Valentina Lykhopiy, Vanshika Malviya, Stephanie Humblet-Baron, Susan M Schlenner
FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg ) are indispensable for immune homoeostasis and for the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) signalling is critical in all aspects of Treg biology. Consequences of defective IL-2 signalling are insufficient numbers or dysfunction of Treg and hence autoimmune disorders in human and mouse. The restoration and maintenance of immune homoeostasis remain central therapeutic aims in the field of autoimmunity. Historically, broadly immunosuppressive drugs with serious side-effects have been used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases or prevention of organ-transplant rejection...
September 23, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Charalabos Antonatos, Katerina Grafanaki, Sophia Georgiou, Evangelos Evangelou, Yiannis Vasilopoulos
In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been instrumental in unraveling the genetic architecture of complex diseases, including psoriasis. The application of large-scale GWA studies in psoriasis has illustrated several associated loci that participate in the cutaneous inflammation, however explaining a fraction of the disease heritability. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies and functional genomics approaches, the post-GWAS era aims to unravel the functional mechanisms underlying the inter-individual variability in psoriasis patients...
September 16, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Isaure Vanmeerbeek, Stefan Naulaerts, Abhishek D Garg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Francesca Sposito, Sarah Northey, Amandine Charras, Paul S McNamara, Christian M Hedrich
Nebulized hypertonic saline (3-7%) is commonly used to increase mucociliary clearance in patients with chronic airway disease and/or virus infections. However, altered salt concentrations may contribute to inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 500 mM NaCl (3%) triggers inflammation in human macrophages and identify the molecular mechanisms involved. NaCl-induced pyroptosis, IL-1β, IL-18 and ASC speck release were measured in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages...
August 12, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Xueli Yang, Xianliang Hou, Junning Zhang, Zhenyu Liu, Guangyu Wang
Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are caused by immune tolerance deficiency or abnormal immune regulation, leading to damage to host organs. The complicated pathogenesis and varied clinical symptoms of AIDs pose great challenges in diagnosing and monitoring this disease. Regrettably, the etiological factors and pathogenesis of AIDs are still not completely understood. It is noteworthy that the development of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology provides a new tool for analyzing the transcriptome of AIDs...
August 7, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Zahra Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Marzieh Mazinani, Mohsen Badalzadeh, Hanieh Heydarlou, Raphael Carapito, Anne Molitor, Andrés Caballero Garcia de Oteyza, Michele Proietti, Maryam Soleimani Bavani, Mansoureh Shariat, Morteza Fallahpour, Masoud Movahedi, Leila Moradi, Bodo Grimbacher, Seiamak Bahram, Zahra Pourpak
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the severe inborn errors of the immune system associated with life-threatening infections. Variations in SCID phenotypes, especially atypical SCID, may cause a significant delay in diagnosis. Therefore, SCID patients need to receive an early diagnosis. Here, we describe the clinical manifestations and genetic results of four SCID and atypical SCID patients. All patients (4 males and 4 females) in early infancy presented with SCID phenotypes within 6 months of birth...
July 29, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Kathleen M Vazzana, Anthony M Musolf, Joan E Bailey-Wilson, Linda T Hiraki, Earl D Silverman, Christiaan Scott, Clifton L Dalgard, Sarfaraz Hasni, Zuoming Deng, Mariana J Kaplan, Laura B Lewandowski
Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) patients are unique, with hallmarks of Mendelian disorders (early-onset and severe disease) and thus are an ideal population for genetic investigation of SLE. In this study, we use the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), a family-based genetic association analysis that employs robust methodology, to analyze whole genome sequencing data. We aim to identify novel genetic associations in an ancestrally diverse, international cSLE cohort. Forty-two cSLE patients and 84 unaffected parents from 3 countries underwent whole genome sequencing...
July 24, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Abhishek D Garg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Hope J Wolmarans, Vayda R Barker, Andrea Chobrutskiy, Boris I Chobrutskiy, Taha I Huda, George Blanck
With the improvement of treatment options, multiple myeloma related life expectancy has been prolonged, but the disease remains largely incurable. Immunotherapy is a growing field that shows promise in advancements for treatment, and recent work has demonstrated an opportunity to use immune receptor, complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3)-candidate antigen chemical complementarity scores to identify survival distinctions among subgroups of patients. Here, we have applied the complementarity scoring algorithm to identify multiple myeloma related, CDR3-cancer testis antigen (CTA) relationships associated with survival distinctions...
July 13, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Ushashi Banerjee, Sneha Chunchanur, Ambica R, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji, Amit Singh, Dipshikha Chakravortty, Nagasuma Chandra
Host immune response to COVID-19 plays a significant role in regulating disease severity. Although big data analysis has provided significant insights into the host biology of COVID-19 across the world, very few such studies have been performed in the Indian population. This study utilizes a transcriptome-integrated network analysis approach to compare the immune responses between asymptomatic or mild and moderate-severe COVID-19 patients in an Indian cohort. An immune suppression phenotype is observed in the early stages of moderate-severe COVID-19 manifestation...
July 12, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Yi Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Guihua Chen, Qianwei Xing, Bingye Zhu, Xiang Wang
The ferredoxin 1 (FDX1) gene had been recently reported as a critical mediator of cuproptosis, and without doubt, its roles in KIRC would be of importance. Hence, this paper was to explore the roles of FDX1 in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) and its potential molecular mechanisms via scRNA-sequencing and bulk RNA-sequencing analyses. FDX1 was lowly expressed in KIRC and validated both at the protein and mRNA levels (all p < 0.05). Moreover, its elevated expression was linked with a better overall survival (OS) prognosis in KIRC (p < 0...
July 10, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Mengdan Miao, Shanhu Cao, Yifei Tian, Da Liu, Lixia Chen, Qiaoying Chai, Mei Wei, Shaoguang Sun, Le Wang, Shuanli Xin, Gang Liu, Mingqi Zheng
The current diagnostic biomarkers of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), troponins, lack specificity and exist as false positives in other non-cardiac diseases. Previous studies revealed that cuproptosis, ferroptosis, and immune infiltration are all involved in the development of AMI. We hypothesize that combining the analysis of cuproptosis, ferroptosis, and immune infiltration in AMI will help identify more precise diagnostic biomarkers. The results showed that a total of 19 cuproptosis- and ferroptosis-related genes (CFRGs) were differentially expressed between the healthy and AMI groups...
July 8, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Yiqin Wang, Murad Alahdal, Jia Ye, Liangliang Jing, Xiaoxin Liu, Huan Chen, Liang Jin, Rongyue Cao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Xiaoting Lv, Qingquan Chen, Zewei Zhang, Kaili Du, Yaping Huang, Xingzhe Li, Yiming Zeng
In order to explore whether αCGRP (Calca) deficiency aggravates pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Clinical data from patients with PF (n = 52) were retrospectively analyzed. Lung tissue from a bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat model was compared with that of Calca-knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) using immunohistochemistry, RNA-seq, and UPLC-MS/MS metabolomic analyses. The results showed that decreased αCGRP expression and activation of the type 2 immune response were detected in patients with PF...
May 25, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Elisabeth M Simonin, Bettina Wagner
IgE-binding monocytes are a rare peripheral immune cell type involved in the allergic response through binding of IgE on their surface. IgE-binding monocytes are present in both healthy and allergic individuals. We performed RNA sequencing to ask how the function of IgE-binding monocytes differs in the context of allergy. Using a large animal model of allergy, equine Culicoides hypersensitivity, we compared the transcriptome of IgE-binding monocytes in allergic and non-allergic horses at two seasonal timepoints: (i) when allergic animals were clinical healthy, in the winter "Remission Phase", and (ii) during chronic disease, in the summer "Clinical Phase"...
May 16, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Aliya Rehati, Buzukela Abuduaini, Zhao Liang, Dong Chen, Fangping He
Heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5 (HSPA5) is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, which regulates cell metabolism, particularly lipid metabolism. While HSPA5's role in regulating cell function is well described, HSPA5 binding to RNA and its biological function in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still lacking. In the present study, the ability of HSPA5 to modulate alternative splicing (AS) of cellular genes was assessed using Real-Time PCR on 89 NAFLD-associated genes. RNA immunoprecipitation coupled to RNA sequencing (RIP-Seq) assays were also performed to identify cellular mRNAs bound by HSPA5...
May 8, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Jörg Hänze, Johannes Schulte-Herbrüggen, Rainer Hofmann, Axel Hegele
Exploring the regulation of co-inhibitory (PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4) and co-stimulatory (CD28) genes by chemotherapeutic drugs is important for combined immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. ICB interferes with T-cell receptor and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) signaling by antibody drugs directed against the co-inhibitors. Here, we analyzed urothelial (T24) cell line with respect to cytokine signaling by interferon γ (IFNG) and the leukemia lymphocyte (Jurkat) cell line with respect to T-cell activation as mimicked by phorbolester and calcium ionophore (pma/iono)...
May 3, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Catherine M Stein
Resistance to M. tuberculosis, often referred to as "RSTR" in the literature, is being increasingly studied because of its potential relevance as a clinical outcome in vaccine studies. This review starts by addressing the importance of epidemiological characterization of this phenotype, and ongoing challenges in that characterization. Then, this review summarizes the extant genetic and genomic studies of this phenotype, including heritability studies, candidate gene studies, and genome-wide association studies, as well as whole transcriptome studies...
April 22, 2023: Genes and Immunity
Mervat Naguib, Shereen El Sawy, Laila Rashed, Maha AlHelf, Marwa Abdelgwad
The main aim of this study was to assess the expression level of circulating long non-coding RNA maternally expressed gene 3 (lncRNA-MEG3), microRNA (miR-125a-5P), the chemokine C-X-C motif ligand13 (CXCL13), and the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) cases and to study its relation to the disease severity and treatment response. This case-control study included 45 patients newly diagnosed as ITP and 45 healthy subjects. We assessed complete blood count, antinuclear antibodies, hepatitis B and C virus serology, lncRNA-MEG3, miR-125a-5P, and CXCL13 expression in serum by real-time PCR and NF-kb protein by ELISA...
April 2023: Genes and Immunity
Gong Zhang, Ruyi Huang, Hui Zhao, Yuke Xia, Hui Huang, Mengjia Qian, Yuehe Fu, Yiyao Cui
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous and aggressive disease with poor prognosis. Acetylation modifications affect a great number of biological processes of malignant tumors. The current study aims at revealing the role of acetylation-related mechanism in TNBC progression. Methyltransferase like-3 (METTL3) was found to be downregulated in TNBC cells via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analyses. Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and GST pulldown assays revealed the interaction between acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) and METTL3...
March 8, 2023: Genes and Immunity
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