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Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079805/the-dawn-of-a-new-age-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#1
EDITORIAL
Alfred E Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079804/immunotherapy-for-solid-malignancies
#2
EDITORIAL
Timothy M Pawlik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079803/future-research-goals-in-immunotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Tyler W Hulett, Bernard A Fox, David J Messenheimer, Sebastian Marwitz, Tarsem Moudgil, Michael E Afentoulis, Keith W Wegman, Carmen Ballesteros-Merino, Shawn M Jensen
In our opinion the most urgent needs to improve patient outcomes are: 1) a deeper ability to measure cancer immunobiology, and 2) increased availability of agents that, coupled with predictive biomarkers, will be used to tailor anti-cancer immunity. Tailoring effective immunotherapy will entail combinations of immunotherapeutics that augment priming of anti-cancer immunity, boost expansion of effector and memory cells of the T, B and NK lineage, amplify innate immunity and relieve checkpoint inhibition. Alternatives to inducing adaptive immunity to cancer include synthetic immunology that incorporate bi-specifics that target T cells to cancer or adoptive immunotherapy with gene-modified immune cells...
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079802/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-t-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Sunny J Patel, Takayoshi Yamauchi, Fumito Ito
Adoptive T cell therapy for solid malignancies is limited because obtaining sufficient numbers of less-differentiated tumor-specific T cells is difficult. This roadblock can be theoretically overcome by the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which self-renew and provide unlimited numbers of autologous less-differentiated T cells. iPSCs can generate less-differentiated antigen-specific T cells that harbor long telomeres and increased proliferative capacity, and exhibit potent antitumor efficacy. Although this strategy holds great promise for adoptive T cell therapy, highly reproducible and robust differentiation protocols are required before the translation of iPSC technology into the clinical setting...
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079801/role-of-surgery-in-combination-with-immunotherapy
#5
REVIEW
Nicholas D Klemen, Mackenzie L Shindorf, Richard M Sherry
Improvements in systemic immunotherapy are changing the treatment of patients with advanced melanoma and many other tumors. Surgeons may be increasingly called on to manage isolated sites of immunorefractory disease or to provide palliative surgery as a bridge to systemic therapy. Here, the authors describe the biologic rationale for using surgery in patients with immunorefractory disease, provide background on the evolving role of metastasectomy for advanced melanoma, and summarize data on the use of neoadjuvant immunotherapy...
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079800/adoptive-t-cell-therapy-for-solid-malignancies
#6
REVIEW
Mohammad S Jafferji, James C Yang
The use of immunotherapies for solid and hematologic malignancies has demonstrated durable antitumor effects. Use of checkpoint inhibitors allows for immunologic reactivation of the adaptive immune system against tumor-specific neoantigens and effective rejection. Recent developments in adoptive transfer of T cells has shown effective immune rejection of solid malignancies and durable regression. Adoptive cell transfer involves extraction of in vivo T lymphocytes, selection for or introduction of tumor reactive cells, in vitro expansion, and delivery of the T-cell product back to the patient...
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079799/immunotherapy-in-ovarian-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Weimin Wang, Janice Rebecca Liu, Weiping Zou
The phenotype and functionalities of the major immune cell subsets including myeloid cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells are altered in the ovarian cancer microenvironment. Immunosuppressive networks including inhibitory B7 family members and regulatory T cell-associated adenosine pathway have been defined in human ovarian cancer. In this review, the authors integrate emerging information on immunosuppressive mechanisms and T cell phenotype and discuss strategies of immunotherapeutic and vaccine regimens...
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079798/immunologic-targeting-of-cancer-stem-cells
#8
REVIEW
Jing Zhang, Qiao Li, Alfred E Chang
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are crucial for tumor recurrence and distant metastasis. Immunologically targeting CSCs represents a promising strategy to improve efficacy of multimodal cancer therapy. Modulating the innate immune response involving Toll-like receptors, macrophages, natural killer cells, and γδT cells has therapeutic effects on CSCs. Antigens expressed by CSCs provide specific targets for immunotherapy. CSC-primed dendritic cell-based vaccines have induced significant antitumor immunity as an adjuvant therapy in experimental models of established tumors...
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079797/oncolytic-immunotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Morgan L Hennessy, Praveen K Bommareddy, Genevieve Boland, Howard L Kaufman
Oncolytic viruses are naturally occurring, or genetically engineered viruses that can be administered via intralesional injections or intravenously to induce cell death in tumor cells and activate antitumor immune responses. This review summarizes several oncolytic viruses in preclinical and clinical trials, describes challenges in clinical implementation, and important areas of future investigation.
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079796/current-immunotherapy-practices-in-melanoma
#10
REVIEW
Luke D Rothermel, Amod A Sarnaik, Nikhil I Khushalani, Vernon K Sondak
Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of melanoma, with implications for the surgical management of this disease. Surgeons must be aware of the impact of various immunotherapies on patients with resectable and unresectable disease, and how surgical decision-making should progress as a result. We expect that current and developing immunotherapies will increase surgeon involvement for resection of metastatic melanoma, whether for tumor harvests to generate autologous lymphocytes or for consolidating control of disease beyond what immunotherapies alone can achieve...
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079795/immunotherapy-toxicities
#11
REVIEW
Katherine Sanchez, David B Page, Walter Urba
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are therapeutic antibodies that target regulatory molecules on T cells and represent the most widely used FDA-approved class of immunotherapy. ICIs are associated with unique immune-mediated toxicities called immune-related adverse events. These toxicities may affect any organ system, and their precise mechanisms of action remain under investigation. Current evidence suggests that activation of T cells is involved, although other components of the immune response have been implicated...
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079794/the-current-landscape-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-for-solid-malignancies
#12
REVIEW
Emily Z Keung, Jennifer A Wargo
Immunotherapy has led to unprecedented improvement in the treatment and prognosis of high-risk resectable and metastatic disease across cancer types. Nowhere is this better highlighted than in the management of advanced and metastatic melanoma with the introduction of molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Following their success in melanoma, immunotherapies have also been evaluated and their use approved in the management across a variety of other solid malignancies in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and advanced/metastatic setting...
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079793/vaccine-therapies-for-breast-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Erin E Burke, Krithika Kodumudi, Ganesan Ramamoorthi, Brian J Czerniecki
Vaccines can be a cost effective preventive measure for both primary prevention of disease and prevention of disease recurrence. Several vaccines targeting breast cancer oncodrivers are currently being tested in clinical trials. Whereas clinical response rates to breast cancer vaccines have been modest despite the induction of strong antitumor T cell responses, it is through these approaches that valuable insight and knowledge have been gained about tumor immunology. With the emergence of new immunotherapies, there is renewed excitement for effective breast cancer vaccine development...
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079792/vaccine-strategy-in-melanoma
#14
REVIEW
Minyoung Kwak, Katie M Leick, Marit M Melssen, Craig L Slingluff
The incidence of melanoma continues to increase even as advances in immunotherapy have led to survival benefits in advanced stages. Vaccines are capable of inducing strong, antitumor immune responses with limited toxicity. Some vaccines have demonstrated clinical benefit in clinical trials alone; however, others have not despite inducing strong immune responses. Recent advancements have improved vaccine design, and combining vaccines with other immunotherapies offers promise. This review highlights the underlying principles of vaccine development, common components of vaccines, and the remaining challenges and future directions of vaccine therapy in melanoma...
July 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30851835/minimally-invasive-oncologic-surgery-part-ii
#15
EDITORIAL
Claudius Conrad, James W Fleshman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30851834/minimally-invasive-oncologic-surgery-part-ii
#16
EDITORIAL
Timothy M Pawlik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30851833/afterword
#17
REVIEW
Brice Gayet, David Fuks
Despite significant improvements over the last several decades in multimodality treatment for cancer, the physical removal of solid tumors via surgery continues to be the primary method of curative intent treatment. Currently, neoadjuvant treatments using modern chemotherapy and novel radiation protocols are used to reduce tumor size or diminish the risk of systemic relapse before removal of the bulk tumor. Aiming for cure, these improvements in the management of solid cancers remain dependent on the ability to remove tumors...
April 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30851832/minimally-invasive-techniques-in-urology
#18
REVIEW
Jairam R Eswara, Dicken S Ko
Urologists were early adopters of minimally invasive, specifically robotic, techniques for cancer surgery. The current trends show increasing adoption of robotic surgery for renal, bladder, and prostate cancer. Several randomized controlled trials show that robotic urologic surgery has outcomes that are at least as good as, if not superior to, open surgery.
April 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30851831/minimally-invasive-surgery-for-primary-and-metastatic-adrenal-malignancy
#19
REVIEW
Colleen M Kiernan, Jeffrey E Lee
Since the first description of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for pheochromocytoma and Cushing syndrome in 1992, the utilization of and indications for a minimally invasive approach to the adrenal gland have vastly expanded. Although minimally invasive adrenalectomy has been established as the preferred approach for patients with benign tumors of the adrenal gland, minimally invasive adrenalectomy for cancer remains controversial. In this article, the authors review the indications for minimally invasive adrenalectomy for adrenal nodules suspicious for, or established to represent, a primary malignancy or a site of metastatic cancer...
April 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30851830/minimally-invasive-surgery-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Katerina O Wells, Walter R Peters
Total mesorectal excision (TME) can be safely performed through a minimally invasive approach by experienced surgeons and may offer patients benefit in certain short-term outcomes. Long-term oncologic outcomes and meta-analysis of the most recent randomized controlled trials may offer additional clarity regarding the role of laparoscopic TME and those patients for whom the approach is most appropriate. Until then, laparoscopic TME should be used judiciously. As the landscape of rectal cancer surgery evolves, the necessary constant needs to be multidisciplinary oversight of rectal cancer surgery performed by surgeons and surgical centers experienced in this critically important procedure...
April 2019: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
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