Journals Reviews in Endocrine & Metabol...

Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Luciana Martel-Duguech, Jonathan Poirier, Isabelle Bourdeau, André Lacroix
Adrenal crisis (AC) is a life threatening acute adrenal insufficiency (AI) episode which can occur in patients with primary AI but also secondary AI (SAI), tertiary AI (TAI) and iatrogenic AI (IAI). In SAI, TAI and IAI, AC may develop when the HPA axis is unable to mount an adequate glucocorticoid response to severe stress due to pituitary or hypothalamic disruption. It manifests as an acute deterioration in multi-organ homeostasis that, if untreated, leads to shock and death. Despite the availability of effective preventive strategies, its prevalence is increasing in patients with SAI, TAI and IAI due to more frequent exogenous steroid administration, pituitary immune-related effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors and opioid use in pain management...
February 27, 2024: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Christian Rosendal, Mai Christiansen Arlien-Søborg, Eigil Husted Nielsen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Claus Larsen Feltoft, Caroline Kistorp, Olaf M Dekkers, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, Jakob Dal
Acromegaly is a rare disease and thus challenging to accurately quantify epidemiologically. In this comprehensive literature review, we compare different approaches to studying acromegaly from an epidemiological perspective and describe the temporal evolution of the disease pertaining to epidemiological variables, clinical presentation and mortality. We present updated epidemiological data from the population-based Danish cohort of patients with acromegaly (AcroDEN ), along with meta-analyses of existing estimates from around the world...
February 10, 2024: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Julio Abucham, Manoel Martins
Central hypothyroidism (CH) is characterized by decreased thyroid hormone production due to insufficient stimulation of an otherwise normal thyroid gland by TSH. In patients with established hypothalamic-pituitary disease, a low FT4 concentration is considered highly specific, although poorly sensitive, for the diagnosis of CH. That would be comparable to diagnosing primary hypothyroidism in patients at risk only when serum FT4 concentrations are below the reference range, missing all patients with subclinical primary hypothyroidism and preventing proper therapy in patients in which thyroxine replacement is clearly beneficial...
February 7, 2024: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Daniel de Luis Román, Juana Carretero Gómez, José Manuel García-Almeida, Fernando Garrachón Vallo, German Guzmán Rolo, Juan José López Gómez, Francisco José Tarazona-Santabalbina, Alejandro Sanz-Paris
OBJECTIVES: To propose the grounds for "diabetic sarcopenia" as a new comorbidity of diabetes, and to establish a muscle screening algorithm proposal to facilitate its diagnosis and staging in clinical practice. METHOD: A qualitative expert opinion study was carried out using the nominal technique. A literature search was performed with the terms "screening" or "diagnostic criteria" and "muscle loss" or "sarcopenia" and "diabetes" that was sent to a multidisciplinary group of 7 experts who, in a face-to-face meeting, discussed various aspects of the screening algorithm...
February 5, 2024: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Maria Kalafateli, Ioanna Aggeletopoulou, Christos Triantos
Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) is common in critically ill patients with cirrhosis, but it has been also documented in non-critically ill patients. Its pathophysiology is complex and not well understood yet. In this review, we aimed to present potential mechanisms and causal pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of RAI in cirrhosis. There is accumulating evidence supporting a suboptimal baseline adrenal function in cirrhosis mainly due to decreased cortisol synthesis and metabolism rates from the adrenal gland...
February 2, 2024: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Heraldo M Garmes
Pituitary hormone deficiency, hypopituitarism, is a dysfunction resulting from numerous etiologies, which can be complete or partial, and is therefore heterogeneous. This heterogeneity makes it difficult to interpret the results of scientific studies with these patients.Adequate treatment of etiologies and up-to-date hormone replacement have improved morbidity and mortality rates in patients with hypopituitarism. As GH replacement is not performed in a reasonable proportion of patients, especially in some countries, it is essential to understand the known consequences of GH replacement in each subgroup of patients with this heterogeneous dysfunction...
January 25, 2024: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Daniela Esposito, Åsa Tivesten, Catharina Olivius, Oskar Ragnarsson, Gudmundur Johannsson
Women with hypopituitarism have various degrees of androgen deficiency, which is marked among those with combined hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and secondary adrenal insufficiency. The consequences of androgen deficiency and the effects of androgen replacement therapy have not been fully elucidated. While an impact of androgen deficiency on outcomes such as bone mineral density, quality of life, and sexual function is plausible, the available evidence is limited. There is currently no consensus on the definition of androgen deficiency in women and it is still controversial whether androgen substitution should be used in women with hypopituitarism and coexisting androgen deficiency...
January 19, 2024: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Rosalind Walmsley, Lynn Chong, Michael W Hii, Robyn M Brown, Priya Sumithran
Gastrointestinal nutrient sensing via taste receptors may contribute to weight loss, metabolic improvements, and a reduced preference for sweet and fatty foods following bariatric surgery. This review aimed to investigate the effect of bariatric surgery on the expression of oral and post-oral gastrointestinal taste receptors and associations between taste receptor alterations and clinical outcomes of bariatric surgery. A systematic review was conducted to capture data from both human and animal studies on changes in the expression of taste receptors in oral or post-oral gastrointestinal tissue following any type of bariatric surgery...
January 11, 2024: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Dehuan Liang, Guoping Li
White adipose tissue (WAT) serves as the primary site for energy storage and endocrine regulation in mammals, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for thermogenesis and energy expenditure. The conversion of white adipocytes to brown-like fat cells, known as browning, has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for reversing obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of transcripts that do not encode proteins but exert regulatory functions on gene expression at various levels...
December 29, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Andrea Corsello, Rosa Maria Paragliola, Roberto Salvatori
Hypopituitarism in the elderly is an underestimated condition mainly due to the non-specific presentation that can be attributed to the effects of aging and the presence of comorbidities. Diagnosis and treatment of hypopituitarism often represent a challenging task and this is even more significant in the elderly. Diagnosis can be insidious due to the physiological changes occurring with aging that complicate the interpretation of hormonal investigations, and the need to avoid some provocative tests that carry higher risks of side effects in this population...
December 27, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Syed Ali Imran, Michael Wilkinson
Hypopituitarism (HP) frequently occurs in patients presenting with sellar masses and despite recent advances in therapeutic options, HP patients consistently suffer from impaired quality of life due to psychological distress and cognitive dysfunction. These neurocognitive complications tend to persist in spite of surgical or biochemical remission of the disease making it especially challenging to segregate the effect of HP per se from other comorbidities such as the effect of tumour, surgery, radiation therapy, or complications caused by excess hormone production...
December 26, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Rexhina Vlashi, Xingen Zhang, Haibo Li, Guiqian Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Rodolfo A Rey, Ignacio Bergadá, María Gabriela Ballerini, Débora Braslavsky, Ana Chiesa, Analía Freire, Romina P Grinspon, Ana Keselman, Andrea Arcari
Hypopituitarism, or the failure to secrete hormones produced by the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) and/or to release hormones from the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis), can be congenital or acquired. When more than one pituitary hormone axis is impaired, the condition is known as combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). The deficiency may be primarily due to a hypothalamic or to a pituitary disorder, or concomitantly both, and has a negative impact on target organ function. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency in the pediatric age...
December 19, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Lydia Grixti, Laura C Lane, Simon H Pearce
Graves' disease (GD) is the commonest cause of hyperthyroidism and has a strong female preponderance. Everyday clinical practice suggests strong aggregation within families and twin studies demonstrate that genetic factors account for 60-80% of risk of developing GD. In this review, we collate numerous genetic studies and outline the discoveries over the years, starting with historic candidate gene studies and then exploring more recent genome-wide linkage and association studies, which have involved substantial cohorts of East Asian patients as well as those of European descent...
December 18, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Julie Chen, Julia J Chang, Esther H Chung, Ruth B Lathi, Lusine Aghajanova, Laurence Katznelson
Women with hypopituitarism have lower fertility rates and worse pregnancy outcomes than women with normal pituitary function. These disparities exist despite the use of assisted reproductive technologies and hormone replacement. In women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, administration of exogenous gonadotropins can be used to successfully induce ovulation. Growth hormone replacement in the setting of growth hormone deficiency has been suggested to potentiate reproductive function, but its routine use in hypopituitary women remains unclear and warrants further study...
December 14, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Julie Refardt, Cihan Atila, Mirjam Christ-Crain
Arginine vasopressin deficiency (AVP-D) is one of the main entities of the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome. Its correct diagnosis and differentiation from the other two causes - AVP resistance and primary polydipsia - is crucial as this determines the further management of these patients.Over the last years, several new diagnostic tests using copeptin, the stable surrogate marker of AVP, have been introduced. Among them, hypertonic saline stimulated copeptin was confirmed to reliably and safely improve the diagnostic accuracy to diagnose AVP-D...
December 13, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Stephanie Chacar, Abdulhamid Abdi, Khalifa Almansoori, Jawaher Alshamsi, Cynthia Al Hageh, Pierre Zalloua, Ali A Khraibi, Stephen G Holt, Moni Nader
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder denoted by chronic hyperglycemia that drives maladaptive structural changes and functional damage to the vasculature. Attenuation of this pathological remodeling of blood vessels remains an unmet target owing to paucity of information on the metabolic signatures of this process. Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is expressed in the vasculature and is implicated in the control of blood vessels homeostasis. Recently, CaMKII has attracted a special attention in view of its chronic upregulated activity in diabetic tissues, yet its role in the diabetic vasculature remains under investigation...
December 8, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Jose Donato, John J Kopchick
Growth hormone (GH) is secreted by somatotropic cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The classical effects of GH comprise the stimulation of cell proliferation, tissue and body growth, lipolysis, and insulin resistance. The GH receptor (GHR) is expressed in numerous brain regions. Notably, a growing body of evidence indicates that GH-induced GHR signaling in specific neuronal populations regulates multiple physiological functions, including energy balance, glucose homeostasis, stress response, behavior, and several neurological/cognitive aspects...
December 7, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Rexhina Vlashi, Xingen Zhang, Haibo Li, Guiqian Chen
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an incapacitating and one of the most common physically degenerative conditions with an assorted etiology and a highly complicated molecular mechanism that to date lacks an efficient treatment. The capacity to design biological networks and accurately modify existing genomic sites holds an apt potential for applications across medical and biotechnological sciences. One of these highly specific genomes editing technologies is the CRISPR/Cas9 mechanism, referred to as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, which is a defense mechanism constituted by CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) directed by small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA) that bind to target DNA through Watson-Crick base pairing rules where subsequent repair of the target DNA is initiated...
December 6, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Zeinab Ghesmati, Mohsen Rashid, Shabnam Fayezi, Frank Gieseler, Effat Alizadeh, Masoud Darabi
Adipose tissue, including white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and beige adipose tissue, is vital in modulating whole-body energy metabolism. While WAT primarily stores energy, BAT dissipates energy as heat for thermoregulation. Beige adipose tissue is a hybrid form of adipose tissue that shares characteristics with WAT and BAT. Dysregulation of adipose tissue metabolism is linked to various disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and infertility. Both brown and beige adipocytes secrete multiple molecules, such as batokines, packaged in extracellular vesicles or as soluble signaling molecules that play autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine roles...
December 5, 2023: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
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