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Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders

Christian A Koch, Siegfried Krabbe, Bernd Hehmke
The immune system is closely intertwined with the endocrine system. Many effects of medications used for various clinical endocrine conditions such as the metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, Graves' disease and others also have an impact on the immune system. Some drugs including statins, metformin, angiotensin converting enzyme and proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin type-9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and sex hormones are known to have immunomodulatory properties. We here review the literature on this topic and provide some clinical examples including the use of statins in Graves' orbitopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and adult-onset Still's disease...
January 23, 2019: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Christian A Koch, Alessandro Antonelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2019: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Natividad Pons Fernández, Francisca Moreno, Julia Morata, Ana Moriano, Sara León, Carmen De Mingo, Ángel Zuñiga, Fernando Calvo
Less than 15% of hypertension cases in children are secondary to a primary hyperaldosteronism. This is idiopathic in 60% of the cases, secondary to a unilateral adenoma in 30% and 10% remaining by primary adrenal hyperplasia, familial hyperaldosteronism, ectopic aldosterone production or adrenocortical carcinoma.To date, four types of familial hyperaldosteronism (FH I to FH IV) have been reported. FH III is caused by germline mutations in KCNJ5, encoding the potassium channel Kir3.4. The mutations cause the channel to lose its selectivity for potassium, allowing large quantities of sodium to enter the cell...
December 19, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Silvia Martina Ferrari, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Claudia Caruso, Salvatore Benvenga, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro Antonelli
Patients affected by autoimmune thyroiditis reached positive effects on indices of thyroid autoimmunity and/or thyroidal function, after following a treatment with selenomethionine (Se) alone, or Se in combination with Myo-inositol (Myo-Ins). Our purpose was to investigate if Myo-Ins alone, or a combination of Se + Myo-Ins, is effective in protecting thyroid cells from the effects given by cytokines, or hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). We assessed the interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) secretion by stimulating primary thyrocytes (obtained from Hashimoto's thyroiditis or from control patients) with cytokines in presence/absence of H2 O2...
December 4, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Poupak Fallahi, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Claudia Caruso, Giovanni Guglielmi, Alessandro Antonelli
Myo-inositol (Myo-Ins) plays an important role in thyroid function and autoimmunity. Myo-Ins is the precursor for the synthesis of phosphoinositides, which takes part in the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) signal transduction pathway, and plays a decisive role in several cellular processes. In the thyroid cells, PtdIns is involved in the intracellular thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) signaling, via Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) (PIP-3). Moreover, the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinases (PI3K) family of lipid kinases regulates diverse aspects of T, B, and Tregs lymphocyte behaviour...
December 3, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Michele Colaci, Lorenzo Malatino, Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak Fallahi, Dilia Giuggioli, Clodoveo Ferri
The term "HCV syndrome" encompasses several organ- and systemic pathophysiological states, which often recognize autoimmunity or neoplastic evolution in their pathophysiology, as well as chronic HCV infection as trigger. The clinical features of HCV patients are heterogenous, and may include endocrine or metabolic disorders, namely autoimmune thyroiditis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and erectile/sexual dysfunctions. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the endocrine/metabolic diseases associated with chronic HCV infection, focusing on the main concepts emerged in the recent literature in this field...
November 29, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Sriram Gubbi, Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Constantine A Stratakis, Christian A Koch
The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus can be affected by autoimmune-mediated structural and functional disruption. These autoimmune-mediated diseases occur more commonly in females and are often found during pregnancy or in the post-partum period. Autoimmune diseases can either affect parts of the pituitary or hypothalamus, or can involve both sellar and suprasellar structures. Most of these cases comprise primary hypophysitis (PRH). Over the years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of reported PRH cases and related disorders, including hypophysitis induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors...
December 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Camilla Virili, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro Antonelli, Salvatore Benvenga, Marco Centanni
About two third of the human microbial commensal community, namely the gut microbiota, is hosted by the gastrointestinal tract which represents the largest interface of the organism to the external environment. This microbial community co-evolved in a symbiotic relationship with the human beings. Growing evidence support the notion that the microbiota plays a significant role in maintaining nutritional, metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the host. Microbiota, beside the expected role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis also exerts metabolic functions in nutrients digestion and absorption, detoxification and vitamins' synthesis...
December 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Roberto Vita, Antonio Ieni, Giovanni Tuccari, Salvatore Benvenga
Although the incidence of some malignancy has decreased over the recent years, this is not the case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), whose incidence has increased worldwide. Most PTMC are found incidentally after histological examination of specimens from surgery for benign thyroid disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, whose incidence has also increased, coexists in about one in three PTMC patients. Three different mechanisms have been proposed to clarify the association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and PTMC, namely tumor development/growth by: (i) TSH stimulation, (ii) expression of certain proto-oncogenes, (iii) chemokines and other molecules produced by the lymphocytic infiltrate...
November 20, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Silvia Martina Ferrari, Poupak Fallahi, Fabio Galetta, Emanuele Citi, Salvatore Benvenga, Alessandro Antonelli
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are drugs that inhibit the "checkpoint molecules". Different types of cancer immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved recently: CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies (as ipilimumab); anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (as pembrolizumab and nivolumab); and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (as atezolizumab, avelumab, and durmalumab). The increased immune response induced by these agents leads to immune-related adverse events (irAEs), that can vary from mild to fatal, according to the organ system and severity...
September 21, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
M Langeveld, C E M Hollak
Inborn errors of metabolism encompass a wide spectrum of disorders, frequently affecting bone. The most important metabolic disorders that primarily influence calcium or phosphate balance, resulting in skeletal pathology, are hypophosphatemic rickets and hypophosphatasia. Conditions involving bone marrow or affecting skeletal growth and development are mainly the lysosomal storage disorders, in particular the mucopolysaccharidoses. In these disorders skeletal abnormalities are often the presenting symptom and early recognition and intervention improves outcome in many of these diseases...
September 12, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Christian A Koch, Vin Tangpricha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Vin Tangpricha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Joseph Gerth, Tracy Becerra-Culqui, Andrew Bradlyn, Darios Getahun, Enid M Hunkeler, Timothy L Lash, Andrea Millman, Rebecca Nash, Virginia P Quinn, Brandi Robinson, Douglas Roblin, Michael J Silverberg, Vin Tangpricha, Suma Vupputuri, Michael Goodman
A key priority of transgender health research is the evaluation of long-term effects of gender affirmation treatment. Thus, accurate assessment of treatment receipt is critical. The data for this analysis came from an electronic medical records (EMR) based cohort of transgender individuals. A subset of cohort members were also asked to complete a self-administered survey. Information from the EMR was compared with survey responses to assess the extent of agreement regarding transmasculine (TM)/transfeminine (TF) status, hormone therapy receipt, and type of surgery performed...
September 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Natnita Mattawanon, Jessica B Spencer, David A Schirmer, Vin Tangpricha
Gender affirming procedures adversely affect the reproductive potential of transgender people. Thus, fertility preservation options should be discussed with all transpeople before medical and surgical transition. In transwomen, semen cryopreservation is typically straightforward and widely available at fertility centers. The optimal number of vials frozen depends on their reproductive goals and treatment options, therefore a consultation with a fertility specialist is optimal. Experimental techniques including spermatogonium stem cells (SSC) and testicular tissue preservation are technologies currently under development in prepubertal individuals but are not yet clinically available...
September 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Jessica Abramowitz
There has been an increasing prevalence of individuals presenting for treatment of gender dysphoria over the past several years. This growing population includes transgender children referred to pediatric clinics. Transgender children meeting diagnostic criteria for gender dysphoria, with supportive mental health care, may be treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and cross sex hormones. The treatment for these children requires ongoing maintenance and monitoring and therefore follow-up in the adult care setting...
September 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Anna Nobili, Cris Glazebrook, Jon Arcelus
The study aims to systematically extract and analyse data about Quality of Life (QoL) in the transgender population. A systematic literature search and meta-analysis were conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases, up to July 2017. Only English language quantitative studies, in adults, which reported the means for validated QoL measures were included. Random-effect meta-analysis was adopted to pool data and estimate the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). From 94 potentially relevant articles, 29 studies were included within the review and data extraction for meta-analysis was available in 14 studies...
September 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Leonidas Panagiotakopoulos
Puberty suppression is the reversible first step of endocrine medical treatment in transgender youth, and allows for two very important aspects of transgender management. Firstly, it buys the patient, family and their medical team time to fully evaluate the presence and persistence of gender dysphoria. Secondly, it successfully prevents the development of cis-gender unwanted secondary sexual characteristics. The latter, when present, almost certainly increase the burden of psychological co-morbidity for any transgender person...
September 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Michael S Irwig
This review examines the relationship between exogenous sex steroids and cardiovascular events and surrogate markers in trans (transgender) people. Data from trans populations is compared to data from postmenopausal women and hypogonadal men when appropriate. In an age-adjusted comparison with cisgender people, trans people appear to have an increased risk for myocardial infarction and death due to cardiovascular disease. It is uncertain whether hormone therapy in trans people affects their risk of stroke. In studies that followed trans people on hormone therapy, the rates of myocardial infarction and stroke were consistently higher in trans women than trans men...
September 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Suzan J G Knottnerus, Jeannette C Bleeker, Rob C I Wüst, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Lodewijk IJlst, Frits A Wijburg, Ronald J A Wanders, Gepke Visser, Riekelt H Houtkooper
Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is an essential pathway for energy production, especially during prolonged fasting and sub-maximal exercise. Long-chain fatty acids are the most abundant fatty acids in the human diet and in body stores, and more than 15 enzymes are involved in long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Pathogenic mutations in genes encoding these enzymes result in a long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder in which the energy homeostasis is compromised and long-chain acylcarnitines accumulate. Symptoms arise or exacerbate during catabolic situations, such as fasting, illness and (endurance) exercise...
June 20, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
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