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Trends in Plant Science

Márcio Viana Ramos, Diego Demarco, Isabel Cristina da Costa Souza, Cleverson Diniz Teixeira de Freitas
Latex, a sap produced by cells called laticifers, occurs in plants of wide taxonomic diversity. Plants exude latex sap in response to physical damage. Questions about the function of latex or the underlying mechanisms persist, but a role in defense is likely. The presence of constitutive peptidases in latex sap in addition to inducible and de novo synthesized pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-proteins), raises the question about the role that each sap component plays to protect plants and how synergism occurs among sap proteins in the course of herbivory or infection...
April 9, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Xiaoyu Guo, Juan Dong
Arabidopsis plants have specific polarized proteins, BASL and POLAR, that regulate stomatal asymmetric cell division (ACD). Earlier work established that BASL recruits YODA kinase (MAPKKK4) to suppress stomatal ACD in postmitotic cells. Houbaert et al. (Nature 2018;563:574-578) recently showed that POLAR scaffolds BIN2/GSK3s to promote stomatal ACD in premitotic cells.
April 8, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
John F Allen, Jon Nield, Norbert Krauß
True to its name, light-harvesting complex II (LHC II) harvests light energy for photosystem II (PS II). However, LHC II can stray, harvesting light energy for photosystem I (PS I) instead. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) now shows how this mobile antenna becomes so attached to its new partner.
March 28, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Bryan Delaney, Jan Hazebroek, Rod Herman, Daland Juberg, Nicholas P Storer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Kemal Kazan, Sundaravelpandian Kalaipandian
Cell death is one of the most fundamental biological processes operating in multicellular organisms. Recent research highlighted here [Distéfano et al. (J. Cell Biol. 2017:216;463-476) and Dangol et al. (Plant Cell 2019:31;189-209)] revealed an iron- and ROS-dependent cell death phenomenon called ferroptosis in plants. Features distinguishing ferroptosis from other cell death events and how ferroptosis can be exploited to improve plant performance are discussed.
March 22, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Gerrit T S Beemster
Developing a mechanistic understanding of plant growth regulation requires studying cell division and cell expansion in addition to molecular studies. A recent time-lapse confocal microscopy study (Fox, S. et al. PLoS Biol. 2018:16;e2005952) quantifying these processes in individual cells in growing organs in combination with multiscale modeling provides profound new insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved.
March 21, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Edwin R Lampugnani, Eduardo Flores-Sandoval, Qiao Wen Tan, Marek Mutwil, John L Bowman, Staffan Persson
Cellulose is an essential morphogenic polysaccharide that is central to the stability of plant cell walls and provides an important raw material for a range of plant-based fiber and fuel industries. The past decade has seen a substantial rise in the identification of cellulose synthesis-related components and in our understanding of how these components function. Much of this research has been conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis); however, it has become increasingly evident that many of the components and their functions are conserved...
March 21, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Feng Zhu, Weiwei Wen, Alisdair R Fernie
A recent study by Butelli et al. (Curr. Biol. 2019;29:158-164) has demonstrated that the linked traits of exceptionally low fruit acidity and the absence of anthocyanins in leaves and flowers and proanthocyanidins in seeds of the citrus are the result of mutations in the Noemi gene encoding a bHLH transcription factor.
March 18, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Qing-Lin Chen, Hui-Ling Cui, Jian-Qiang Su, Josep Penuelas, Yong-Guan Zhu
Microorganisms associated with plants may alter the traits of the human microbiome important for human health, but this alteration has largely been overlooked. The plant microbiome is an interface between plants and the environment, and provides many ecosystem functions such as improving nutrient uptake and protecting against biotic and abiotic stress. The plant microbiome also represents a major pathway by which humans are exposed to microbes and genes consumed with food, such as pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and antibiotic-resistance genes...
March 16, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Sebastian J Nintemann, Michael Palmgren, Rosa Laura López-Marqués
Lipid flippases are integral membrane proteins that use ATP hydrolysis to power the generation of phospholipid asymmetry between the two leaflets of biological membranes, a process essential for cell survival. Although the first report of a plant lipid flippase was published in 2000, progress in the field has been slow, partially due to the high level of redundancy in this gene family. However, recently an increasing number of reports have examined the physiological function of lipid flippases, mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 15, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
David Granot, Gilor Kelly
Stomata are dynamic pores in the impermeable cuticle that coats the aerial parts of vascular plants, allowing the entry of CO2 for photosynthesis and controlling water loss. They are composed of two guard cells that can swell or shrink due to an increase or decrease in their osmotic pressure, respectively. Swelling opens the stomata and shrinking closes the stomata. For more than a century, scientists have been working to uncover the nature of the osmolytes that modulate osmotic pressure in guard cells. Recent discoveries have undermined long-standing theories in this area, reversing the understood roles of sugars and demonstrating the evolution of scientific theories...
March 9, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Elaine Yeung, Julia Bailey-Serres, Rashmi Sasidharan
Increasing flooding events have detrimentally impacted food security amid a growing global population. Complete submergence of plants represents the most severe flooding stress and studies have identified underwater responses to low oxygen and light availability. However, knowledge on plant responses during the post-submergence phase is limited. It is important to consider how plants can resume vegetative growth after enduring submergence and post-submergence stress. This review highlights current knowledge on physiological and molecular adaptations following desubmergence...
March 8, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Claire Périlleux, Frédéric Bouché, Marie Randoux, Beata Orman-Ligeza
TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) was named from knockout Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in which the inflorescence abnormally terminates into a flower. In wild type plants, the expression of TFL1 in the center of the inflorescence meristem represses the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) to maintain indeterminacy. LFY and AP1 are activated by flowering signals that antagonize TFL1. Its characterization in numerous species revealed that the TFL1-mediated regulation of meristem fate has broader impacts on plant development than originally depicted in A...
March 7, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Rodrigo Vargas, Josep Barba
Tree stems exchange carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide with the atmosphere. The biophysical mechanisms controlling these fluxes are not fully understood, and consequently are not included in process-based models. We highlight advances and opportunities that will allow quantification of the role of these plant structures in the local-to-global balance of greenhouse gases (GHGs).
March 7, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Saurabh Chaudhary, Ibtissam Jabre, Anireddy S N Reddy, Dorothee Staiger, Naeem H Syed
Alternative splicing (AS) generates multiple transcripts from the same gene, however, AS contribution to proteome complexity remains elusive in plants. AS is prevalent under stress conditions in plants, but it is counterintuitive why plants would invest in protein synthesis under declining energy supply. We propose that plants employ AS not only to potentially increasing proteomic complexity, but also to buffer against the stress-responsive transcriptome to reduce the metabolic cost of translating all AS transcripts...
March 6, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Sara C Pinto, Marta A Mendes, Sílvia Coimbra, Matthew R Tucker
The Arabidopsis thaliana ovule arises as a female reproductive organ composed solely of somatic diploid cells. Among them, one cell will acquire a unique identity and initiate female germline development. In this review we explore the complex network that facilitates differentiation of this single cell, and consider how it becomes committed to a distinct developmental program. We highlight recent progress towards understanding the role of intercellular communication, cell competency, and cell-cycle regulation in the ovule primordium, and we discuss the possibility that distinct pathways restrict germline development at different stages...
March 5, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Santiago Signorelli, Łukasz Paweł Tarkowski, Wim Van den Ende, Diane C Bassham
Autophagy is a process in which cellular components are delivered to lytic vacuoles to be recycled and has been demonstrated to promote abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Here, we review how the responses triggered by stress conditions can affect autophagy and its signaling pathways. Besides the role of SNF-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) and TOR kinases in the regulation of autophagy, abscisic acid (ABA) and its signaling kinase SnRK2 have emerged as key players in the induction of autophagy under stress conditions...
February 26, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Frances C Sussmilch, Jörg Schultz, Rainer Hedrich, M Rob G Roelfsema
In vascular plants, stomata balance two opposing functions: they open to facilitate CO2 uptake and close to prevent excessive water loss. Here, we discuss the evolution of three major signalling pathways that are known to control stomatal movements in angiosperms in response to light, CO2 , and abscisic acid (ABA). We examine the evolutionary origins of key signalling genes involved in these pathways, and compare their expression patterns between an angiosperm and moss. We propose that variation in stomatal sensitivity to stimuli between plant groups are rooted in differences in: (i) gene presence/absence, (ii) specificity of gene spatial expression pattern, and (iii) protein characteristics and functional interactions...
February 19, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Bart Lievens, Tadashi Fukami
Beyond its role as a reward for pollinators, floral nectar also provides a habitat for specialized and opportunistic yeasts and bacteria. These microbes modify nectar chemistry, often altering mutualistic relationships between plants and pollinators in ways that we are only beginning to understand. Many studies on this multi-partite system have focused on either yeasts or bacteria without consideration of yeast-bacterium interactions, but recent evidence suggests that such interactions drive the assembly of nectar microbial communities and its consequences for pollination...
February 18, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Haixiang Yu, Hanbin Bao, Zhongming Zhang, Yangrong Cao
Plant innate immunity plays an important role in regulating symbiotic associations with rhizobia, including during rhizobial infection, rhizobial colonization, and bacteroid differentiation in leguminous plants. Here we propose that an immune signaling pathway similar to plant pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is required for the regulation of bacteroid differentiation in Medicago truncatula nodules.
February 13, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
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