pham, Jose Miguel Ponciano, Gabriela Hamerlinck, Duc Anh Dang, Michael H Norris, Jason K Blackburn
Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial cause of anthrax, is a zoonosis affecting livestock and wildlife often spilling over into humans. In Vietnam, anthrax has been nationally reportable since 2015 with cases occurring annually, mostly in the northern provinces. In April 2022, an outbreak was reported in Son La province following the butchering of a water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. A total of 137 humans from three villages were likely exposed to contaminated meat from the animal. Early epidemiological investigations suggested a single animal was involved in all exposures...
September 5, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Janiza Lianne M Foronda, Maria Melissa Ann D Jiao, Fresthel Monica M Climacosa, Hitoshi Oshitani, Lea Necitas G Apostol
Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) is emerging as the dominant serotype among enteroviruses (EVs) responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks in multiple countries. However, details regarding this serotype in the Philippines are limited. In this study, we investigated the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of laboratory-confirmed CVA6 HFMD cases in the Philippines between 2012 and 2017. Data collected from case report forms submitted to the National Reference Laboratory for Poliovirus and other Enteroviruses were used to determine the distribution and clinical findings of laboratory-confirmed CVA6 HFMD...
August 30, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Lorraine Michelet, Jennifer Tambosco, Franck Biet, Patrick Fach, Sabine Delannoy, María Laura Boschiroli
Mycobacterium bovis, which belongs to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, is a highly clonal pathogen. However, several lineages of M. bovis have been described worldwide and nine different clusters were identified in France. Targeted amplicon sequencing using next-generation sequencing technology of eighty-eight phylogenetically informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to infer the phylogenetic relationship of 630 strains of the National Reference Laboratory isolated between 1979 and 2018 from various animal species...
August 30, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Tomotada Iwamoto, Kentaro Arikawa, Yoshiro Murase, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Makoto Kuroda, Yukiko Nishiuchi, Satoshi Mitarai
Currently, tuberculosis (TB) in Japan is highly prevalent among elderly patients who were born during a time when TB was highly prevalent. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lineage 2 (L2) is the predominant strain in the country. Moreover, the proportion of foreign-born patients with TB has been increasing. This epidemiological situation in Japan motivated us to explore the heterogeneity in transmission dynamics among the sublineages of Mtb L2 within this aging population. For this purpose, we conducted a population-based whole genome sequencing analysis of 550 Mtb strains in Kobe, Japan, and employed pairwise single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distance clustering and terminal branch length (TBL) distribution analysis to assess Mtb transmission...
August 29, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Leila Hadj-Henni, Christine Millot, Véronique Lehrter, Denis Augot
Biting midges are vectors of arboviruses such as bluetongue virus, bovine ephemeral fever virus, Akabane virus, African horse sickness virus, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus and Schmallenberg virus. Fast and accurate identification of biting midges is crucial in the study of Culicoides-borne diseases. Morphological identification of biting midges has revealed the presence of cryptic species. A total of 20 species are reported in Madagascar. In this study, we assessed wing morphometric analysis for identification of seven species namely C...
August 26, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ming-Cheng Wang, Yu-Hua Fan, Yen-Zhen Zhang, Carl Jay Ballena Bregente, Wei-Hung Lin, Chao-An Chen, Tzu-Ping Lin, Cheng-Yen Kao
In this study, we compared the characteristics of different uropathogenic Escherichia coli phylogroups. A total of 844 E. coli isolated from urine were enrolled and the antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli to 22 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion test. The distribution of phylogroups and 20 virulence factor genes was determined by PCR. Phenotypes associated with bacterial virulence, including motility, biofilm formation, and the production of curli and siderophore, were examined. Phylogroup B2 was dominant in our isolates (64...
August 25, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jiamei Fu, Lingyu Shen, Weihong Li, Hanqiu Yan, Baiwei Liu, Yu Wang, Yi Tian, Lei Jia, Quanyi Wang, Daitao Zhang, Zhiyong Gao
Norovirus (NoV) is the leading pathogen responsible for global acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks and sporadic cases. NoV evolves through gene mutation and recombination, leading to the emergence of new strains capable of causing global epidemics. This study aimed to learn the epidemiological characteristics of 39 GI.6[P11] NoV outbreaks in Beijing, China, from 2016 to 2019 and to analyze the genetic diversity and phylogenetic process of GI.6[P11] strains. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes showed that GI...
August 17, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jia Hui Tan, Hans Xing Ding, Mun Yik Fong, Yee Ling Lau
Plasmodium knowlesi is the leading cause of malaria in Malaysia. Serine Repeat Antigens (SERAs) have an essential role in the parasite life cycle. However, genetic characterization on P. knowlesi SERA3 Ag2 (PkSERA3 Ag2) is lacking. In the present study, nucleotide diversity, natural selection, and haplotypes of PkSERA3 Ag2 in clinical samples from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo were investigated. A total of 50 P. knowlesi clinical samples were collected from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo...
August 16, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
B L Gu, Y She, G K Pei, Y Du, R Yang, L X Ma, Q Zhao, S G Gao
To systematically investigate the prophages carrying in Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) strains, analyze potential antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence genes in these prophages. We collected 90 whole genome sequences of P. gingivalis from NCBI and utilized the Prophage Hunter online software to predict prophages; Comprehensive antibiotic research database (CARD) and virulence factors database (VFDB) were adopted to analyze the ARGs and virulence factors (VFs) carried by the prophages. Sixty-nine prophages were identified among 24/90 P...
August 10, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Weijun Zeng, Quanhui Yan, Pengfei Du, Zhongmao Yuan, Yawei Sun, Xiaodi Liu, Lihong Zhang, Xueyi Liu, Hongxing Ding, Lin Yi, Shuangqi Fan, Jinding Chen, Mingqiu Zhao
Over the past 20 years, the Seneca Valley virus (SVV) has emerged in various countries and regions around the world. Infected pigs display symptoms similar to foot-and-mouth disease and other vesicular diseases, causing severe economic losses to affected countries. In recent years, the number of SVV infections has been increasing in Brazil, China, and the United States. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed SVV genomic sequence data from the perspectives of evolutionary dynamics, phylogeography, and codon usage bias...
August 7, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Marcelo Adriano Mendes Dos Santos, Janeth Aracely Ramirez Pavon, Lucas Silva Dias, Ana Elisa Viniski, Claudio Luis Campos Souza, Elaine Cristina de Oliveira, Vergínia Correa de Azevedo, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Ana Cecília Ribeiro Cruz, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida Medeiros, Marcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes, Renata Dezengrini Slhessarenko
DENV-2 was the main responsible for a 70% increase in dengue incidence in Brazil during 2019. That year, our metagenomic study by Illumina NextSeq on serum samples from acute febrile patients (n = 92) with suspected arbovirus infection, sampled in 22 cities of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), in the middle west of Brazil, revealed eight complete genomes and two near-complete sequences of DENV-2 genotype III, one Human parvovirus B19 genotype I (5,391 nt) and one Coxsackievirus A6 lineage D (4,514 nt)...
August 4, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Tue Kjærgaard Nielsen, Caroline S Winther-Have, Iben Margrete Thomsen, Robert W Jackson, Mojgan Rabiey, Rosanna Catherine Hennessy, Frederik Bak, Witold Kot, Mette Haubjerg Nicolaisen, Alexander Byth Carstens, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen
Plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species use multiple classes of toxins and virulence factors during host infection. The genes encoding these pathogenicity factors are often located on plasmids and other mobile genetic elements, suggesting that they are acquired through horizontal gene transfer to confer an evolutionary advantage for successful adaptation to host infection. However, the genetic rearrangements that have led to mobilization of the pathogenicity genes are not fully understood. In this study, we have sequenced and analyzed the complete genome sequences of four Pseudomonas amygdali pv...
August 2, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Zu Ma, Dan Xing, Qing Liu, Jian Gao, Ge Wang, Chunxiao Li, Xiaoxia Guo, Yuting Jiang, Teng Zhao, Xinyu Zhou, Hengduan Zhang, Tongyan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus is an important vector of many mosquito-borne viral diseases, including dengue fever and Zika. In recent years, it has spread and colonized tropical, subtropical and temperate regions worldwide. Monitoring of Ae. albopictus population dynamics is an important tool for early warning of mosquito-borne infections. Because the genetic diversity and genetic structure of natural populations are the genetic bases of population dynamics, studies of population genetics can reveal the origin, differentiation and dispersal characteristics of Ae...
August 1, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Benjamin Sobkowiak, Pouya Haghmaram, Natalie Prystajecky, James E A Zlosnik, John Tyson, Linda M N Hoang, Caroline Colijn
OBJECTIVES: Clustering pathogen sequence data is a common practice in epidemiology to gain insights into the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among pathogens. We can find groups of cases with a shared transmission history and common origin, as well as identifying transmission hotspots. Motivated by the experience of clustering SARS-CoV-2 cases using whole genome sequence data during the COVID-19 pandemic to aid with public health investigation, we investigated how differences in epidemiology and sampling can influence the composition of clusters that are identified...
July 31, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Maria Gaudino, Jean-François Valarcher, Sara Hägglund, Katarina Näslund, Siamak Zohari, Mariette F Ducatez, Gilles Meyer
Bovine Parainfluenza Type 3 virus (BPIV-3) is an enveloped, non-segmented single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family (genus Respirovirus) with a well-known role in Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) onset. Being isolated for the first time in 1959, BPIV-3 currently circulates worldwide in cattle herds and is routinely tested in suspected BRD cases. Different commercial vaccines are available to prevent infection and/or to reduce the clinical signs associated with BPIV-3 infection, which are essential to prevent secondary infections...
July 21, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yankai Chang, Junqiang Li, Longxian Zhang
Giardia is a genus of flagellated protozoan parasites that infect the small intestine of humans and animals, causing the diarrheal illness known as giardiasis. Giardia exhibits significant genetic diversity among its isolates, which can have important implications for disease transmission and clinical presentation. This diversity is influenced by the coevolution of Giardia with its host, resulting in the development of unique genetic assemblages with distinct phenotypic characteristics. Although panmixia has not been observed, some assemblages appear to have a broader host range and exhibit higher transmission rates...
July 12, 2023: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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