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Infection, Genetics and Evolution

Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Wildeman Zapata, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Juan A Pineda, Marina Laplana, Natalia A Taborda, Mara Biasin, Mario Clerici, Antonio Caruz, Joan Fibla, María T Rugeles
Vitamin D (VitD) may modulate anti-HIV-1 responses modifying the risk to acquire the HIV-1-infection. We performed a nested case-control exploratory study involving 413 individuals; HIV-1-exposed seropositives (cases) and seronegatives (HESN) (controls) from three cohorts: sexually-exposed from Colombia and Italy and parenterally-exposed from Spain. The association and interactions of 139 variants in 9 VitD pathway genes, and in 14 antiviral genes with resistance/susceptibility (R/S) to HIV-1 infection was evaluated...
May 16, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ali Mirhosseini, Mehran Mohareri, Rohollah Arab, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Abbas Shirdel, Mohammad Mahdi Koshyar, Abolghasem Allahyari, Alireza Bari, Hossein Rahimi, Zahra Mozaheb, Ali Bazarbachi, Reza Boostani, Baratali Mashkani, Houshang Rafatpanah
To gain insight into the origin, evolution, dissemination and viral factors affecting HTLV-1-associated diseases, knowing the complete viral genome sequences is important. So far, no full-length HTLV-1 genome sequence has been reported from Iran. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of HTLV-1 viruses isolated from adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) patients from this region. The genome size of HTLV-1-MhD (Mashhad) was found to be 9036 bp and sequence analysis of the LTR region showed that it belongs to cosmopolitan subtype A...
May 15, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Donya Taghizadeh Maleki, Zohreh Ghalavand, Maisem Laabei, Bahram Nikmanesh, Hamidreza Houri, Mansoor Kodori, Ali Hashemi, Hiva Kadkhoda, Gita Eslami
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing infections with high morbidity and mortality in both healthcare and community settings. The accessory gene regulator (Agr) is a key genetic element controlling the expression of numerous virulence factors in S. aureus. The significance of a functional Agr system in clinical S. aureus isolates derived from pediatric wound infections is still unclear. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify virulence genes and determine Agr functionality from this cohort of patients...
May 15, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
David D Holcomb, Aikaterini Alexaki, Upendra Katneni, Chava Kimchi-Sarfaty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Anburajan Lawrance, Meena Balakrishnan, Vinithkumar Nambali Valsalan, Kirubagaran Ramalingam, Dharani Gopal
Ectoine, a cyclic tetrahydropyrimidine (2-methyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid) is a compatible solute, serves as a protective compound in many halophilic eubacterial cells under stress. In this study, the ectoine biosynthesis genes (ectA, B and C) from the genomic DNA of a deep sea eubacteria, Bacillus clausii NIOT-DSB04 was PCR amplified, cloned into the expression vector pQE30 with a 6 × histidine tag and expressed in M15 cells. The lysates of induced cells with diaminobutyric acid aminotransferase and ectoine synthase disclosed two clear expressed bands with molecular masses of 46 kDa and 15 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE...
May 13, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ting Ouyang, Guyu Niu, Xiaohua Liu, Xinwei Zhang, Ying Zhang, Linzhu Ren
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is a newly identified virus that belongs to the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae. Since the first identification of PCV3 in domestic swine in 2016 in the USA, exciting progress on PCV3 has emphasized the importance of the virus. The aim of this review is to present recent advances in the molecular characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of PCV3. The virus spreads widely throughout almost all tissues of pig and wild boar in various countries, with a gradual increase of the infection...
May 13, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Abdulwahed F Alrefaei, Richard W Gerhold, Johanna L Nader, Diana J Bell, Kevin M Tyler
Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan pathogen that causes avian trichomonosis typically associated with columbids (canker) and birds of prey (frounce) that predate on them, and has recently emerged as an important cause of passerine disease. An archived panel of DNA from North American (USA) birds used initially to establish the ITS ribotypes was reanalysed using Iron hydrogenase (FeHyd) gene sequences to provide an alphanumeric subtyping scheme with improved resolution for strain discrimination. Thirteen novel subtypes of T...
May 10, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Uyangaa Temuujin, Ariunaa Tserendorj, Jumpei Fujiki, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Erdene-Ochir Tseren-Ochir, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Keita Matsuno, Tumenjargal Sharav, Motohiro Horiuchi, Takashi Umemura, Tungalag Chultemdorj
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) causes a highly contagious and fatal disease, developing into acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis, in dogs. CPV-2 has evolved, generating antigenic variants CPV-2a/2b/2c that are globally distributed. However, investigating molecular characterization of CPV-2 among dog populations in Mongolia has been limited. Herein, 42 stool samples were collected from dogs with clinical signs of infection, and conventional PCR assays were employed to detect CPV-2 in 23. Our results indicated that during 2016-2018, the new CPV-2a and 2c subtypes were detected in 34...
May 9, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Noemí Yokobori, Johana Monteserin, Bárbara Rearte, Roxana Paul, Norberto Símboli, Beatriz López, Viviana Ritacco, María Del Carmen Sasiain
The fitness of a pathogen results from the interaction of multiple factors favoring either epidemiological success or failure. Herein, we studied the performance of the M strain, a highly successful multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype, and its non-prosperous variant, the 410 strain, in activated human monocyte-derived macrophages. Both strains showed comparable ability to induce necrotic cell death and to survive in apoptotic macrophages. Of the various macrophage activation conditions tested, none led to an enhanced control of the outbreak strain...
May 8, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Chuanfeng Li, Jingyu Tang, Zongyan Chen, Guangbin Niu, Guangqing Liu
The variability and the intrinsically high mutation rate of canine parvovirus type 2(CPV-2) increased the diversity of CPV-2 in canine populations. Since the first occurrence of CPV-2, three antigenic variants (2a, 2b and 2c) were detected and distributed worldwide. CPV-2c infection has been detected and increasingly reported in China. Here, a CPV-2c strain CPV-SH1516 was isolated and its complete genome sequence was first characterized. Compared with other CPV-2c isolates, CPV-2c isolates from China continued to evolve into divergent CPV-2c variants with specific unique amino acid substitutions under purifying selection...
May 8, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Lana Bitencourt Chaves, Daiana de Souza Perce-da-Silva, Paulo Renato Rivas Totino, Evelyn Kety Pratt Riccio, Barbara de Oliveira Baptista, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Souza, Rodrigo Nunes Rodrigues-da-Silva, Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado, Rodrigo Medeiros de Souza, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro, Dalma Maria Banic, Lilian Rose Pratt-Riccio, Josué da Costa Lima-Junior
The Plasmodium vivax Ookinete Surface Protein (Pvs25) is one of the leading malaria Transmission-Blocking Vaccine candidates based on its high immunogenicity in animal models, transmission-blocking activity of antibodies elicited in clinical trials and high conservation among P. vivax isolates from endemic areas. However, the polymorphism in gene encoding Pvs25 in endemic areas from South America has been poorly studied so far. Here, we investigated the genetic polymorphism of pvs25 in P. vivax isolates from five different regions of the Brazilian Amazon (Cruzeiro do Sul, Mâncio Lima, Guajará, Manaus and Oiapoque) and its impact on antigenicity of predicted B-cell epitopes using gene sequencing and epitope prediction tools...
May 8, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Guadalupe Quintero-Ochoa, Ricardo Romero-Argüelles, Armando Aviles-Hernández, Michel Cejudo-Flores, Patricia Calleja-García, Maribel Domínguez-Gámez, Servando Cantú-Bernal, Ramona Icedo-García, José Soñanez-Organis, Jesús Rosas-Rodríguez, César Romo-Saenz, Patricia Tamez-Guerra, Lilian Flores-Mendoza, Guadalupe González-Ochoa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Enteric viral infections are among the leading causes of gastroenteritis in children up to five years of age worldwide. This study was aimed to determine the disease severity, incidence, and molecular genotyping of rotaviruses, noroviruses, astroviruses, and enteric adenoviruses as gastroenteritis agents among children up to five years old. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastroenteritis severity was determined by using the Ruuska and Vesikari score, whereas the incidence of enteric infections and their genotyping were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis...
May 4, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Igor Mokrousov
The 2nd St. Petersburg Symposium on Tuberculosis and Mycobacteria: Molecular Approach, was held in St. Petersburg, Russia on 5-6 December 2018. A special issue of Infection, Genetics and Evolution will publish articles based on the selected presentations. In this paper, I will discuss some of the hot topics of molecular mycobacteriology highlighted at this meeting that I had the pleasure to organize and honor to chair. The symposium addressed interrelated fundamental and applied issues of modern mycobacteriology such as molecular evolution and phylogenomics, host-microbe interactions and pathogenesis, coevolution of M...
May 4, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Urska Kuhar, Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki
Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been characterized as opportunistic enteric pathogens detected in various domestic, zoo and wild animals, suggesting a wide host range of these viruses. It is thus important to monitor wild animals for the presence of various human and animal pathogens in order to identify a potential reservoir of infectious diseases. In this study, the first phylogenetic analysis of PBV from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was performed with a total of 70 investigated samples of feces from roe deer collected in 2014 and 2015 during a survey throughout Slovenia...
May 3, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Zhen He, Wen Chen, Ryosuke Yasaka, Chunfeng Chen, Xijun Chen
Potato virus M (PVM), which is a member of the genus Carlavirus in the family Betaflexviridae, causes critical economic losses of nightshade crops. PVM is transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner, by sap inoculation and also transmitted in tubers. Previously, several reports described the genetic structure of PVM. However, the evolutionary rate, timescale, spread and adaptation evolution of the virus have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the phylodynamics of PVM using 145 nucleotide sequences of the coat protein gene and 117 sequences of the cysteine-rich nucleic acid-binding protein (NABP) gene, which were sampled between 1985 and 2013...
May 2, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Shadi Aghamohammad, Farzad Badmasti, Armaghan Soltani Shirazi, Hossein Dabiri, Hamid Solgi, Shahram Sabeti, Fereshteh Shahcheraghi
Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriales (ESBL-PE) in fecal carriage have become a global health concern. Detection of putative virulent ESBL-producing E.coli (ESBL-EC) isolates among asymptomatic carriers is a threatening issue in public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal carriage of ESBL-EC, phylo-groups and clonal relatedness among putative virulent groups of ESBL-EC isolated from fecal carriages. A total of 120 rectal swabs; 50.8% (61/120) from inpatients of intensive care unit (ICU) and 49...
May 2, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Dong-Hun Lee, Mary Lea Killian, Mia K Torchetti, Ian Brown, Nicola Lewis, Yohannes Berhane, David E Swayne
Wild bird migration and illegal trade of infected poultry, eggs, and poultry products have been associated with the spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). During 1992-1996, H7N1 and H7N8 low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) were identified from captive wild birds; such as Pekin robin (Leiothrix lutea), magpie robin (Copsychus saularis), flycatcher sp. (genus Empidonax), a species of softbill and parakeet, sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis), painted conure (Pyrrhura picta), fairy bluebird (Irena puella), and common iora (Aegithina tiphia), kept in aviaries or quarantine stations in England, The Netherlands, Singapore and the United States (U...
May 1, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Obed Hernández-Gómez, Steven J A Kimble, Jessica Hua, Vanessa P Wuerthner, Devin K Jones, Brian M Mattes, Rickey D Cothran, Rick A Relyea, George A Meindl, Jason T Hoverman
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes code for membrane-embedded proteins that are involved in parasite/pathogen recognition. The link between the MHC and immunity makes these genes important genetic markers to evaluate in systems where infectious disease is associated with population declines. As human impacts on wildlife populations continue to increase, it is also essential to evaluate the role of MHC and immunity in the context of anthropogenic change. Amphibians are an ideal model to test the role of the MHC in infectious disease resistance, as parasites and anthropogenic disturbances currently threaten populations worldwide...
April 30, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Sahar Ahmed, Mohamed Abd El-Fatah Mahmoud, Cyril Viarouge, Corinne Sailleau, Stephan Zientara, Emmanuel Breard
BTV and EHDV are closely-related orbiviruses that are transmitted between domestic and wild ruminants via the bites of hematophagous midges. Previous studies have reported seropositivity against BTV antibodies in sheep and goats in two Egyptian governorates (Beni Suef and Menoufia). However, no recent data are available on the BTV serotype(s) circulating in Egypt and the likely presence of EHDV has never been explored. This study investigated the presence of BTV and EHDV among cattle which had been found BTV-seropositive by ELISA method...
April 30, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Laura B Tauro, William Marciel de Souza, Maria Elisa Rivarola, Rodrigo de Oliveira, Brenda Konigheim, Sandro Patroca Silva, Clayton Lima, Layanna Oliveira, Janaina de Vasconcelos, Jedson Ferreira Cardoso, João Lídio Vianez Júnior, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes, Marta S Contigiani
During 2013, in Argentina, three new isolates of serogroup Bunyamwera virus (genus Orthobunyavirus, family Peribunyaviridae) were recovered from two horses with encephalitis, and from an aborted equine fetus. In the present study, we report the complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of three new strains isolated in Argentina to clarifying their relationship within the Bunyamwera serogroup virus and to investigate the evolutionary history of viruses with segmented genomes...
April 29, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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