John L Havlik, Syed Wahid, Kayla M Teopiz, Roger S McIntyre, John H Krystal, Taeho Greg Rhee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent advances in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD), a disorder with very limited treatment options until recently. We examine advances in psychotherapeutic, psychopharmacologic, and interventional psychiatry approaches to treatment of TRD. We also highlight various definitions of TRD in recent scientific literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence suggests some forms of psychotherapy can be effective as adjunctive treatments for TRD, but not as monotherapies alone...
April 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jana Hillert, Lina Sophie Haubrock, Arne Dekker, Peer Briken
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Web-based programs to prevent sexual offense perpetration could provide an opportunity that avoids many of the barriers associated with in-person treatment. The aim of this systematic review is to give an overview of the literature on web-based initiatives aimed at sexual offense perpetration prevention published during the last 10 years (2013-2023) and to report data on the efficacy as well as issues of the discussed initiatives. RECENT FINDINGS: We included 18 empirical studies discussing web-based perpetration prevention initiatives, of which six are randomized controlled trials...
March 21, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Andriy V Samokhvalov, Emily Levitt, James MacKillop
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Precision medicine prioritizes characterization of individual patient parameters to optimize care and this review evaluates measurement-based care (MBC) as a strategy for doing so in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD). Measurement-based care refers to the systematic use of validated assessments to inform diagnosis and treatment planning, with varying frequency of assessments. Despite the seemingly obvious grounds for the use of MBC in treating SUD, systematic implementation to date has been limited...
March 15, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
R Chancel, J Lopez-Castroman, E Baca-Garcia, R Mateos Alvarez, Ph Courtet, I Conejero
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review the current evidence on biomarkers for bipolar disorder in the older adults. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases using the MeSH search terms "Biomarkers", "Bipolar Disorder", "Aged" and and "Aged, 80 and over". Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) the mean age of the study population was 50 years old or older, (2) the study included patients with bipolar disorder, and (3) the study examined one type of biomarkers or more including genetic, neuroimaging, and biochemical biomarkers...
March 12, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Summer Mengelkoch, George M Slavich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although females are at relatively greater risk for a variety of disorders, including depression, the biological mechanisms underlying this striking health disparity remain unclear. To address this issue, we highlight sex differences in stress susceptibility as a key mechanism potentially driving this effect and describe the interacting inflammatory, hormonal, epigenomic, and social-environmental mechanisms involved. RECENT FINDINGS: Using the Social Signal Transduction Theory of Depression as a theoretical framework, women's elevated risk for depression may stem from a tight link between life stress, inflammation, and depression in women...
March 12, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Shannen Graf, Daniel S Schechter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to outline some consequences that maternal history of trauma with and without related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), can have on their children's development and functioning. It then addresses mechanisms through which intergenerational transmission of interpersonal violence (IPV) and related psychopathology may occur. RECENT FINDINGS: Findings include the effects of maternal IPV experience and related psychopathology on child social-emotional and biologically-based outcomes...
March 1, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
David Thornton, Gwenda M Willis, Sharon Kelley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Focusing on protective factors rather than risk factors potentially better aligns assessment with strengths-based treatment. We examine research into the assessment of protective factors to see whether it can play this role relative to sexual offending. RECENT FINDINGS: Structured asses sment of protective factors is well developed relative to violent offending but only recently studied relative to sexual offending. Nevertheless, multiple measures of protective factors have now been trialed with men who have committed sexual offenses and shown to predict reduced recidivism...
February 24, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Deanna Fernandes, Uma Suryadevara, Dawn Bruijnzeel, Josepha Cheong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to identify key classes of medications that are used for the treatment of older adults with neurocognitive disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical factors play a critical role in the prescribing of these medication classes for the treatment of dementia. The variation in prescribing trends is determined by the presence of medical and psychiatric comorbidities commonly occurring in older adults and is based on the consideration of potential interactions between pharmacotherapies for the comorbidities and for the dementia...
February 21, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Hana Georgoulis, Eric Beauregard, Julien Chopin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents recent research on the sexual abuse of older adults and examines this phenomenon from a criminological perspective. Much of the previous work has neglected to consider the entirety of the crime-commission process. Therefore, the work highlighted in this review showcases important information regarding the individual who committed the crime, the victim, and the criminal event as a whole. RECENT FINDINGS: Comparative studies suggest that the motivations of people who commit sexually victimize older adults are vast and can include those that are sexually and anger motivated, while the victims present with unique vulnerabilities, such as disabilities and spending most of their time at home, that make them more susceptible to excessive violence...
February 13, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Kieran F McCartan, Sophie King-Hill, Stuart Allardyce
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews recent research into sibling sexual behaviour (SSB). This is an emerging professional and community issue that binds together a limited evidence base across research, practice and policy in psychology, criminology, politics, social work and policy studies. The review will demonstrate that a multi-disciplinary, life course, family system approach is the most effective way of starting to develop interventions to prevent and respond to this issue. RECENT FINDINGS: SSB has previously been researched as a form of intrafamilial abuse or sibling incest...
February 12, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Julia M Fraser, John M Bradford, Chanie Pritchard, Heather M Moulden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexual offending perpetrated by women has historically been overlooked and understudied, and the potentially unique impact of that abuse is even more so. RECENT FINDINGS: Women who have sexually offended against children typically do so against older boys, use little or no forms of force or coercion during the abuse, and are unlikely to be prosecuted or sentenced following the abuse. Boys whom women have sexually abused are unlikely to report or disclose the abuse that they have experienced, perhaps because social structures surrounding sexual abuse of boys by women are designed to minimize, excuse, or even encourage such sexual contact...
February 8, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Daniel Shalev, Keri Brenner, Rose L Carlson, Danielle Chammas, Sarah Levitt, Paul E Noufi, Gregg Robbins-Welty, Jason A Webb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Palliative care (PC) psychiatry is a growing subspecialty focusing on improving the mental health of those with serious medical conditions and their caregivers. This review elucidates the current practice and ongoing evolution of PC psychiatry. RECENT FINDINGS: PC psychiatry leverages training and clinical practices from both PC and psychiatry, addressing a wide range of needs, including enhanced psychiatric care for patients with serious medical illness, PC access for patients with medical needs in psychiatric settings, and PC-informed psychiatric approaches for individuals with treatment-refractory serious mental illness...
February 8, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Danny J Yu, Yun Kwok Wing, Tim M H Li, Ngan Yin Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Social media use (SMU) and other internet-based technologies are ubiquitous in today's interconnected society, with young people being among the commonest users. Previous literature tends to support that SMU is associated with poor sleep and mental health issues in youth, despite some conflicting findings. In this scoping review, we summarized relevant studies published within the past 3 years, highlighted the impacts of SMU on sleep and mental health in youth, while also examined the possible underlying mechanisms involved...
February 8, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Dara E Babinski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In childhood, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is diagnosed three to 16 times more frequently in males compared to females, yet in adulthood, nearly equivalent numbers of males and females are diagnosed with ADHD. Relatively few studies have prioritized examination of sex differences in ADHD even though sex differences may have critical implications for the identification and treatment of ADHD in females and males. This review highlights current research on sex differences in ADHD across the lifespan that has emerged from cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies of youth, adult-ascertained samples, and registry studies...
February 7, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Melissa D Grady, Jamie Yoder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss how attachment theory can be applied to explain sexual violence. Specifically, it discusses how the development of certain risk factors contributes to these behaviors and how attachment-based models can be used to address this issue through prevention and therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research demonstrates that individuals who commit sexual offenses have higher rates of insecure attachment styles and that these styles are associated with a number of criminogenic risk factors associated with sexual offending...
February 6, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
L Maaike Helmus, Simran Ahmed, Seung C Lee, Mark E Olver
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The overrepresentation of certain racial/ethnic groups in criminal legal systems raises concerns about the cross-cultural application of risk assessment tools. We provide a framework for conceptualizing and measuring racial bias/fairness and review research for three tools assessing risk of sexual recidivism: Static-99R, STABLE-2007, and VRS-SO. RECENT FINDINGS: Most cross-cultural research examines Static-99R and generally supports its use with Black, White, Hispanic, and Asian men...
January 11, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Brandee Feola, Alexandra B Moussa-Tooks, Julia M Sheffield, Stephan Heckers, Neil D Woodward, Jennifer U Blackford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emotions are prominent in theories and accounts of schizophrenia but are largely understudied compared to cognition. Utilizing the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Negative Valence Systems framework, we review the current knowledge of emotions in schizophrenia. Given the pivotal role of threat responses in theories of schizophrenia and the substantial evidence of altered threat responses, we focus on three components of Negative Valence Systems tied to threat responses: responses to acute threat, responses to potential threat, and sustained threat...
January 6, 2024: Current Psychiatry Reports
Paul E Weigle, Reem M A Shafi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent evidence regarding the relationship between the social media (SM) habits, experiences, and the mental health of youth. We examine effects of social media use (SMU) on specific diagnoses including depression and anxiety. The relationship between psychiatric illness, specific SM experiences, and the issue of SM mental health contagion is also explored. RECENT FINDINGS: Youth engagement in SMU has increased dramatically in recent years, concurrent with increases in prevalence of depression and anxiety...
December 16, 2023: Current Psychiatry Reports
Darlene R King, Guransh Nanda, Joel Stoddard, Allison Dempsey, Sarah Hergert, Jay H Shore, John Torous
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper provides an overview of generative artificial intelligence (AI) and the possible implications in the delivery of mental health care. RECENT FINDINGS: Generative AI is a powerful technology that is changing rapidly. As psychiatrists, it is important for us to understand generative AI technology and how it may impact our patients and our practice of medicine. This paper aims to build this understanding by focusing on GPT-4 and its potential impact on mental health care delivery...
November 30, 2023: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jane Harness, Sarah E Domoff, Heide Rollings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the challenges related to the study of the relationship between social media use and youth mental health and propose a path forward in intervention-focused research. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings relay the need to conceptualize the effects of social media use on youth mental health in a nuanced way. Unique, discrete social media experiences may either contribute to an individual's well-being, ill-being, or both...
November 27, 2023: Current Psychiatry Reports
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