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Health and Human Rights

Adele Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Athena K Ramos
Tobacco production is a multi-billion-dollar global industry. Unfortunately, the cultivation of tobacco engages the labor of children throughout the world in extremely dangerous environments, which has both immediate and long-term consequences for children and society. This paper explores the human rights concerns associated with child labor in tobacco production by highlighting three countries-the United States, Kazakhstan, and Malawi-and examines the impact that the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Labour Organization's (ILO) Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, and the ILO's Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention have on child labor practices in tobacco production...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Beth D Williams-Breault
Female genital mutilation/cutting is a form of violence against women and girls. It includes all procedures that involve the partial or total removal of external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It is estimated that over 200 million girls and women worldwide have suffered the effects of this practice and that approximately 3.6 million girls and women are at risk each year. Female genital mutilation/cutting violates several human rights outlined under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Emily J Kirk, Robert Huish
In 2008, Cuba's minister of public health signed Resolution 126, an act that assured complete coverage for Cubans seeking sexual reassignment surgeries (also known as gender confirmation surgeries), the first of any country in Latin America to do so. Ten years later, Cuba is celebrated as having one of the most open and inclusive LGBTQ public health and education programs in the Americas. As illustrated throughout this article, the Cuban state approaches sexuality and sexual identity not as rights-based issues but rather as health-based challenges...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Morgan Carpenter
Over time, the World Health Organization (WHO) has reviewed and removed pathologizing classifications and codes associated with sexual and gender minorities from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). However, classifications associated with intersex variations, congenital variations in sex characteristics or differences of sex development, remain pathologized. The ICD-11 introduces additional and pathologizing normative language to describe these as "disorders of sex development." Current materials in the ICD-11 Foundation also specify, or are associated with, unnecessary medical procedures that fail to meet human rights norms documented by the WHO itself and Treaty Monitoring Bodies...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Martín Hevia, Andrés Constantin
In a landmark decision handed down on November 30, 2016, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights analyzed the foundations of the right to informed consent. The court held Bolivia responsible for the forced sterilization of I.V., an immigrant woman from Peru, and recognized the importance of personal autonomy as a constitutive element of personality. This paper discusses the ethical foundations of the decision and explains the relevance of this judgment in furthering women's rights in Latin America.
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Renate Douwes, Maria Stuttaford, Leslie London
Participation is recognized as an important contribution to implementing the right to health. It features as a key element of the global movement to achieve universal health coverage. The mobilization of groups into collective action is central in this. In South Africa, universal health coverage has become a feature of health policies, with the country's new National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme in the process of being established. The NHI is considered an experiment in social solidarity. This paper provides insights into civil society's experiences in the pursuit of universal health coverage via the implementation of the NHI...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Marta Schaaf, Shruti Chhabra, Walter Flores, Francesa Feruglio, Jashodhara Dasgupta, Ana Lorena Ruano
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) may facilitate the collection and dissemination of citizen-generated data to enhance governmental accountability for the fulfillment of the right to health. The aim of this multiple case study research was to distill considerations related to the implementation of ICT and health accountability projects, describe the added operational value of ICT tools (as compared to similar projects that do not use ICT), and make preliminary statements regarding government responsiveness to accountability demands through ICT projects...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Ebenezer Durojaye, Daphine Kabagange Agaba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Tamar Ezer, Priti Patel
The HIV movement has relied on strategic litigation as an important tool to develop and enforce legal protections critical to health. This experience contains lessons on the potential of strategic litigation to advance public health more generally. Beyond impacting laws and policies, strategic litigation can change practice, breathing life into existing legal rules never implemented. While cases may target a particular law, policy, or practice, indirect impacts beyond a particular court decision on future cases, other branches of government, and the public record may be just as important...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Andrés Constantin
This article will place the discussion of human subject research within the larger context of human rights law, both at the international and regional level, and examine existing normative human rights frameworks that can be used to protect research subjects. The traditional approach has commonly focused on the ethical aspects of human subject research and little has been said about the implications of human experimentation on the enjoyment of basic rights. The difference between ethical principles and human rights is clearly determined by the non-enforceability of ethical norms and the legally binding nature of human rights obligations...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Samantha Bradley
Post-conflict communities consistently experience high rates of domestic and family violence (DFV) against women and children. An end to violence in the public sphere is widely seen to precipitate the escalation of violence in the private sphere. This paper presents the argument that protecting women and children from DFV should be an essential public policy goal in post-conflict communities. Furthermore, the imperative for placing DFV on the post-conflict agenda is derived from states' obligations under international human rights law...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Abhishek Bhatia, Ayesha Mahmud, Arlan Fuller, Rebecca Shin, Azad Rahman, Tanvir Shatil, Mahmuda Sultana, K A M Morshed, Jennifer Leaning, Satchit Balsari
The Rohingya people of Myanmar have been subject to human rights violations through government-sponsored discrimination and violence. Since August 2017, an intensified assault by Myanmar authorities has resulted in a rapid increase of Rohingya pouring into Bangladesh, and the expansion of refugee settlements in the district of Cox's Bazar has strained humanitarian and government relief efforts. Assessing Rohingya and host community needs is critical for prioritizing resource allocations and for documenting the rights violations suffered by Rohingya refugees...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Gillian Macnaughton, Mariah Mcgill, April Jakubec, Andjela Kaur
Massachusetts is a national leader in health care, consistently ranking in the top five states in the United States. In 2006, however, only 86% of adults aged 19-64 had health insurance. That year, Governor Romney signed into law An Act Providing Access to Affordable, Quality, Accountable Health Care. By 2017, more than 96% of these adults were insured. The 2006 Massachusetts health insurance reform later became the model for the 2010 federal Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Benjamin Mason Meier, Dabney P Evans, Matthew M Kavanagh, Jessica M Keralis, Gabriel Armas-Cardona
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Katherine Footer, Michael Windle, Laura Ferguson, Jordan Hatcher, Carrie Lyons, Emma Gorin, Anne L Stangl, Steven Golub, Sofia Gruskin, Stefan Baral
Legal empowerment is increasingly recognized as a key approach for addressing socio-structural determinants of health and promoting the well-being and human rights of vulnerable populations. Legal empowerment seeks to increase people's capacity to understand and use the law. However, limited consensus remains on the effectiveness of legal empowerment interventions in optimizing health outcomes. Leveraging a meta-narrative approach, we synthesized literature describing how legal empowerment interventions have been operationalized and empirically studied with respect to health determinants...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Bernadette Ann-Marie O'hare
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Gillian Macnaughton, Diane Frey
In the 2008 report Closing the gap in a generation , the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) described "fair employment and decent work" as components of daily living conditions that have "powerful effects on health." The CSDH therefore proposed far-reaching structural changes to bring about decent work and health for all. Crucially, however, it failed to acknowledge two relevant international legal frameworks, the Decent Work Agenda of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the right to decent work in international human rights law...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Miriam R Aczel, Karen E Makuch
The potential impacts of fracking on the environment and health, as well as impacts on local communities and their "quality of life," are well documented. This paper outlines the potential human rights impacts of fracking and argues for a human rights-based, participatory, and justice-based approach to regulation. In particular, it discusses the findings of the recent Permanent Peoples' Tribunal session on human rights, fracking, and climate change, held in Oregon, United States, and the potential impact of the tribunal's decision on other jurisdictions where fracking takes place, particularly England...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
Lucas Trout, Corina Kramer, Lois Fischer
American Indians and Alaska Natives have long held a state-conferred right to health, yet Indigenous communities across the United States continue to experience significant health and health care disparities. In this paper we posit two contributing factors: socialization for scarcity in tribal health care, and a slowness among health workers and allied health and social scientists to make explicit and convincing linkages between social determinants of health and human rights. We then summarize one attempt to align tribal health care delivery in the Alaskan Arctic with a rights-based approach, highlighting both the role of social and structural determinants as causes of health disparities and the role of social and structural interventions in local efforts to chart a future of equal health for our home...
December 2018: Health and Human Rights
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