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Genes & Genetic Systems

Jia Li, Yajuan Sun, Jiajun Chen
The neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) has been widely exploited as a tool for modeling Parkinson's disease (PD) in the rat. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive profile of the mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in rats treated with 6-OHDA as a model of PD. Female SPF Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: a PD model group and a control group. The PD model was induced by 6-OHDA injection. RNA-seq analysis was performed on 6-OHDA-treated rats and corresponding controls. Novel lncRNAs were identified...
February 2, 2019: Genes & Genetic Systems
Motohiro Yoshioka, Shotaro Takenaka, Miyuki Nitta, Jianjian Li, Nobuyuki Mizuno, Shuhei Nasuda
We investigated the genetic diversity of the core collection of hexaploid wheat accessions in the Japanese wheat gene bank, NBRP-Wheat, with a focus on grain morphology. We scanned images of grains in the core collection, which consists of 189 accessions of Triticum aestivum, T. spelta, T. compactum, T. sphaerococcum, T. macha and T. vavilovii. From the scanned images, we recorded six metric characters (area size, perimeter length, grain length, grain width, length to width ratio and circularity) using the software package SmartGrain ver...
January 10, 2019: Genes & Genetic Systems
Yang Yan, Rui Shi, Xiaojiang Yu, Chaofeng Sun, Weijin Zang, Hongyan Tian
MicroRNA (miRNA) is associated with the development and pathology of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this study, we performed miRNA profiling of left and right atrium samples from individuals with AF-associated rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD) to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed between RMVD patients with AF and RMVD with sinus rhythm (SR) as controls, as well as between left and right atrium samples from RMVD with AF patients. We performed hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy to examine in detail any morphological and physiological changes in cardiomyocytes from RMVD patients with AF or SR...
December 24, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Wen Shi, Xia Hu, Xiaojie Chen, Xiaokun Ou, Ji Yang, Yupeng Geng
Epigenetic modification can change the pattern of gene expression without altering the underlying DNA sequence, which may be adaptive in clonal plant species. In this study, we used MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism) to examine epigenetic variation in Alternanthera philoxeroides, a clonal invasive species, in response to salinity stress. We found that salinity stress could significantly increase the level of epigenetic diversity within a population. This effect increased with increasing stress duration and was specific to particular genotypes...
December 19, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Baojun Zhao, Shuyu Xue, Wanchao Zhu, TianShu Lv, Qinguo Wei, Shuai Shang, Honghai Zhang
The Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica) is widely distributed in mainland Asia, but its introduction into Japan and subsequent expansion have affected the Japanese weasel (M. itatsi). To provide a useful tool for population genetic studies and control of M. sibirica, we developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Among 40 individuals of M. sibirica collected in Hubei Province, China, the number of alleles per locus varied from 2 to 19, with the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.050 to 1.000 and the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0...
December 19, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Shotaro Takenaka, Miyuki Nitta, Shuhei Nasuda
In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of the core collection of hexaploid wheat accessions in the Japanese wheat gene bank NBRP-Wheat. The core collection, consisting of 188 accessions of Triticum aestivum, T. spelta, T. compactum, T. sphaerococcum, T. macha and T. vavilovii, was intensively genotyped by DArTseq markers and consisted of 20,186 SNPs and 60,077 present and absent variations (PAVs). Polymorphic markers were distributed in all chromosomes, with a tendency for smaller numbers on the D-genome chromosomes...
December 15, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Chunhong Li, Dan Mo, Meiqin Li, Yanyan Zheng, Qiao Li, Shiyan Ou, Zhiyong Zhang
Human lifespan is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Potential longevity genes are neither specific nor reproducible, and longevity-related genes are constantly confused with age-related genes. To distinguish specific age- and longevity-related genes, we analyzed a Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset established by the Leiden Longevity Study. The individuals were classified into longevity (mean age, 93.4 ± 3.0 years), longevity offspring (60.8 ± 6.1) and control (61.9 ± 6.9) groups. The series matrix files were downloaded, and average expression values were calculated...
December 11, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Takashi Yura, Ryoji Miyazaki, Keigo Fujiwara, Koreaki Ito, Shinobu Chiba, Hiroyuki Mori, Yoshinori Akiyama
Heat shock transcription factor σ32 of Escherichia coli plays a major role in protein homeostasis and requires membrane localization for regulation. We here report that a strongly deregulated I54N-σ32 mutant defective in association with the membrane can be phenotypically suppressed by Tn5 insertion into the mcrC or ydbA2 gene, encoding a restriction enzyme subunit or part of a putative autotransporter, respectively. The suppression is specific for mutant I54N-σ32 and reduces its activity but not its abundance or stability...
December 8, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Seiji Takeda, Kohki Ochiai, Yasuaki Kagaya, Wataru Egusa, Hiroaki Morimoto, Satomi Sakazono, Masaaki Osaka, Moe Nabemoto, Go Suzuki, Masao Watanabe, Keita Suwabe
Stigmatic papillae develop at the apex of the gynoecium and play an important role as a site of pollination. The papillae in Brassicaceae are of the dry and unicellular type, and more than 15,000 genes are expressed in the papillae; however, the molecular and physiological mechanisms of their development remain unknown. We found that the papillae in Arabidopsis thaliana change their length in response to altered ambient humidity: papillae of flowers incubated under high humidity elongated more than those under normal humidity conditions...
November 24, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Haifei Wang, Haiyue Feng, Juan Sun, Yajing Zhou, Guoqiang Zhu, Shenglong Wu, Wenbin Bao
DNA methylation is an important mediator of gene expression regulation and has been shown to be closely linked to aging. Immune-related genes tend to be influenced by DNA methylation at different ages. To explore DNA methylation changes in the porcine TNFα gene and analyze their potential effects on gene expression, we measured the methylation level of the TNFα promoter and TNFα mRNA expression in the spleen of Meishan piglets at six developmental stages (1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days old) by bisulfite sequencing PCR and quantitative PCR...
November 23, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Yu Sasano, Tetsuro Sakata, Sakurako Okusaki, Minetaka Sugiyama, Yoshinobu Kaneko, Satoshi Harashima
To achieve inorganic phosphate (Pi) homeostasis, cells must be able to sense intracellular and extracellular Pi concentrations. In the Pi signaling (PHO) pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, high Pi represses genes involved in Pi uptake (e.g., PHO84) and Pi utilization (PHO5); conversely, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Pho81 inhibits the activity of the Pho80-Pho85 cyclin-cyclin dependent kinase complex in low-Pi conditions, leading to induction of these genes. However, how yeast senses Pi availability remains unresolved...
November 16, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Kenji K Kojima
The majority of eukaryotic genomes contain a large fraction of repetitive sequences that primarily originate from transpositional bursts of transposable elements (TEs). Repbase serves as a database for eukaryotic repetitive sequences and has now become the largest collection of eukaryotic TEs. During the development of Repbase, many new superfamilies/lineages of TEs, which include Helitron, Polinton, Ginger and SINEU, were reported. The unique composition of protein domains and DNA motifs in TEs sometimes indicates novel mechanisms of transposition, replication, anti-suppression or proliferation...
November 9, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Mizuki Ohno
Germline mutations are the origin of genetic variation and are widely considered to be the driving force of genome evolution. The rates and spectra of de novo mutations (DNMs) directly affect evolutionary speed and direction and thereby establish species-specific genomic futures in the long term. This has resulted in a keen interest in understanding the origin of germline mutations in mammals. Accumulating evidence from next-generation sequencing and family-based analysis indicates that the frequency of human DNMs varies according to sex, age and local genomic context...
November 1, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Kazuki Murata, Shota Watanabe, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Shuhei Nasuda
In this study, we investigated the chromosome breakage caused by gametocidal (Gc) chromosome 3Ct and its interaction with the suppressor gene Igc1 (inhibitor of gametocidal gene 1) on wheat chromosome 3B. We demonstrated cytologically that patterns of 3Ct -induced chromosomal fragmentation in microspores differed from patterns observed for other Gc genes. Uninuclear microspores of the monosomic 3Ct addition line had high frequencies of micronuclei, possibly explaining its low fertility. Chromosome fragmentation was observed in prometaphase and metaphase of the first pollen mitosis in the monosomic 3Ct addition line...
October 30, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Nguyen Thi Ngoc Thanh, Nguyen Thi Tuyet Lan, Phan Thanh Phat, Nguyen Dien Thanh Giang, Nguyen Thi Hue
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Breast tumorigenesis encompasses both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Among intrinsic aspects, the appearance of DNA variation can cause genetic instability, which may lead to carcinogenesis. Genome-wide association studies have found several potential breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in many different populations. Among these, seven (rs2046210, rs1219648, rs3817198, rs3803662, rs889312, rs10941679 and rs13281615) have been shown to be significantly associated with breast cancer risk in various populations including those very similar to the Vietnamese...
October 30, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Kazuki Watanabe, Yuki Suzuki, Show Inami, Hirono Ohashi, Takaomi Sakai
In many animal species, females choose potential mating partners according to their own preferences. Thus, female preference-based mate choice affects intraspecific mating success and prevents interspecific mating. To clarify the neuronal basis of female mate choice, it is essential to identify the important relevant sensory cues. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, the courtship song of males promotes female sexual receptivity. When wild-type virgin females can freely choose one of two types of courting males (winged or wingless males), they prefer to mate with winged males...
October 30, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Xianhui Ning, Liying Feng, Xue Li, Shuyue Wang, Mengran Zhang, Shi Wang, Lingling Zhang, Xiaoli Hu, Zhenmin Bao
Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) function in localization, stability and translational control of their target RNAs. In this study, we identified an IMP gene (PyIMP) from Yesso scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis. The complete DNA sequence of PyIMP was 22,875 bp, consisting of seventeen exons and sixteen introns. The full-length cDNA sequence was 3,293 bp, with an open reading frame of 1,776 bp, encoding 592 amino acids. PyIMP exhibited characters typical of IMPs, namely two RNA recognition motifs and four hnRNP K homology domains...
October 30, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Sang-Ho Kang, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Hyun Oh Lee, Byoung Ohg Ahn, So Youn Won, Seong-Han Sohn, Jung Sun Kim
Glycyrrhiza uralensis and G. glabra, members of the Fabaceae, are medicinally important species that are native to Asia and Europe. Extracts from these plants are widely used as natural sweeteners because of their much greater sweetness than sucrose. In this study, the three complete chloroplast genomes and five 45S nuclear ribosomal (nr)DNA sequences of these two licorice species and an interspecific hybrid are presented. The chloroplast genomes of G. glabra, G. uralensis and G. glabra × G. uralensis were 127,895 bp, 127,716 bp and 127,939 bp, respectively...
October 30, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Yukio Ishimi
Recently published structural and functional analyses of the CMG complex have provided insight into the mechanism of its DNA helicase function and into the distinct roles of its central six component proteins MCM2-MCM7 (MCM2-7). To activate CMG helicase, the two protein kinases CDK and DDK, as well as MCM10, are required. In addition to the initiation of DNA replication, MCM function must be regulated at the DNA replication steps of elongation and termination. Polyubiquitylation of MCM7 is involved in terminating MCM function...
October 23, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Bo Wang, Fan Yang, Rui Li, Xuemei Li, Xiaolong Wu, Zheng Sun, Jieming Zhai, Yan He, Jie Qi
R-spondin2 (Rspo2) is a member of the R-spondin family, which plays important roles in cell proliferation, cell fate determination and organogenesis. Rspo2 exhibits important functions during embryonic development and muscle maintenance in adult human, mouse and Xenopus. In the present study, the tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis Rspo2 (CsRspo2) gene was isolated and characterized, and its role in muscle development during embryogenesis was studied. Our results showed that CsRspo2 expression was abundant during gastrulation and significantly high during somite formation, but then decreased markedly after hatching...
October 18, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
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