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Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience

Daniela J Palombo, Scott M Hayes, Allison G Reid, Mieke Verfaellie
Recent evidence suggests that the human hippocampus-known primarily for its involvement in episodic memory-plays a role in a host of motivationally relevant behaviors, including some forms of value-based decision-making. However, less is known about the role of the hippocampus in value-based learning. Such learning is typically associated with a striatal system, yet a small number of studies, both in human and nonhuman species, suggest hippocampal engagement. It is not clear, however, whether this engagement is necessary for such learning...
February 14, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Polina M Vanyukov, Michael N Hallquist, Mauricio Delgado, Katalin Szanto, Alexandre Y Dombrovski
Prior work on prosocial and self-serving behavior in human economic exchanges has shown that counterparts' high social reputations bias striatal reward signals and elicit cooperation, even when such cooperation is disadvantageous. This phenomenon suggests that the human striatum is modulated by the other's social value, which is insensitive to the individual's own choices to cooperate or defect. We tested an alternative hypothesis that, when people learn from their interactions with others, they encode prediction error updates with respect to their own policy...
February 12, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Christian Rominger, Ilona Papousek, Corinna M Perchtold, Mathias Benedek, Elisabeth M Weiss, Andreas Schwerdtfeger, Andreas Fink
Although there exists increasing knowledge about brain correlates underlying creative ideation in general, the specific neurocognitive mechanisms implicated in different stages of the creative thinking process are still under-researched. Some recent EEG studies suggested that alpha power during creative ideation varies as a function of time, with the highest levels of alpha power after stimulus onset and at the end of the creative thinking process. The main aim of the present study was to replicate and extend this finding by applying an individual differences approach, and by investigating functional coupling between long distance cortical sites during the process of creative ideation...
February 12, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Jessica P Y Hua, Nicole R Karcher, Anne M Merrill, Kathleen J O'Brien, Kelsey T Straub, Timothy J Trull, John G Kerns
Psychosis is linked to aberrant salience or to viewing neutral stimuli as self-relevant, suggesting a possible impairment in self-relevance processing. Psychosis is also associated with increased dopamine in the dorsal striatum, especially the anterior caudate (Kegeles et al., 2010). Critically, the anterior caudate is especially connected to (a) the cortical default mode network (DMN), centrally involved in self-relevance processing, and (b) to a lesser extent, the cortical frontoparietal network (FPN; Choi, Yeo, & Buckner, 2012)...
February 12, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Eva Gutiérrez-Sigut, Ana Marcet, Manuel Perea
Visual similarity effects during the early stages of word processing have been consistently found for letter-like digits and symbols. However, despite its relevance for models of word recognition, evidence for letter visual-similarity effects is scarce and restricted to behavioral experiments. In two masked priming experiments, we measured event-related potential (ERP) responses to words preceded by an identical (dentist-DENTIST), a visually similar (dentjst-DENTIST), or a visually dissimilar prime (dentgst-DENTIST) to track the time course of the effects of letter visual-similarity during word processing...
February 11, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
L Faul, N D Fogleman, K M Mattingly, B E Depue
The structure and function of the human brain is closely related to cognitive processes of the mind and physiological processes of the body, suggesting that an intricate relationship exists between cognitive health, body health, and underlying neural architecture. In the current study, morphometric differences in cortical and subcortical gray matter regions, white matter integrity, and resting-state functional connectivity was assessed to determine what combinations of neural variables best explain an interconnected behavioral relationship between body mass index (BMI), general intelligence, and specific measures of executive function...
February 6, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Joseph M Orr, Michael J Imburgio, Jessica A Bernard, Marie T Banich
During voluntary task selection, a number of internal and external biases may guide such a choice. However, it is not well understood how reward influences task selection when multiple options are possible. To address this issue, we examined brain activation in a voluntary task-switching paradigm while participants underwent fMRI (n = 19). To reinforce the overall goal to choose the tasks randomly, participants were told of a large bonus that they would receive at the end of the experiment for making random task choices...
January 29, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Jesús Adrián-Ventura, Víctor Costumero, Maria Antònia Parcet, César Ávila
The behavioral approach system (BAS), based on reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), is a neurobehavioral system responsible for detecting and promoting motivated behaviors towards appetitive stimuli. Anatomically, the frontostriatal system has been proposed as the core of the BAS, mainly the ventral tegmental area and the ventral striatum and their dopaminergic connections with medial prefrontal structures. The RST also proposes the personality trait of reward sensitivity as a measurable construct of stable individual differences in BAS activity...
January 24, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Davide Gheza, Jasmina Bakic, Chris Baeken, Rudi De Raedt, Gilles Pourtois
Major depression is characterized by abnormal reward processing and reinforcement learning (RL). This impairment might stem from deficient motivation processes, in addition to reduced reward sensitivity. In this study, we recorded 64-channel EEG in a large cohort of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and matched healthy controls (HC) while they performed a standard RL task. Participants were asked to discover, by trial and error, several hidden stimulus-response associations having different reward probabilities, as enforced using evaluative feedback...
January 23, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Nicholas J Kelley, Anna J Finley, Brandon J Schmeichel
Exercising self-control can be phenomenologically aversive. Insofar as individuals strive to maintain a positive emotional state, one consequence of exercising self-control may thus be a temporarily tuning toward or amplification of reward-related impulses (perhaps arising to countermand the aversive feelings that stem from self-control). Reward-relevant after-effects are relatively underappreciated in self-control research. In the current paper, we review theory and research pertaining to the idea that exercising self-control increases reward responsivity...
January 23, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Conrad Perry, Aaron T Willison, Megan K Walker, Madeleine C Nankivell, Lee M Lawrence, Alexander Thomas
Early posterior negativity (EPN) is an early-occurring, event-related, potential that is elicited by pictures and words that have highly arousing characteristics. Whilst EPN has been found with words presented in isolation several times, different types of words have shown quite different effects across different types of tasks. One possible reason for this is that memory and attentional demands may affect the way semantic features of words are processed, and this may modulate EPN. This was investigated in a silent reading task using abstract and concrete words of negative and neutral valence and a dual phonological working memory task to manipulate memory load...
January 22, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Veronica Mäki-Marttunen, Thomas Hagen, Thomas Espeseth
Cognitive control is a highly dynamic process that relies on flexible engagement of prefrontal areas and of neuromodulatory systems in order to adapt to changing demands. A range of internal and external factors come into play when individuals engage in a task requiring cognitive control. Here we investigated whether increased working memory (WM) demands would induce a flexible change in cognitive control mode in young healthy individuals. We developed a novel variant of the well-known AX-continuous performance task (AX-CPT)...
January 18, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Philippe R Goldin, Craig A Moodie, James J Gross
Emotion regulation (ER) is an important skill for well-being. Cognitive reappraisal is a goal-oriented cognitive change strategy. Acceptance involves decentering from immediate habits of reactivity, observing moment-to-moment shifts in thoughts, emotions, and sensations. These two regulation strategies are thought to have different effects on emotion; however, no study has examined the differential effects of reappraisal and acceptance on behavioral, autonomic, and brain responses in the context of ideographic personally salient negative self-beliefs...
January 17, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Dominique Makowski, Marco Sperduti, Jérôme Pelletier, Phillippe Blondé, Valentina La Corte, Margherita Arcangeli, Tiziana Zalla, Stéphane Lemaire, Jérôme Dokic, Serge Nicolas, Pascale Piolino
The ability to modulate our emotional experience, depending on our current goal and context, is of critical importance for adaptive behavior. This ability encompasses various emotion regulation strategies, such as fictional reappraisal, at stake whenever one engages in fictional works (e.g., movies, books, video games, virtual environments). Neuroscientific studies investigating the distinction between the processing of real and fictional entities have reported the involvement of brain structures related to self-relevance and emotion regulation, suggesting a threefold interaction between the appraisal of reality, aspects of the Self, and emotions...
January 4, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, William H Alexander
Efficient integration of environmental information is critical in goal-directed behavior. Motivational information regarding potential rewards and costs (such as required effort) affects performance and decisions whether to engage in a task. While it is generally acknowledged that costs and benefits are integrated to determine the level of effort to be exerted, how this integration occurs remains an open question. Computational models of high-level cognition postulate serial processing of task-relevant features and demonstrate that prioritizing the processing of one feature over the other can affect performance...
January 3, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Jacqueline R Janowich, James F Cavanagh
Cognitive control is critical for dynamically guiding goal-directed behavior, particularly when applying preparatory, or proactive, control processes. However, it is unknown how proactive control is modulated by timing demands. This study investigated how timing demands may instantiate distinct neural processes and contribute to the use of different types of proactive control. In two experiments, healthy young adults performed the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT) or Dot Pattern Expectancy (DPX) task...
January 3, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Sam Hall-McMaster, Fabrice Luyckx
Many complex real-world decisions, such as deciding which house to buy or whether to switch jobs, involve trying to maximize reward across a sequence of choices. Optimal Foraging Theory is well suited to study these kinds of choices because it provides formal models for reward-maximization in sequential situations. In this article, we review recent insights from foraging neuroscience, behavioral ecology, and computational modelling. We find that a commonly used approach in foraging neuroscience, in which choice items are encountered at random, does not reflect the way animals direct their foraging efforts in certain real-world settings, nor does it reflect efficient reward-maximizing behavior...
January 3, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Martin Maier, Rasha Abdel Rahman
Language is assumed to augment human cognition. But can language also affect basic mechanisms of perception, suggesting cognitive penetrability of perception? This idea is highly controversial: linguistic categorization may induce top-down effects on ongoing perceptual processing. Alternatively, such effects may not concern perception proper, but pre-perceptual shifts of attention or downstream processes, such as perceptual judgment. This study provides a critical test of these views by investigating categorical perception (CP) of novel objects in a balanced learning design, controlling for perceptual experience and low-level visual differences...
January 3, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Carlo Lai, Gaia Romana Pellicano, Daniela Altavilla, Alessio Proietti, Giada Lucarelli, Giuseppe Massaro, Massimiliano Luciani, Paola Aceto
Exposure to violence in video games has been associated with a desensitization toward violent content, a decrease of empathy, and prosocial behavior. Moreover, violent video games seem to be related to a reduction of neural activation in the circuits linked to social emotional processing. The purpose of the present study was to compare the neural response to social inclusion images after violent and nonviolent video game playing. Electroencephalographic data of the 32 participants were recorded during a visual task with three presentations (T0, T1, T2) of 60 stimuli (30 social inclusion vs...
December 18, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Manuel Oliva
The ability to focus on a task while disregarding irrelevant information is an example of selective attention. The perceptual-load hypothesis argues that the occurrence of early or late selection mechanisms is determined by task-relevant perceptual load. Additionally, evidence shows that pupil size serves as proxy of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) activity, a system associated with cognitive and attentional mediation. Here, we assessed pupil baseline (and pupil dilation) as predictors of load-related early and late selection performance...
December 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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