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Journal of Biomedical Science

Sabah Haq, Jensine Grondin, Suhrid Banskota, Waliul I Khan
The intestinal mucosa is a site of multiple stressors and forms the barrier between the internal and external environment. In the intestine, a complex interplay between the microbiota, epithelial barrier and the local immune system maintains homeostasis and promotes a healthy gut. One of the major cellular catabolic processes that regulate this homeostasis is autophagy. Autophagy is required to maintain anti-microbial defense, epithelial barrier integrity and mucosal immune response. Dysregulation of the autophagy process causes disruption of several aspects of the intestinal epithelium and the immune system that can lead to an inappropriate immune response and subsequent inflammation...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Tomasz Kolenda, Kacper Guglas, Anna Teresiak, Renata Bliźniak, Katarzyna Lamperska
INTRODUCTION: Head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most invasive types of cancer with high mortality. A previous study has indicated that low levels of let-7d and miR-205 in HNSCC patients are correlated with poor survival. Let-7d and miR-205 are tumor suppressors and regulators of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, it is unclear if let-7d and miR-205 together influence cancer cells. AIM: To determine if let-7d and miR-205 expression levels influence HNSCC patient outcome...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yu Wang, Weihan Yang, Qiang Pu, Yan Yang, Sujuan Ye, Qingping Ma, Jiang Ren, Zhixing Cao, Guoxing Zhong, Xuechao Zhang, Lunxu Liu, Wen Zhu
AbstractAfter the publication of this article [1] it came to our attention that there were some errors in two of the figures.
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Clara Berdasco, Alipio Pinto, Valeria Calabró, David Arenas, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia Geoghegan, Pablo Evelson, Jorge Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin 2 from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is the etiologic agent of bloody diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome and derived encephalopathies that may result to death in patients. Being a Gram negative bacterium, lipopolysaccharide is also released. Particularly, the hippocampus has been found affected in patients intoxicated with Shiga toxin 2. In the current work, the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 and lipopolysaccharide are investigated in detail in hippocampal cells for the first time in a translational murine model, providing conclusive evidences on how these toxins may damage in the observed clinic cases...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Fernanda Majolo, Daniel Rodrigo Marinowic, Denise Cantarelli Machado, Jaderson Costa Da Costa
Among the various types of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent and is clinically defined as the appearance of progressive deficits in cognition and memory. Considering that AD is a central nervous system disease, getting tissue from the patient to study the disease before death is challenging. The discovery of the technique called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) allows to reprogram the patient's somatic cells to a pluripotent state by the forced expression of a defined set of transcription factors...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Zhihai Wang, Wenqi Zuo, Quan Zeng, Yi Qian, Yanshi Li, Chuan Liu, Jue Wang, Shixun Zhong, Youquan Bu, Guohua Hu
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a highly invasive tumor, exhibits a distinctive racial and geographic distribution. As options of agents for effective combination chemoradiotherapy for advanced NPC are limited, novel therapeutic approaches are desperately needed. Here the potential of silencing NFBD1 in combination with PARP inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy for NPC was investigated. METHODS: To investigate the function of NFBD1, we created NFBD1-depleted NPC cell lines via lentivirus mediated shRNA, and the colony formation, MTS assay, comet assay and apoptosis analysis were used to evaluate the sensitivity of NFBD1 knockdown on PARP inhibition...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Wenxia Meng, Weina Cui, Lei Zhao, Weiwei Chi, Huan Cao, Baoshan Wang
BACKGROUND: Dysregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the development of tumor. Aberrant methylation is one of the most frequent epigenetic alterations that regulate the expression of genes. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and methylation status of ZNF667-AS1 and ZNF667, elucidate their biological function in the development of LSCC, and identify a cis-regulation of ZNF667-AS1 to ZNF667. METHODS: The expression and methylation status of ZNF667-AS1 and ZNF667 in laryngeal cancer cell lines and LSCC samples were tested respectively...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Chu-Lung Chan, Jiann-Yeu Chen, Ming-Chih Shih, Chih-Lueh Albert Wang, Ying-Ming Liou
BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts (OCs) are motile multinucleated cells derived from differentiation and fusion of hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte-macrophage lineage that undergo a multistep process called osteoclastogenesis. The biological function of OCs is to resorb bone matrix for controlling bone strength and integrity, which is essential for bone development. The bone resorption function is based on the remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton into an F-actin-rich structure known as the sealing zone for bone anchoring and matrix degradation...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Govind R Chaudhary, Pramod K Yadav, Anil K Yadav, Meenakshi Tiwari, Anumegha Gupta, Alka Sharma, Ashutosh N Pandey, Ajai K Pandey, Shail K Chaube
Stress is deeply rooted in the modern society due to limited resources and large competition to achieve the desired goal. Women are more frequently exposed to several stressors during their reproductive age that trigger generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulation of ROS in the body causes oxidative stress (OS) and adversely affects ovarian functions. The increased OS triggers various cell death pathways in the ovary. Beside apoptosis and autophagy, OS trigger necroptosis in granulosa cell as well as in follicular oocyte...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Priscila Silva Franco, Paula Suellen Guimarães Gois, Thádia Evelyn de Araújo, Rafaela José da Silva, Bellisa de Freitas Barbosa, Angelica de Oliveira Gomes, Francesca Ietta, Lara Affonso Dos Santos, Maria Célia Dos Santos, José Roberto Mineo, Eloisa Amália Vieira Ferro
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes congenital toxoplasmosis by transplacental transmission. Parasite strains are genetically diverse and disease severity is related to the genotype. In Uberlândia city, Brazil, two virulent strains were isolated: TgChBrUD1 and TgChBrUD2. Congenital toxoplasmosis is more prevalent in South America compared to Europe, and more often associated with severe symptoms, usually as a result of infection with atypical strains. METHODS: Considering that T...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Chun-Yi Chiang, Chihchen Chen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane-bound vesicles that serve a means of cell-cell communication. Studying EVs at a single-particle level is important because EVs are inherently heterogeneous. Novel micro- and nanotechnological tools have open opportunities for realizing single-EV measurements exploiting their biochemical, electrical, mechanical, and/or optical properties. This review summarizes the recent development of technologies toward sorting and analyzing single EVs. Sorting EVs into a more homogeneous subset relaxes the sensitivity and throughput required on the EV detection, and hence related techniques are also included in this review...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Jun-I Wu, Lu-Hai Wang
Connexin, a four-pass transmembrane protein, contributes to assembly of gap junctions among neighboring cells and thus facilitates gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Traditionally, the roles of connexins were thought to mediate formation of hemichannels and GJIC assembly for transportation of ions and small molecules. Many studies have observed loss of GJIC, due to reduced expression or altered cytoplasmic localization of connexins, in primary tumor cells. Connexins are generally considered tumor-suppressive...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Jingjing Wang, Min Yu, Jian Xu, Yusheng Cheng, Xiang Li, Guihong Wei, Hong Wang, Hui Kong, Weiping Xie
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disease leading to death ultimately. Our recently published data demonstrated that inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) alleviated pulmonary vascular remodeling in experimental PH. However, whether glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mediated the protective effect of DPP-4 inhibition (DPP-4i) on PH is unclear. RESULTS: In the present study, GLP-1 receptor antagonist (exendin-3) abolished the protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin) on right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVR) in monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg)-induced PH in rat...
January 12, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Akiko Kogure, Nobuyoshi Kosaka, Takahiro Ochiya
Cancer metastasis is the major cause of mortality in cancer cases and is responsible for cancer deaths. It is known that cancer cells communicate with surrounding microenvironmental cells, such as fibroblast cells, immune cells, and endothelial cells, to create a cancer microenvironment for their progression. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles that can be secreted by most types of cells and play an important role in cell-to-cell communications via transferring bioactive cargos, including variable RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), to recipient cells...
January 12, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Jonatas Rafael de Oliveira, Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) is a medicinal plant native to the Mediterranean region and cultivated around the world. Besides the therapeutic purpose, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. R. officinalis L. is constituted by bioactive molecules, the phytocompounds, responsible for implement several pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, antitumor and protective, inhibitory and attenuating activities. Thus, in vivo and in vitro studies were presented in this Review, approaching the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of R...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yi-Chun Yeh, Hsin-Yu Kuo, Wei-Lun Chang, Hsiao-Bai Yang, Cheng-Chan Lu, Hsiu-Chi Cheng, Ming-Shiang Wu, Bor-Shyang Sheu
BACKGROUND: H. pylori CagL-Y58/E59 increase gastric cancer risk by stronger binding with integrin to faciliate type IV secretory system (T4SS). H. pylori can secrete high temperature requirement A (HtrA) to mediate E-Cadherin cleavage for gastric epithelial junction disruption, so H. pylori CagL can adhere to integrin located on basolateral side of epithelium. The study test whether H. pylori HtrA amino acid polymorphisms can increase gastric cancer risk synergistically with CagL-Y58/E59...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yu-Ling Tsai, Tzu-Lung Lin, Chih-Jung Chang, Tsung-Ru Wu, Wei-Fan Lai, Chia-Chen Lu, Hsin-Chih Lai
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota is closely related to occurrence of many important chronic inflammations-related diseases. So far the traditionally prescribed prebiotics and probiotics do not show significant impact on amelioration of these diseases in general. Thus the development of next generation prebiotics and probiotics designed to target specific diseases is urgently needed. In this review, we first make a brief introduction on current understandings of normal gut microbiota, microbiome, and their roles in homeostasis of mucosal immunity and gut integrity...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Shuangling Chen, Qin Zhu, Hong Sun, Yuan Zhang, Sean Tighe, Li Xu, Yingting Zhu
Human corneal endothelial cells are notorious for their restricted proliferative ability in vivo and in vitro. Hence, injury or dysfunction of these cells may easily result in blindness. Currently, the only treatment is to transplant a donor cornea that contains a healthy corneal endothelium. However there is a severe global shortage of donor corneas and there remains an unmet clinical need to engineer human corneal grafts with healthy corneal endothelium. In this review, we present current advances in the culture, expansion, and molecular understandings of corneal endothelial cells in vitro in order to help establish methods of engineering human corneal endothelial grafts...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Andre Gerald Buret, Jean-Paul Motta, Thibault Allain, Jose Ferraz, John Lawrence Wallace
Gut microbiota interacting with an intact mucosal surface are key to the maintenance of homeostasis and health. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of the biofilm mode of growth of these microbiota communities, and how in turn their disruptions may cause disease. Beyond alterations of relative microbial abundance and diversity, the aim of the review is to focus on the disruptions of the microbiota biofilm structure and function, the dispersion of commensal bacteria, and the mechanisms whereby these dispersed commensals may become pathobionts...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Steven Ting-Yu Chuo, Jasper Che-Yung Chien, Charles Pin-Kuang Lai
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-enclosed nanoparticles released by cells. They range from 30 nm to several micrometers in diameter, and ferry biological cargos such as proteins, lipids, RNAs and DNAs for local and distant intercellular communications. EVs have since been found to play a role in development, as well as in diseases including cancers. To elucidate the roles of EVs, researchers have established different methods to visualize and study their spatiotemporal properties. However, since EV are nanometer-sized, imaging them demands a full understanding of each labeling strategy to ensure accurate monitoring...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
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