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Genetics and Molecular Biology

Larissa Bettin Pires, Mariana Campaner Usso, Lucia Giuliano-Caetano, Ana Lúcia Dias
Crenicichla is the largest genus in the Cichlidae family in South America. The genus includes 100 valid species that are popularly known in Brazil as jacundás or joaninhas and are widely distributed in rivers east of the Andes. Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on seven species in this genus. All species showed a diploid number of 48 with interspecific differences in karyotype formulas and AgNORs located in interstitial position on the short arm of the largest metacentric pair, except for the two populations from C...
February 18, 2019: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Slim Ben Jemaa, Nejia Thamri, Sofiane Mnara, Emmanuelle Rebours, Dominique Rocha, Mekki Boussaha
To carry out effective genome-wide association studies, information about linkage disequilibrium (LD) is essential. Here, we used medium-density SNP chips to provide estimates of LD in native Tunisian cattle. The two measures of LD that were used, mean r2 and D', decreased from 0.26 to 0.05 and from 0.73 to 0.40, respectively, when the distance between markers increased from less than 20 Kb to 200 Kb. The decay in LD over physical distance occurred at a faster rate than that reported for European and other indigenous breeds, and reached background levels at less than 500 Kb distance...
February 18, 2019: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Jussara Oliveira Vaini, Kenneth Gabriel Mota, Alejandra Paola Ojeda, João Pedro Barreiros, Renata Guimarães Moreira, Alexandre Wagner Silva Hilsdorf
The dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, is a well-known and widespread marine fish assessed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Analyzing the genetic diversity of this species is, therefore, of utmost importance and necessary for conservation purposes. Microsatellites are molecular tools with advantages that are ideal for population analyses. This study provides the first set of species-specific microsatellite loci for E. marginatus that can be applied when assessing both intra- and interpopulation genetic variation...
February 14, 2019: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Juliana S de Curcio, Mariana P Batista, Juliano D Paccez, Evandro Novaes, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares
Eukaryotic cells have different mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation. Among these mechanisms, microRNAs promote regulation of targets by cleavage or degradation of the mRNA. Fungi of the Paracoccidioides complex are the etiological agents of the main systemic mycosis of Latin America. These fungi present a plasticity to adapt and survive in different conditions, and the presence of microRNAs-like molecules could be part of the mechanisms that provide such plasticity. MicroRNAs produced by the host influence the progression of this mycosis in the lungs besides regulating targets involved in apoptosis in macrophage, activation of T and B cells and the production of cytokines...
February 14, 2019: Genetics and Molecular Biology
José Araújo de Oliveira-Silva, Joyce Umbelino Pinto Yamamoto, Renata Bernardes de Oliveira, Vaneisse Cristina Lima Monteiro, Beatriz Jurkiewcz Frangipani, Sandra Obikawa Kyosen, Ana Maria Martins, Vânia D'Almeida
We assessed levels of plasma selenium (Se), selenoproteins and their change after Se supplementation in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I, II and VI. This was done in a retrospective study of the medical records of 30 patients with MPS I (n=13), MPS II (n=9) and MPS VI (n=8) who were being treated with enzyme replacement therapy. As part of routine nutritional monitoring, Se levels were measured, revealing that 28 patients (93.3%) had values below the normal range. Therefore, they received supplementation for 12 months, and Se was measured after 6 and 12 months...
February 14, 2019: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Keming Zhu, Huimin Tao, Shuo Xu, Kaixia Li, Sundus Zafar, Wei Cao, Yanhua Yang
Senescence, a highly programmed process, largely determines yield and quality of crops. However, knowledge about the onset and progression of leaf senescence in crop plants is still limited. Here, we report that salt-induced protein (salT), a new gene, may be involved in leaf senescence. Overexpressing salT could prolong the duration of leaves with higher concentrations of chlorophyll compared with the wild type. Moreover, overexpression of salT could delay the senescence of rice leaves though the inhibition of senescence associated genes (SAGs)...
January 31, 2019: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Cássia Alves Lima-Rezende, Gislaine Aparecida Fernandes, Helder Elias da Silva, Sarah Dobkowski-Marinho, Victor Fernandes Santos, Fernando Pacheco Rodrigues, Renato Caparroz
The illegal trade is a major threat to many bird species, and parrots are common victims of this activity. Domestic and international pet markets are interested on different parrot species, such as the Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna). This South American macaw is not globally threatened, but is under protection from over-exploitation. This study aimed to identify and characterize novel microsatellite loci for population and parentage analysis of A. ararauna. Scaffold sequences of Ara macao available in the NCBI database were used for microsatellite searches using MsatCommander software...
January 31, 2019: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Bruna Constante Fonseca, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, María-Eugenia Guazzaroni, Valeria Reginatto
We report on the nearly complete genome sequence of Clostridium beijerinckii strain Br21, formerly isolated from a sugarcarne vinasse wastewater treatment plant. The resulting genome is ca. 5.9 Mbp in length and resembles the size of previously published C. beijerinckii genomes. We annotated the genome sequence and predicted a total of 5323 genes. Strain Br21 has a genetic toolkit that allows it to exploit diverse sugars that are often found after lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment to yield products of commercial interest...
January 31, 2019: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Sadaf Azad Raja, Seher Abbas, Syed Tahir Abbas Shah, Aamira Tariq, Nazia Bibi, Arzu Yousuf, Athar Khawaja, Muhammad Nawaz, Arshad Mehmood, Muhammad Jadoon Khan, Alamdar Hussain
Gene expression is tightly regulated in time and space through a multitude of factors consisting of signaling molecules. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors (SNARE) are membrane proteins responsible for the intercellular trafficking of signals through endocytosis and exocytosis of vesicles. Altered expression of SNARE proteins in cellular communication is the major hallmark of cancer phenotypes as indicated in recent studies. SNAREs play an important role in maintaining cell growth and epithelial membrane permeability of the bladder and are not only involved in cancer progression but also metastatic cell invasion through SNARE-mediated trafficking...
January 21, 2019: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Jose Francisco Diesel, Mauro F Ortiz, Osvaldo Marinotti, Ana Tereza R Vasconcelos, Elgion L S Loreto
The mobilome, portion of the genome composed of transposable elements (TEs), of Anopheles darlingi was described together with the genome of this species. Here, this mobilome was revised using similarity and de novo search approaches. A total of 5.6% of the A. darlingi genome is derived of TEs. Class I gypsy and copia were the most abundant superfamilies, corresponding to 22.36% of the mobilome. Non-LTR elements of the R1 and Jockey superfamilies account for 11% of the TEs. Among Class II TEs, the mariner superfamily is the most abundant (16...
January 21, 2019: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Eder Silva de Oliveira, Ângela Junges, Nicolau Sbaraini, Fábio Carrer Andreis, Claudia Elizabeth Thompson, Charley Christian Staats, Augusto Schrank
Cell walls are involved in manifold aspects of fungi maintenance. For several fungi, chitin synthesis, degradation and recycling are essential processes required for cell wall biogenesis; notably, the activity of β-N-acetylglucosaminidases (NAGases) must be present for chitin utilization. For entomopathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae, chitin degradation is also used to breach the host cuticle during infection. In view of the putative role of NAGases as virulence factors, this study explored the transcriptional profile and evolution of putative GH20 NAGases (MaNAG1 and MaNAG2) and GH3 NAGases (MaNAG3 and MaNAG4) identified in M...
December 10, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Leila Maria Ferreira, Thelma Sáfadi, Juliano Lino Ferreira
We propose to evaluate genome similarity by combining discrete non-decimated wavelet transform (NDWT) and elastic net. The wavelets represent a signal with levels of detail, that is, hidden components are detected by means of the decomposition of this signal, where each level provides a different characteristic. The main feature of the elastic net is the grouping of correlated variables where the number of predictors is greater than the number of observations. The combination of these two methodologies applied in the clustering analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome strains proved very effective, being able to identify clusters at each level of decomposition...
November 29, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Mayra Ramos de Jesus Pereira, Valéria Rodrigues Pinhatti, Maiele Dornelles da Silveira, Cristina Araujo Matzenbacher, Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas, Juliana da Silva, Melissa Camassola, Nance Beyer Nardi
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells distributed in all tissues and characterized by adherence, morphology, immunophenotype and trilineage differentiation potential. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize adherent MSC-like populations from different tissues of Ctenomys minutus, a threatened wildlife rodent popularly known as tuco-tuco. Adherent cells were isolated from bone marrow, brain, liver, pancreas and adipose tissue of three adult animals collect in southern Brazil...
November 29, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Cíntia Pelegrineti Targueta, Vinícius Guerra, Priscilla Guedes Gambale, Rogério Pereira Bastos, Daniela de Melo E Silva, Mariana Pires de Campos Telles
Cytogenetic data can be useful for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, as well as to provide information about chromosome evolution. Therefore, it may help design conservation priorities for some threatened species, such as anurans. Herein, we describe the karyotypes of Scinax constrictus and Ololygon centralis, native endemic species from the Brazilian Cerrado. Chromosome preparations for both species were stained with Giemsa for morphological analyses and then impregnated by the Ag-NOR method for localization of the nucleolar organizer region (NOR)...
November 29, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Olivia Medel-Flores, Vania Alejandra Valenzuela-Rodríguez, Rodolfo Ocadiz-Delgado, Leonardo Josué Castro-Muñoz, Sandra Hernández-Leyva, Gabriel Lara-Hernández, Jesús-Gabriel Silva-Escobedo, Patricio Gariglio Vidal, Virginia Sánchez-Monroy
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between prostate cancer (PCa) and Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the Mexican population. We studied 356 paraffin-embedded tissues from unrelated Mexican men with PCa or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), with the latter serving as control. HPV detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using universal primers, and viral genotypes were detected using sequencing or multiplex PCR. Light microscopy analyses enabled the identification of koilocytes in samples subsequently analyzed for HPV detection by in situ PCR and for p16-INK4A expression by immunohistochemistry...
November 29, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Marina Souza da Cunha, Natália Martins Travenzoli, Riudo de Paiva Ferreira, Edson Kuatelela Cassinela, Henrique Barbosa da Silva, Francisco Plácido Magalhães Oliveira, Tânia Maria Fernandes Salomão, Denilce Meneses Lopes
The genus Melipona is subdivided into four subgenera based on morphological characteristics, and two groups based on cytogenetic patterns. The cytogenetic information on this genus is still scarce, therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize Melipona paraensis, Melipona puncticollis, and Melipona seminigra pernigra using the following techniques: C-banding, DAPI/CMA3 fluorochromes, and FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. Melipona paraensis (2n=18) and M. seminigra pernigra (2n=22) were classified as high heterochromatin content species (Group II)...
November 29, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Luana Oliveira Dos Santos, Adriana Valéria Sales Bispo, Juliana Vieira de Barros, Raysa Samanta Moraes Laranjeira, Rafaella do Nascimento Pinto, Jaqueline de Azevêdo Silva, Andréa de Rezende Duarte, Jacqueline Araújo, Paula Sandrin-Garcia, Sergio Crovella, Marcos André Cavalcanti Bezerra, Taciana Furtado de Mendonça Belmont, Maria do Socorro Cavalcanti, Neide Santos
Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized by a set of clinical conditions, including autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and infectious conditions, that can compromise a patient's quality of life. Here we assessed polymorphisms in CTLA-4 +49A/G (rs231775), PTPN22 +1858G/A (rs2476601), and MBL2 -550 (H/L) (rs11003125), -221(X/Y) (rs7096206) and exon 1 (A/O) in women from northeastern Brazil to determine whether polymorphisms within these key immune response genes confer differential susceptibility to clinical conditions in TS...
November 29, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Zhixiong Zhong, Heming Wu, Hesen Wu, Pingsen Zhao
There is currently no data about the genetic variations of APOE in Hakka population in China. The aim of this study was to analyze the allelic and genotypic frequencies of APOE gene polymorphisms in a large ethnic Hakka population in southern China. The APOE genes of 6,907 subjects were genotyped by the gene chip platform. The allele and genotype frequencies were analyzed. Results showed that the ∊3 allele had the greatest frequency (0.804) followed by ∊2 (0.102), and ∊4 (0.094), while genotype ∊3/∊3 accounted for 65...
November 29, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Mariana de Oliveira-Klein, Augusto César Cardoso-Dos-Santos, Alice Tagliani-Ribeiro, Nelson Rosa Fagundes, Ursula Matte, Lavinia Schuler-Faccini
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is an important peptide hormone involved in the reproduction and fetal development of mammals, and it is suggested that it may influence the human twinning rate. This study aimed to test such possible association, investigating the genetic polymorphisms IGF1 (CA)n and IGFBP3 rs2854744 in the population from Candido Godoi (CG), a small city located in the South of Brazil that has a high prevalence of twin births. A case-control study was performed comprising a total of 39 cases (representing about 40% of the mothers of twins who were born in CG after 1995) and 214 controls (mothers of non-twin children), 97 of whom were living in CG while 117 were living in Porto Alegre...
November 29, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Lydayanne Lilás de Melo Nobre, José Daniel Oliveira Dos Santos, Rychard Leite, Cícero Almeida
The genus Spondias (family Anacardiaceae) comprises 19 taxa, ten of which occur in Neotropical regions. Spondias bahiensis has been suggested to be a hybrid, although initial evidence does not support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of the hybrid origin of S. bahiensis using high-throughput sequencing with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, characterization of intragenomic nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA), and nuclear and chloroplast phylogenomic analyses. The SNP analysis revealed a high number of SNPs in the S...
November 29, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
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