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Critical Public Health

Caitlin G Allen, Colleen M McBride, Kibur Engdawork, Desta Ayode, Getnet Tadele
The rapid pace of genomic discovery has raised public expectation and concerns about the utility of new discoveries and their potential to exacerbate health disparities. Improving literacy concerning gene and environmental (GxE) contributors to disease is needed to avoid commonly observed deterministic misconceptions about genomics. Mental models approaches that incorporate community engagement processes could be used to inform GxE literacy-building interventions. We used a mental models approach to describe and systematically compare expert and lay understanding of GxE interactions, using the example of podoconiosis, a non-infectious lymphedema endemic in highland Ethiopia...
2019: Critical Public Health
Jerel P Calzo, Sabra L Katz-Wise, Brittany M Charlton, Allegra R Gordon, Nancy Krieger
Gender-based analysis in public health is a systematic examination of how population health is shaped by systems of gender relations, involving policies and laws, programs and services, research priorities, social norms and practices, and public discourse. To address the paucity of critical gender-based analysis training in most public health, medical, and health policy courses, we designed the capstone course in the Women, Gender, and Health (WGH) Interdisciplinary Concentration at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health...
2019: Critical Public Health
C R Pearson, M Parker, C Zhou, C Donald, C B Fisher
The primary aim of this study was to develop an American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) tailored research with human subjects curriculum that would increase the participation of AIAN members in research affecting their communities. We used a community-engaged research approach to co-design and evaluate a culturally tailored online human subjects curriculum among a national sample of AIAN community members ( n = 244) with a standard nationally used online curriculum ( n = 246). We evaluated pre-and post-test measures to assess group differences in ethics knowledge, perceived self-efficacy to apply such knowledge to protocol review, and trust in research...
2019: Critical Public Health
Siân Aggett
Global health funding bodies are increasingly promoting and offering specific funding support for public and community engagement activities, in addition to research and programme funding. In the context of this growing commitment to engagement work, we need to find ways to better support contextually appropriate and meaningful exchanges between researchers and community members. I argue that, rather than focusing solely on how to involve communities in engagement with global health research, we should also pay attention to the quality and depth of the involvement of researchers themselves...
2018: Critical Public Health
Evans Gichuru, Bernadette Kombo, Noni Mumba, Salla Sariola, Eduard J Sanders, Elise M van der Elst
In Kenyan communities, religious leaders are important gatekeepers in matters of health and public morality. In a context that is generally homophobic, religious leaders may aggravate or reduce stigmatization of sexual minorities such as gay and bisexual men, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM). Literature indicates mixed results in efforts to encourage religious leaders to work effectively and sensitively with issues regarding HIV and sexuality. This paper describes the implementation of an engagement intervention with religious leaders from different denominations, which took place following a homophobic hate attack that was led by local religious leaders, at an HIV research clinic for GBMSM on the Kenyan coast...
2018: Critical Public Health
Michael J Roy
The 'assets-based approach' to health and well-being has, on the one hand, been presented as a potentially empowering means to address the social determinants of health while, on the other, been criticised for obscuring structural drivers of inequality and encouraging individualisation and marketisation; in essence, for being a tool of neoliberalism. This study looks at how this apparent contestation plays out in practice through a critical realist-inspired examination of practitioner discourses, specifically of those working within communities to address social vulnerabilities that we know impact upon health...
August 8, 2017: Critical Public Health
Katerini T Storeng, Dominique P Béhague
The MMR - maternal mortality ratio - has risen from obscurity to become a major global health indicator, even appearing as an indicator of progress towards the global Sustainable Development Goals. This has happened despite intractable challenges relating to the measurement of maternal mortality. Even after three decades of measurement innovation, maternal mortality data are widely presumed to be of poor quality, or, as one leading measurement expert has put it, 'guilty until proven innocent'. This paper explores how and why leading epidemiologists, demographers and statisticians have devoted the better part of the last three decades to producing ever more sophisticated and expensive surveys and mathematical models of globally comparable MMR estimates...
March 15, 2017: Critical Public Health
Tamar M J Antin, Rachelle Annechino, Geoffrey Hunt, Sharon Lipperman-Kreda, Malisa Young
Tobacco denormalization is a widely accepted tobacco control strategy, shaping policies and programs throughout the United States as well as globally. In spite of widespread beliefs about the effectiveness of tobacco denormalization approaches, concerns about their emphasis on stigmatization have emerged. Social science research on smoking stigma raises questions about the potential iatrogenic consequences of tobacco denormalization approaches. Few studies have considered how smoking stigma may be internalized differently by different people, particularly those who experience stigmatization because of other socially-ascribed makers of inequity (e...
2017: Critical Public Health
Annie Wilkinson, James Fairhead
Sierra Leone and Guinea share broadly similar cultural worlds, straddling the societies of the Upper Guinea Coast with Islamic West Africa. There was, however, a notable difference in their reactions to the Ebola epidemic. As the epidemic spread in Guinea, acts of violent or everyday resistance to outbreak control measures repeatedly followed, undermining public health attempts to contain the crisis. In Sierra Leone, defiant resistance was rarer. Instead of looking to 'culture' to explain patterns of social resistance (as was common in the media and in the discourse of responding public health authorities) a comparison between Sierra Leone and Guinea suggests that explanations lie in divergent political practice and lived experiences of the state...
January 1, 2017: Critical Public Health
Ann H Kelly, Hayley MacGregor, Catherine M Montgomery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Critical Public Health
David Reubi
This article tells a different but equally important story about neoliberalism and global health than the narrative on structural adjustment policies usually found in the literature. Rather than focus on macroeconomic structural adjustment policies, this story draws our attention to microeconomic taxation policies on tobacco, alcohol and sugar now widely recognised as the best strategy to control the global non-communicable disease epidemic. Structural adjustment policies are the product of the shift from statist to market-based development models, which was brought about by neoliberal thinkers like Peter Blau and Deepak Lal...
October 19, 2016: Critical Public Health
Claire Thompson, Steven Cummins, Tim Brown, Rosemary Kyle
Family meals, as acts of domestic food provisioning, are shaped by the competing influences of household resources, food preferences and broader cultural norms around dietary practices. The place of children's food tastes in family meal practices is particularly complex. Food tastes stand in a reciprocal relationship with family food practices: being both an influence on and a product of them. This paper explores how parents think about and respond to their children's food preferences in relation to family meal practices...
May 26, 2016: Critical Public Health
Nicola Bulled, Edward C Green
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been rapidly accepted by global HIV policy and donor institutions as a highly valuable HIV prevention strategy given its cost-effectiveness, limited interactions with a health facility, and projected long-lasting benefits. Many southern African countries have incorporated VMMC into their national HIV prevention strategies. However, intensive VMMC promotion programs have met with limited success to date and many HIV researchers have voiced concerns. This commentary discusses reasons behind the less-than-desired public demand and suggests how inclusion of the traditional sector - traditional leaders, healers, and circumcisers - with their local knowledge, cultural expertise and social capital, particularly in the realm of social meanings ascribed to male circumcision, may improve the uptake of this HIV prevention strategy...
May 1, 2016: Critical Public Health
Jade Boyd, Thomas Kerr
In Canada and other western nations there has been an unprecedented expansion of criminal justice systems and a well documented increase of contact between people with mental illness and the police. Canadian police, especially in Vancouver, British Columbia, have been increasingly at the forefront of discourse and regulation specific to mental health. Drawing on critical discourse analysis, this paper to explores this claim through a case study of four Vancouver Police Department (VPD) policy reports on "Vancouver's mental health crisis" from 2008-2013, which include recommendations for action...
2016: Critical Public Health
Pamela Wakewich, Brianne Wood, Crystal Davey, Ashlie Laframboise, Ingeborg Zehbe
Regular Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has dramatically reduced cervical cancer incidence in Canada since the 1950s. However, Indigenous women's rates of cervical cancer remain disproportionately high, a factor which is not acknowledged in national media or in educational materials reporting Canada's new cervical cancer screening guidelines. Here, we present findings from a cervical cancer screening initiative in Northwestern Ontario. Based on participatory action research, we worked with 10 First Nations communities in the Robinson Superior Treaty area to increase awareness of cervical cancer risk, develop culturally sensitive tools for screening and education and test the efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as an alternative to Pap cytology...
January 1, 2016: Critical Public Health
Rebecca J Mercier, Mara Buchbinder, Amy Bryant
Targeted Regulations of Abortion Providers (TRAP laws) are proliferating in the United States and have increased barriers to abortion access. In order to comply with these laws, abortion providers make significant changes to facilities and clinical practices. In this article, we draw attention to an often unacknowledged area of public health threat: how providers adapt to increasing regulation, and the resultant strains on the abortion provider workforce. Current US legal standards for abortion regulations have led to an increase in laws that target abortion providers...
2016: Critical Public Health
Melissa Bone, Toby Seddon
This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of 'health'. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field...
January 1, 2016: Critical Public Health
Dorit Teuscher, Andrea J Bukman, Marleen A van Baak, Edith J M Feskens, Reint Jan Renes, Agnes Meershoek
Lifestyle interventions often fail to successfully reach individuals with lower socio-economic status (SES), possibly because of the individual behavioural orientation to health behaviour and because limited research has included the target groups' perspectives in the development of interventions. Certainly, in order to make lifestyle interventions more applicable, target groups' viewpoints should to be taken into account. In order to tailor an effective lifestyle intervention to groups with lower SES of different ethnic origins, 14 focus group interviews were conducted with Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch male and female groups...
October 20, 2015: Critical Public Health
Catherine Dodds, Matthew Weait, Adam Bourne, Siri Egede
We present qualitative research findings about how perceptions of criminal prosecutions for the transmission of HIV interact with the provision of high-quality HIV health and social care in England and Wales. Seven focus groups were undertaken with a total of 75 diverse professionals working in clinical and community-based services for people with HIV. Participants' understanding of the law in this area was varied, with many knowing the basic requirements for a prosecution, yet lacking confidence in the best way to communicate key details with those using their service...
August 8, 2015: Critical Public Health
Barry D Adam, Patrice Corriveau, Richard Elliott, Jason Globerman, Ken English, Sean Rourke
Responses to the largest surveys of HIV-positive people in Ontario show that most either disclose to or do not have partners who are HIV-negative or of unknown status. Non-disclosure strategies and assumptions are reported by relatively small sets of people with some variation according to employment status, sexual orientation, gender, ethnicity, and having had a casual partner. Interviews with 122 people living with HIV show that disclosure is an undertaking fraught with emotional pitfalls complicated by personal histories of having misread cues or having felt deceived leading up to their own sero-conversion, then having to negotiate a stigmatized status with new people...
August 8, 2015: Critical Public Health
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