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Environmental Toxicology

Yung-Luen Shih, Hung-Sheng Shang, Yung-Liang Chen, Shu-Ching Hsueh, Hsiao-Min Chou, Hsu-Feng Lu, Ming-Zhe Lee, Hsin-Tu Hou, Ying-Ying Chuang, Mei-Hui Lee, Kuo-Wei Chen, Jing-Gung Chung
Ouabain, a cardiotonic steroid, was used for the treatment of heart failure and atrial fibrillation and induces cancer cell apoptosis in many human cancer cells including human leukemia cells. However, there are no reports to show the effects on immune responses in a leukemia mouse model. In this study, WEHI-3 cell generated leukemia mice were developed and treated by oral ouabain at 0, 0.75, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg for 15 days. Results indicated that ouabain did not affect body appearance, but decreased liver and spleen weights, B- and T-cell proliferation at all three doses treatment and increased CD19 cells at 3...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Limeng Shou, Yun Bei, Ying Song, Libo Wang, Liyao Ai, Qinying Yan, Wei He
We aim to confirm the impairment of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in PC12 cells, evaluate the protective effect of edaravone on CPF-induced injury, and try to unravel its underlying mechanism perspective from Nrf2 signaling pathway. Viability of PC12 cells treated with CPF and edaravone (Ed) were evaluated by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was observed by the Hoechst 33342 stain. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected to evaluate the oxidative stress injury...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Cho-Won Kim, Ryeo-Eun Go, Kyung-A Hwang, Eui-Bae Jeung, Seong-Jin Choi, Kyung-Chul Choi
Previous studies have reported that cigarette smoke and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) have negative effects on embryonic development. However, no studies have investigated the mechanism through which CSE affects the cellular signaling pathway leading to apoptosis and oxidative stress in embryonic cells, or how the two pathways are cross-linked. Thus, we studied the effects of CSE on apoptosis and oxidative stress in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Specifically, we measured changes in cell viability in response to CSEs (3R4F and two domestic cigarettes CSE 1 and 2) using a water soluble tetrazolium (WST) assay and a neutral red uptake (NRU) assay, which revealed that cell viability decreased in a concentration-dependent manner...
February 11, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Zhifeng Bai, Zhijian Wang
Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy is a lethal disease. DOX-induced cardiotoxic effects are attributed towards increased redox status and apoptotic signaling. In this study, we show that genistein offers protection against DOX-induced cardio toxicity in the mice model. DOX-mediated increase in serum cardiac troponin and redox markers (ROS, LPO, 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts [HNE] levels) was significantly reduced by genistein treatment. Significantly increased TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 expressions during DOX-induced inflammatory responses were down regulated by genistein treatment...
February 7, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Jui-Chin Wang, Shih-Yin Chen, Meilin Wang, Jiunn-Liang Ko, Chieh-Lin Wu, Ching-Chung Chen, Hui-Wen Lin, Yuan-Yen Chang
Prospective cohort studies have indicated that a highly nickel-polluted environment may severely affect human health, resulting in such conditions as respiratory tract cancers. Such exposure can trigger vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. However, the signal transduction pathways leading to VEGF induction by nickel compounds are not well understood. This study revealed the occurrence of VEGF induction in human non-small-cell lung cancer H460 cells exposed to NiCl2 . Moreover, exposing H460 cells to NiCl2 activated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), and protein kinase B (Akt) as well as downregulated AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Chon-Kit Chou, Hurng-Wern Huang, Chun-Feng Yang, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Shih-Shin Liang, Tsu-Nai Wang, Po-Lin Kuo, Edward Hsi, Eing-Mei Tsai, Chien-Chih Chiu
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) has been considered as an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonist due to its ability to interact with ERα and promote the cell proliferation of ERα-positive breast cancer cells. The impact of DEHP on the chemical therapy in breast cancer is little known. Two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 (ERα-dependent) and MDA-MB-231 (ERα-independent) were examined. We found that DEHP impaired the effectiveness of camptothecin (CPT) and alleviated the CPT-induced formation of reactive oxygen species in ERα-positive MCF-7 cells, but not in ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 cells...
February 5, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Majid Ahmad Ganaie, Abdulaziz Al Saeedan, Hassan Madhkali, Basit Lateef Jan, Tanvir Khatlani, Ishfaq Ahmad Sheikh, Muneeb U Rehman, Khalida Wani
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Development of naturally occurring inexpensive and safe alternatives can be effective in suppressing colon related proliferations. Zingerone (4-[4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl] butan-2-one), a polyphenolic alkanone of ginger, has massive pharmacological properties and thus can be used as promising candidate against various ailments. In the current study, we aimed at demonstrating the protective effect of zingerone against experimental colon carcinogenesis and elucidating its possible mechanism by studying inflammatory and Nrf-2 signaling cascade...
February 5, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Shuyin Duan, Na Wang, Li Huang, Hua Shao, Peng Zhang, Wei Wang, Yongjun Wu, Jing Wang, Hong Liu, Qiao Zhang, Feifei Feng
Inflammatory microenvironment has been found as a new characteristic of cancer; however, the mechanisms of inflammation-related lung cancer remain unclear. To explore the role of NLRP3 inflammsome activation in inflammation-related lung carcinogenesis, a cell model was set up. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were stimulated with 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 hours, and then treated with 2.4 μg/mL coal tar pitch extract (CTPE) for 24 hours, after removal of LPS and CTPE, the cells were numbered passage 1 and were passaged and treated in this way until passage 30, which was called LPS + CTPE group...
January 30, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Min Huang, Qian Cai, Yanlong Xu, Muzheng Guo, Chendi Zhu, Yinyin Li, Kexin Wu, Zhijun Zhou, Huifang Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of paraquat (PQ) exposure on gene expression in neural stem cells as well as structures and functions of vascular endothelial cells. METHODS: RNA-Seq was used to explore the differentially expressed genes in human umbilical cord blood-neural stem cells (HUCB-NSCs) at different stages (eg, proliferation, early and late differentiation) in the presence of PQ. The effects of PQ on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cytokines secretion, and expression of tight junction proteins, were assessed with CCK-8, flow cytometry, ELISA, and western blot analysis, individually...
January 30, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Shasha Tao, Hong Zhang, Lian Xue, Xiaoyan Jiang, Hongyan Wang, Bingyan Li, Hailin Tian, Zengli Zhang
Fine particulate matter is a well-known air pollutant threatening public health. Studies have confirmed long-term exposure to the particles could decrease the pulmonary function, induce asthma exacerbation, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as increase the incidence and mortality of lung cancer. A clinical study has explored that the prevalence and risks of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in various chronic disease and toxins induced tissue damage. Our current study aimed to explore the mechanism and further therapeutic potential of VD administration to ameliorate fine particles exposure induced pulmonary damage in vivo and in vitro...
January 30, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Chien-Hsun Huang, Fu-Ting Wang, Wen-Hsiung Chan
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin constituent of a range of food commodities, including coffee, wine, beer, grains, and spices, exerts toxicological and pathological effects in vivo, such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. In a previous report, we highlighted the potential of OTA to induce apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mouse blastocysts that led to impaired preimplantation and postimplantation embryo development in vitro and in vivo. Here, we have shown that liquiritigenin (LQ), a type of flavonoid isolated from Glycyrrhiza radix, effectively protects against OTA-mediated apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation in mouse blastocysts...
January 30, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Linlin Sai, Binpeng Qu, Juan Zhang, Jian Liu, Qiang Jia, Cunxiang Bo, Yu Zhang, Gongchang Yu, Ru Han, Cheng Peng
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays a critical role in male germline development. Atrazine (AZ) as an environmental endocrine disrupting chemical (EDCs) can induce male reproductive toxicity in amphibians. Our previous studies demonstrated that AZ can alter gene and circular RNA (circRNA) expression of damaged testes in Xenopus laevis (X. laevis). We furthered to investigate the lncRNA expression profiling in the testis of X. laevis. Over 3559 lncRNAs were detected by lncRNA sequencing. AZ induced 40 upregulated and 46 downregulated differentially expressed lncRNAs...
January 24, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Junxiang Ma, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongyun Ji, Li Chen, Tian Chen, Caixia Guo, Shixuan Zhang, Jiaxin Jia, Piye Niu
The mechanism of manganism caused by manganese (Mn), an important environmental risk factor for Parkinson's disease, is still unclear. Recent evidence suggested that autophagy participated in neurodegenerative diseases, in which microRNA played a crucial role. However, roles of microRNA in the aberrant autophagy that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases remains controversial. In nervous system, miRNA-138-5p is highly expressed and plays a key role in regulating memory and axon regeneration. Importantly, we also found that miR-138-5p expression decreased significantly after SH-SY5Y cells exposed to manganese chloride (MnCl2 ) in previous study...
January 23, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Longfei Guan, Xiaokun Geng, Christopher Stone, Eric E P Cosky, Yu Ji, Huishan Du, Kezhong Zhang, Qinghua Sun, Yuchuan Ding
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to airborne particle (PM2.5 ) is a risk factor for intracranial atherosclerosis (ICA). Because of the established role of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress by PM2.5 , we determined whether these processes account for PM2.5 -mediated ICA, and also whether omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) dietary supplementation could attenuate them. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air (FA) or PM2.5 and fed either a normal chow diet (NCD) or a high-cholesterol diet (HCD), administered with or without O3FA (5 mg/kg/day by gavage) for 12 weeks...
January 23, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Ting Luo, Manlu Shen, Jiajie Zhou, Xiaoyu Wang, Jizhou Xia, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Lead (Pb), a non-essential heavy metal, is a major global environmental contaminant with serious toxicological consequences. In the present study, the effects on hepatotoxicity of mice with chronic exposure to low doses of Pb were evaluated. While oral exposure to 0.03 or 0.1 mg/L Pb for 15 weeks in male adult mice had no significant effect on body weights, Pb exposure resulted in liver histopathological effects and increase of hepatic activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)...
January 9, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Yen-Tze Liu, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Jen-Tsun Lin, Gene Chen, Chia-Chieh Lin, Yu-Sheng Lo, Yi-Ching Chuang, Yi-Ting Hsi, Mu-Kuan Chen, Ming-Chih Chou
The incidence of oral cancer is increasing all over the world, with rates particularly high in Southeast Asian countries, such as Taiwan. Coronarin D (CD) has been confirmed to have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects, and anti-apoptotic effects in human hepatocellular carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to explore whether CD has a suppression effect on oral cancer cells and the mechanisms involved. The results of our study revealed the significantly decreased cancer cell viability and increased activation of apoptosis via increased loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased death receptors, leading to the activation of caspase-8, -9, -3...
January 9, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Hui-Hsien Pan, Yu-Ping Hsiao, Ping-Ju Chen, Yu-Ting Kang, Yu-Hua Chao, Ji-Nan Sheu, Ko-Huang Lue, Jiunn-Liang Ko
Steroid-insensitive asthma-related airway inflammation is associated with the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase in asthmatic bronchial epithelium. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 are related to steroid-insensitive asthma. It is currently unknown how EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) affects house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma in terms of inflammatory cytokines related to steroid-resistant asthma and further signaling pathway. Cytokine expressions and EGFR signaling pathway were performed by ELISA, reverse transcriptase PCR, real-time PCR, and Western blot in cell-line models...
January 8, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Yin-Chen Hsiao, Shu-Fen Peng, Kuang-Chi Lai, Ching-Lung Liao, Yi-Ping Huang, Chin-Chung Lin, Meng-Liang Lin, Kuo-Ching Liu, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Yi-Shih Ma, Jing-Gung Chung
Genistein, a major isoflavone compound in soybeans, has been shown to have biological activities including anti-cancer activates. In the present, we investigated the anti-leukemia activity of genistein on HL-60 cells in vitro. The percentage of viable cell, cell cycle distribution, apoptotic cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and Ca2+ production and the level of ΔΨm were measured by flow cytometric assay. Cell apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress associated protein expressions were examined by Western blotting assay...
January 7, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Yaming Ge, Xiaochao Song, Lingli Chen, Dongfang Hu, Liushuai Hua, Yunli Cui, Junwei Liu, Zhixing An, Zhihong Yin, Hongmei Ning
Cadmium (Cd) is considered a possible etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the exact mechanism by which Cd induces neurotoxicity is not well elucidated. In this study, Neuro-2a cells were treated with 0, 10, 20, and 40 μM cadmium chloride for 24 hours to investigate the effects of Cd on the cytoskeleton of nerve cells. MTT assay and ELISA assay were used to examine cell viability and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from cells, respectively. Results showed that Cd reduced cell viability and increased the release of LDH in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0...
January 6, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Fu-Mei Huang, Yu-Chao Chang, Shiuan-Shinn Lee, Ming-Ling Yang, Yu-Hsiang Kuan
Macrophages not only play an important role in the innate immune response but also participate in many inflammatory and infectious diseases including asthma, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Bisphenol A (BPA) is the most commonly used component for plastic products. However, BPA is an endocrine disruptor for mammals and participates in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. Up until now, there are no researches demonstrated the potential role of BPA in macrophage activation and its relative mechanism...
January 4, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
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