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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

Maria Graciela Iecher Faria, Juliana Silveira do Valle, Ana Daniela Lopes, Affonso Celso Gonçalves, Douglas Cardoso Dragunski, Nelson Barros Colauto, Giani Andrea Linde
Pleurotus ostreatus is a white-rot mushroom that bioaccumulates metals in basidiocarps and vegetative mycelia. This fungus has been used in soil and water bioremediation of several heavy metals; however, there are few studies of lithium mycelial bioaccumulation for pharmacological use. The aim of this study was to evaluate lithium bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelia grown in a liquid malt extract cultivation medium with Li2CO3 or LiCl. Each lithium source was added to the medium to obtain a concentration of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 100, or 200 mg · L-1 lithium...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
You Qin, Lin Chen, Jian Jin, Jianhua Huang, Jiayu Li, Qingyijun Zhou, Rongrong Zhou, Shui-Han Zhang
Ophiocordyceps xuefengensis has recently been identified as a sister taxon of O. sinensis and has long been recognized as a folk tonic, food, or invigorant in South China. This study had 3 aims: First, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of 3 kinds of caterpillar fungi; the antioxidative ability of the various caterpillar fungi were in the order of O. xuefengensis > Cordyceps militaris > O. sinensis. Second, we further identified the antioxidant compounds in O. xuefengensis by using various methods: multiwavelength DPPH high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Chaomin Yin, Xiuzhi Fan, Zhe Fan, Defang Shi, Hong Gao
In this study we optimized the extraction of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris through the use of an orthogonal test based on single-factor experiments. The results showed that the largest amount of cordycepin (1260.28 ± 46.38 μ.g/g) was achieved with an extraction time of 15 minutes, an extraction temperature of 100°C, and a liquid-to-material ratio of 50 mL/g. The antioxidant activities and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, and polysaccharides from C. militaris were subsequently determined...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Shuai Zhou, Qingjiu Tang, Chuanhong Tang, Yanfang Liu, Fuying Ma, Xiaoyu Zhang, Jing-Song Zhang
We analyzed the changes in triterpenes and soluble polysaccharides in Ganoderma lucidum strain G0119 during 4 growth phases in 3 regions of the fruiting bodies using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and we also analyzed the soluble polysaccharides using high-performance size-exclusion chroma-tography-multiple-angle laser-light scattering refractive index analysis. The strong polar triterpenes decreased while weak polar triterpenes increased during the growth cycle of G. lucidum. The highest contents of ganoderic acid B, ganoderic acid A, and ganoderenic acid B were detected in the stipe during phase II, and ganoderic acid S, ganoderic acid T, and ganoderiol B peaked in the base during phase IV...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Yu-Hsing Lin, Jong-Tar Kuo, Yun-Yu Chen, K J Senthil Kumar, Chiu-Ping Lo, Chin-Chung Lin, Sheng-Yang Wang
Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a unique medicinal mushroom endemic to Taiwan, and it is used as a folk medicine in East Asian countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of "leader Antrodia cinnamomea capsule" (LAC), a health food product containing solid-state cultivated mycelial powder of T. camphoratus. For the in vivo studies, mice were orally administered LAC (76, 250, and 760 mg/kg b.w.) for 30 days, and its effects on cell-mediated humoral immune function were examined...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Nina P Vedenicheva, Galeb A Al-Maali, Nina A Bisko, Mykola M Shcherbatiuk, Marharyta L Lomberg, Nadiya Y Mytropolska, Oksana B Mykchaylova, Iryna V Kosakivska
Mushrooms are known to produce phytohormones, in particular cytokinins. Here we studied in vitro production of cytokinins in medicinal mushrooms. Cytokinins were identified and quantified in mycelial biomass of 13 species by using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Trans-zeatin, zeatin riboside, zeatin-O-glucoside, isopentenyladenosine, and isopentenyladenine were found but only 1 species (Ganoderma lucidum) contained all these forms. Zeatin-type cytokinins predominated. Composition of the cytokinin pool was unique in each species...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Chinnusamy Sangeetha, A S Krishnamoorthy, N Kiran Kumar, I Arumuka Pravin
Headspace volatile metabolites produced by Ophiocordyceps sinensis were tested against soil-borne plant pathogens (namely, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, Thanatephorus cucumeris, Athelia rolfsii, and Macrophomina phaseolina). Diffusible volatile metabolites produced by O. sinensis inhibited 52% and 48% of the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, respectively. In addition to inhibiting mycelial growth, the headspace volatile metabolites also induced several morphological changes in the culture characteristics and mycelia of the tested fungi...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Yuina Ishimoto, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Hisatomi Ito, Kentaro Igami, Toshitsugu Miyazaki, Naohito Ohno
Ganoderma lingzhi (reishi) (GL) is a widely used medicinal mushroom in the treatment of several diseases, including metabolic syndrome and cancer. We recently performed autodigestion of GL and found enhanced release of hypotensive peptides and immunomodulating beta-1,3-glucan. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of G. lingzhi and its autodigested product (AD-GL) against gut inflammation and endogenous sepsis induced in mice by the oral administration of indomethacin (IND). Gut inflammation was assessed by measuring the lengths of the intestines and colon, and sepsis was evaluated by the survival period...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Aleksandra Vojvodic Cebin, Vlatka Petravić-Tominac, Senka Djakovic, Sinisa Srecec, Vesna Zechner-Krpan, Jasenka Piljac-Zegarac, Omoanghe S Isikhuemhen
Agaricus bisporus, also known as the white button mushroom or champignon, is the most cultivated mushroom species worldwide. In addition to its favorable nutrient profile, it contains a number of compounds with antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activities. Waste biomass is a secondary product obtained from A. bisporus during the harvesting stage. It is underused, although it could be a cheap source of polysaccharides and antioxidants for use in food and feed production, or a source of nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Dongmei Liu, Hanyu Zhu, Yue Chen, Liesheng Zheng, Liguo Chen, Aimin Ma
Lentinus tuber-regium is a sclerotium-forming basidiomycetous mushroom. It has increasingly aroused people's attention for its medicinal effects. In this study, we investigated the applicability of the Agrobacterium tume-faciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method in L. tuber-regium. A. tumefaciens strain GV 3101 harboring the vector pPEH was used to transform the mycelium of L. tuber-regium strain ACCC50657. The genes for hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) gene promoter of Pleurotus ostreatus were employed as the selection marker and reporter gene, respectively...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Idaly Morales-Estrada, Rigoberto Gaitán-Hernández, Aldo Gutiérrez, Georgina Vargas, Alberto Jiménez, Agustin Rascón, Martín Esqueda
The aim of this work was to evaluate wood chips from vineyard prunings (VPs) as a potential substrate in cultures of Ganoderma spp. Biological efficiency (BE), production rate (PR), yield, and protein and fat contents of basidiomes increased when the wild strains G. oerstedii and G. subincrustatum, which were isolated from the Sonoran Desert, were cultivated on VPs. The mineral content of the basidiomes varied depending on the strain and substrate. The carbohydrate and phenol contents of the different substrate combinations and of the basidiomes were similar among strains...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Ravindran Kalathil Veena, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith, Kainoor K Janardhanan
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anticancer drug used extensively to treat a variety of human malignancies. DOX chemotherapy often leads to serious cardiotoxicity. We examined the ability of a Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE) to prevent DOX-associated cardiotoxicity. DOX treatment of cardiac tissue drastically increased levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and protein carbonyls (PCOs), and significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase activities...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Mouthana N Al-Habib, John Holliday, Mohammad S Aladahmy
In this study, the aqueous extracts of fruiting bodies of Psathyrella candolleana and Agaricus bisporus were assessed in vitro for their genotoxic potential. Extracts of these 2 fungi were tested with regard to their capacity to protect genetic material against DNA damage caused by the anticancer chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. Using chromosomal aberration, micronucleus, and comet assays, the genotoxic and genoprotective potential of these 2 fungi was assessed using P. candolleana strain RM-0861 and A. bisporus strain AB-62...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Kudrat Randhawa, Richa Shri
Pleurotus mushrooms have been used in traditional medicines to manage diabetes, high cholesterol, asthma, arteriosclerosis, and nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal disorders, among others. Various scientific studies have reported the presence of steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and polysaccharide-protein complexes in Pleurotus mushrooms. Various in vitro and in vivo assays have shown antioxidant, antidiabetes, cholesterol-lowering, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Hairui Yang, Jinsong Zhang, Henan Zhang, Yan Yang, Yanfang Liu, Wenbo Sun, Wenhan Wang, Wei Jia
Our previous study showed that By-1, a maleimide derivative isolated from Taiwanofungus camphoratus, could induce reactive oxygen species-triggered apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest through a caspase-dependent pathway and also induced protective autophagy in human lung cancer SPCA-1 cells. Here, we further examined the autophagy flux and detected related proteins by Western blot analysis and fluorescence activated cell sorting, and we sought to find the exact role and underlying pathway of autophagy in SPCA-1 cells...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Francesca Cateni, Marina Zacchigna, Celeste Caruso Bavisotto, Giuseppe Procida, Giuseppe Bonaventura, Paola Saporita, Roberta Calvo, Giuseppe Venturella, Maria Letizia Gargano
A preliminary biological investigation of the dry basidiomata of strain C-142-c of Pleurotus eryngii has shown significant antioxidant activity. Two different polysaccharides (PEPS-A1 and PEPS-A2) were isolated from the cultivated edible mushroom, P. eryngii C-142-c strain. Based on acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments (1H, 13C, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, double quantum filtered correlation spectroscopy, total correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy, and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy), the structures of the repeating unit of PEPS-A1 and PEPS-A2 were established as follows: (l)PEPS-Al (α-glucan): [→6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-α-D-Glcp-(l→]n; and (2) PEPS-A2 (β-glucan): [→6)-β-D-Glcp-(1→6)-β-D-Glcp-(l→]n...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Sandra Lorena Duque Henao, Sergio A Urrego, Andrea M Cano, Edwin A Higuita
Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists are promising for use in modulating immune responses in clinical settings characterized by immune immaturity or deficiency. β-Glucans derived from Ganoderma lucidum have demonstrated immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered β-glucans, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study was performed in asymptomatic children, aged 3 to 5 years old, from Medellin, Colombia. Primary outcomes were the circulating CD8+ T lymphocyte and natural killer cell counts; secondary outcomes were circulating lymphocyte counts (total, CD3+, and CD4+ T cells), serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin A and cytokines, and various hematological parameters...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Roghieh Safari, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Maryam Dadar, Mohsen Khalili
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus casei and Agaricus bisporus administration, alone or in combination, on skin mucus immune parameters and the expression of selected genes related to growth, appetite, mucosal immunity, and antioxidant enzymes in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish (n = 600) were randomly stocked in 12 aquariums and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, which were repeated in triplicate. During a 60-day feeding trial, fish were fed experimental diets: (1) basal diet (control group); (2) basal diet + L...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Janelle Robinson, Felicia N Anike, Willie Willis, Omoanghe S Isikhuemhen
Chicken intestinal microbiomes are known to enhance chicken health and increase production. Identifying natural supplements that shift bacteria communities in favor of beneficial bacteria is critical. This study is a preliminary investigation of the use of medicinal mushrooms nutritional supplements (MSs) including Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Cordyceps sp. to modulate bacteria in chicken guts. Two-hundred seventy 1-day-old broilers were weighed and randomly assigned to nine different treatments containing MSs...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Pamela Leonardi, Federico Puliga, Mirco Iotti, Federica Piattoni, Alessandra Zambonelli
Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst., commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, is characterized by strong genetic and phenotypic variability that reflects its active components. To preserve such a source of pharmacologically active metabolites, specimens must be collected from different geographic regions and their genetic integrity ensured during storage. To this aim, we tested the effect of ultra-low freezing (ULF) at -120°C on the vitality, mycelial growth rate, and fruiting ability of 3 Italian strains of G...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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