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Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Arpit Parmar, Pratap Sharan, Sudhir Kumar Khandelwal, Khushbu Agarwal, Uma Sharma, Naranamanglam Raghunathan Jagannathan
AIM: The purpose of this study, using 1 H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1 H-MRS), was to examine the treatment related changes in the neurochemicals in 28 unmedicated obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients METHODS: We included subjects diagnosed with OCD (n=28) with a total duration of illness <5 years as a study group and matched healthy controls (n=26). The inclusion criteria for OCD group was: right-handed individuals, aged >18 years, not on any specific treatment for OCD for last >8 weeks with no other psychiatric comorbidity...
April 11, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Mitsuhiro Sado, Masataka Wada, Akira Ninomiya, Yoshihiro Nohara, Teppei Kosugi, Mayuko Arai, Ryusuke Endo, Masaru Mimura
AIM: Previous studies indicate that mirtazapine is unique in its quick responsiveness compared to other antidepressants. Although some other studies have evaluated its cost effectiveness, they have not considered its early stage remission rate. The aim of this study was to address this research gap by using precise clinical data to evaluate the cost effectiveness of mirtazapine in Japan. METHODS: We developed a Markov model to reflect the week-by-week transition probabilities...
April 11, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hissei Imai, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Naohiro Yonemoto, Yusuke Ogawa, Aran Tajika, Hirokazu Fujita, Tadashi Kato, Toshi A Furukawa
The feedback comment is one of the important elements in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)1 . Previous studies using structured scales showed that feedback from patients improves health outcomes2 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 9, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hirokazu Kumazaki, Taro Muramatsu, Yuichiro Yoshikawa, Yoshio Matsumoto, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Masaru Mimura, Mitsuru Kikuchi
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have trouble with non-verbal communication, which is strongly associated with poor social function.1 There are few evidence-based interventions for children with ASD, so tutors find it difficult to teach non-verbal communication skills. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 9, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Sohei Kimoto, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Toshifumi Kishimoto
We report two cases of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCHT) in patients with an acute psychotic episode with mania-like symptoms. Patient A was a 20-year-old woman with no previous medical history, and never experienced affective and psychotic symptoms. She also had no family history of mental illness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 9, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Takahiro Nemoto, Takashi Uchino, Sayaka Aikawa, Junichi Saito, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Tomoyuki Funatogawa, Taiju Yamaguchi, Naoyuki Katagiri, Naohisa Tsujino, Masafumi Mizuno
AIM: Although competence and performance in relation to social functioning usually go hand in hand, it is not uncommon to observe a discrepancy between the two in patients with schizophrenia. The present study was aimed at examining the characteristics of patient groups showing such discrepancy. METHODS: A total of 205 outpatients with schizophrenia aged ≤40 years old were enrolled. The symptomatology and social functioning were widely assessed. The patients were divided into 4 groups by the cutoff scores for competence and performance in relation to social functioning calculated using a comprehensive dataset...
April 9, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Sehyun Jeon, Seok-Il Hwang, Young Don Son, Young-Bo Kim, Yu Jin Lee, Seog Ju Kim
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess neuropsychological correlations with the T2* relaxation time (T2*-RT) of hippocampal subregions in adolescents using ultra-high-field (UHF) 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We assessed the T2*-RTs of hippocampal subregions in 31 healthy 11th- or 12th-grade high school students using an UHF 7.0 T MRI system. T2*-RTs of the cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 subregions and the subiculum were calculated for both the left and right hippocampus...
March 30, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Takahiro A Kato, Ryoko Katsuki, Hiroaki Kubo, Norihiro Shimokawa, Mina Sato-Kasai, Kohei Hayakawa, Nobuki Kuwano, Wakako Umene-Nakano, Masaru Tateno, Daiki Setoyama, Dongchon Kang, Motoki Watabe, Shinji Sakamoto, Alan R Teo, Shigenobu Kanba
AIM: Understanding premorbid personality is important especially when considering treatment selection. Historically, the premorbid personality of Japan's depression is Shuchaku-kishitsu, proposed by Shimoda in the 1930s. Since around 2000, young adults with depression who have premorbid personality differing from the traditional type have increasingly been reported in Japan. In 2005, Tarumi termed this novel condition 'Dysthymic-type Depression', and it is recently called 'Shin-gata/Gendai-gata Utsu-byo; Modern-type Depression (MTD)'...
March 21, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Wei-Ting Tseng, Jia-Yin Yeh, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chieh-Hsin Lin
Suicide by charcoal burning has been epidemic in East Asian countries.1 Charcoal burning is currently the second most commonly employed method of suicide and accounted for approximately 31% of all suicides in Taiwan.2 Delayed symptoms of neuropsychiatric sequelae after CO poisoning include mood, cognitive and personality changes, parkinsonism, incontinence, dementia, and psychosis.3 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 21, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Chiara Spironelli, Zaira Romeo, Antonio Maffei, Alessandro Angrilli
AIM: The ability to discern commonalities and differences in the neurobiology of functional psychoses represents a key element to unmask shared vulnerability across different psychiatric conditions. The present study sought to compare the automatic visual attention mechanisms in three psychiatric disorders considered to distribute along the continuum of psychosis severity: Schizophrenia (SZ), Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Major Depression Disorder (MDD). To this end, the visual P1 Event-Related Potential component, a cortical correlate of automatic visual attention, was measured during an ecological task based on visual word pair presentation...
March 18, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Brandon D Le, Jason L Stein
Imaging genetics aims to identify genetic variants associated with the structure and function of the human brain. Recently, collaborative consortia have been successful in this goal, identifying and replicating common genetic variants influencing gross human brain structure, as measured through MRI. In this review, we contextualize imaging genetic associations as one important link in understanding the causal chain from genetic variant to increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We provide examples in other fields of how identifying genetic variant associations to disease and multiple phenotypes along the causal chain has revealed a mechanistic understanding of disease risk, with implications for how imaging genetics can be similarly applied...
March 13, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Abdullah Bolu, Beyazıt Garip, Taner Öznur, Özcan Uzun
Parkinsonism is a clinical disorder that can occur after initiation of antipsychotic treatment, and is characterized by tremor, akinesia, bradykinesia and muscle rigidity. The development of parkinsonism symptoms are dose dependent and occurs in approximately 20-40% of patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 10, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Jun Kashihara, Itsuki Yamakawa, Akiko Kameyama, Masaki Muranaka, Kanako Taku, Shinji Sakamoto
AIM: Depression is a heterogeneous disorder that has various subtypes. In Japan, however, a prevailing misunderstanding is that the term utsu-byo (clinical depression) indicates only the melancholic type. Consequently, a subtype called modern type depression (MTD), which has contrasting features to those of melancholic or traditional type depression (TTD), is severely stigmatized in Japan in these days. The present study conducted a cross-cultural comparison of perceptions of TTD and MTD between Japan and the U...
March 10, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Patricia R Braun, Mai Tanaka-Sahker, Aubrey C Chan, Sydney S Jellison, Mason J Klisares, Benjamin W Hing, Yaseen Shabbir, Lindsey N Gaul, Yasunori Nagahama, Julian Robles, Jonathan T Heinzman, Sayeh Sabbagh, Ellyn M Cramer, Gabrielle N Duncan, Kumi Yuki, Liesl N Close, Brian J Dlouhy, Matthew A Howard Iii, Hiroto Kawasaki, Kyle M Stein, James B Potash, Gen Shinozaki
AIM: Glucocorticoids play a major role in regulating the stress response, and an imbalance of glucocorticoids has been implicated in stress-related disorders. Within mouse models, CpGs across the genome have been shown to be differentially methylated in response to glucocorticoid treatment, and using the Infinium 27K array, it was shown that humans given synthetic glucocorticoids had DNA methylation (DNAm) changes in blood. However, further investigation of the extent to which glucocorticoids affect DNAm across a larger proportion of the genome is needed...
March 1, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Kugimiya Tsuyoshi, Kentaro Kohno, Nobuyoshi Ishii, Takeshi Terao
Lithium treatment causes drug eruptions in a few patients. Mohandas and Rajmohan1 suggest that acneiform eruptions, psoriasis, maculopapular eruptions, and follicular eruptions are the most common cutaneous reactions to lithium. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 1, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Fei Huang, Xiaoqin Chen, Xiangzhi Jiang, Juan Niu, Cuicui Cui, Zhenli Chen, Jun Sun
AIM: Abnormal high level of Homocysteine (Hcy) is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Betaine is a methyl group donor in Hcy metabolism, and is known to prevent noxious Hcy accumulation. This study explored whether betaine could influence Hcy metabolism in a mouse model of autism and ameliorate behavioral abnormalities. METHODS: Pregnant ICR mice were administered intraperitoneally with valproic acid (VPA) at E12.5. Serum Hcy concentrations in the offspring were measured by ELISA...
February 28, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Yukako Nakagami, Genichi Sugihara, Hironori Kuga, Hidehiko Takahashi, Toshiya Murai
A revised road traffic law took effect in Japan in 2014, involving an obligatory disease condition declaration form when acquiring or renewing a driver's license, and imposing a penalty for making false statements about serious symptoms due to specific illnesses (e.g., epilepsy, schizophrenia, and mood disorder). Objections were raised regarding this legal revision, claiming that it could worsen the stigma associated with mental illness. However, the relationship between the law and mental illness-related stigma has not been investigated...
February 14, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Tom Macpherson, Takatoshi Hikida
Over the last few decades, advances in human and animal-based techniques have greatly enhanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. Many of these studies have indicated connectivity between and alterations within basal ganglia structures to be particularly pertinent to the development of symptoms associated with several of these disorders. Here we summarize the connectivity, molecular composition, and function of sites within basal ganglia neurocircuits. Then we review the current literature from both human and animal studies concerning altered basal ganglia function in four common psychiatric disorders; obsessive compulsive disorder, substance-related and addiction disorders, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia...
February 8, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Taichi Mogi, Tomoya Tsunoda, Aihide Yoshino
AIM: Facial recognition can be assessed by examining an event-related potential component, namely the N170. The amplitude of the N170 is larger in response to inverted faces than to upright faces. To examine facial processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we investigated the amplitude of the N170, the face inversion effect, and the association between social functioning and face-specific configuration processing. METHODS: Sixteen patients with TLE and 17 controls participated in this study...
February 7, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shunsuke Kobayashi, Takeshi Terao, Masanao Shirahama, Koji Hatano, Hirofumi Hirakawa, Kentaro Kohno, Ippei Shiotsuki, Nobuyoshi Ishii
AIMS: To investigate the hypotheses that hyperthymic temperament may be positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence with adjustment for relevant factors. METHODS: Using the database of our previous studies, the data from 111 healthy subjects with both Temperament and Character Inventory and Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire scores were secondarily used for the present study. RESULTS: Hyperthymic temperament scores were significantly and positively associated with self-transcendence scores, but not with self-directedness scores, following adjustment for relevant factors...
February 7, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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