Emily A Stockings, Lauren A Gardner, Nicola C Newton
Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or 'vapes') has risen rapidly among young Australians in recent years. To combat this, on 2 May 2023, the Albanese Government announced a suite of reforms to reduce the desirability and accessibility of e-cigarettes to young people-including a ban on disposable e-cigarettes, restricting flavours, colours and nicotine content and requiring pharmaceutical-like packaging. While many have welcomed this announcement, the efficacy of such reforms in reducing the availability of e-cigarettes to young people remain to be seen, particularly given the current prescription-only model has done little to curb youth vaping...
October 2, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Rose A Schmidt, Nat Kaminski, David T Kryszajtys, Katherine Rudzinski, Melissa Perri, Adrian Guta, Anita C Benoit, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Laurel Challacombe, Jessica Hales, Kathleen Kenny, Gillian Kolla, Emmet O'Reilly, Andrea Sereda, Nanky Rai, Carol Strike
INTRODUCTION: The ongoing opioid overdose crisis, which has killed over 30,000 people in Canada since 2016, is driven by the volatility of an unregulated opioid drug supply comprised primarily of fentanyl. The Canadian government has recently funded safer opioid supply (SOS) programs, which include off-label prescriptions of pharmaceutical-grade opioids to high risk individuals with the goal of reducing overdose deaths. METHODS: In 2021, we examined the implementation and adaption of four SOS programs in Ontario...
September 18, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Natalia Uthurralt, Shilpi Ajwani, Roland Kiel, Shivani Chandra, Bijaya Lama Rumba, Carolyn A Day
Substance use disorders are a risk factor for poor oral health which in turn impacts quality of life. Resultant oral problems contribute to chronic illness, premature mortality, social stigma, embarrassment and reduced opportunities for employment and social interaction. Providing dental services to people with substance use disorders is often difficult due to high rates of oral disease, anxiety, behavioural and drug use changes, and lifestyle factors. Previous studies have demonstrated that alcohol and other drug service clients find accessing and navigating oral health services complex and suggest a multidisciplinary care approach to improve outcomes...
September 18, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Matthew Dunn, David Bright, Paige Fletcher
INTRODUCTION: Using case law, the aims of this study were to document the methods for trafficking of performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIED) into Australia, and the characteristics of individuals and groups involved. METHODS: Data was collected from judges' sentencing comments. Searches were conducted using the Australasian Legal Information Institute database across all states in Australia, for the period of January 2010 to December 2021. After removing duplicates and cases which did not meet the inclusion criteria, 31 cases were included in the analysis...
September 17, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Danielle Dawson, Daniel Stjepanovic, Valentina Lorenzetti, Wayne D Hall, Janni Leung
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis use is highly prevalent in Australia, yet current survey metrics measure tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure with limited accuracy. Often survey items measure cannabis quantity by assuming specific modes of use (i.e., 'how many joints do you use?'), which fail to capture variations in cannabis use and the diverse modes of use (e.g., joints, cones, spliffs). This study investigated how much cannabis is used in these modes of administration in an Australian sample...
September 17, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Isabella Ingram, Frank P Deane, Amanda L Baker, Camilla J Townsend, Clare E Collins, Robin Callister, Richard Chenhall, Rowena Ivers, Peter J Kelly
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease and cancers are the leading cause of mortality amongst people accessing treatment for alcohol and other drug use. The current study aimed to examine risk factors for chronic disease amongst people attending residential alcohol and other drug treatment services. METHODS: Participants (N = 325) were attending residential alcohol and other drug treatment services across Australia. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk scores were calculated using established risk estimation algorithms...
September 16, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Cate M Cameron, Kim Vuong, Brett McWhinney, Anna Zournazi, Silvia Manzanero, Jacelle Warren, Gary Mitchell, Kirsten Vallmuur, Tegwen Howell, Jacobus P J Ungerer
INTRODUCTION: The health impact from alcohol is of recognised concern, from acute intoxication as well as increased risk of chronic health issues over time. Identifying factors associated with higher alcohol consumption when presenting to the emergency department (ED) will inform public health policy and enable more targeted health care and appropriate referrals. METHODS: Secondary testing of blood samples collected during routine clinical care of 1160 ED patients presenting to the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital in Queensland, Australia, for 10 days between 22 January and 1 February 2021...
September 13, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Michael F Doyle, Jimmy Perry, Carol Bower, Katherine M Conigrave, Sharynne Hamilton
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a lifelong disability of varying severity that occurs among individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians, the effects of colonisation and ongoing racism could increase the risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Much of the research and the effort towards prevention of and caring for people with FASD in Indigenous communities has been targeted towards women and children. More support and effort towards prevention of FASD is needed across the whole Indigenous community...
September 5, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
India Cordony, Llewellyn Mills, Kristie Mammen, Nicholas Lintzeris
ISSUES: Routine outcome monitoring (ROM) involves regularly measuring clients' outcomes during treatment, which can then be fed back to clinicians and/or clients. In the mental health field, ROM and feedback have been shown to improve client outcomes; however, no systematic reviews have examined whether improvement is also seen in alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment outcomes. This review examines whether feedback to clients and/or clinicians of ROM data in AOD treatment improves future client outcomes...
August 31, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Le Minh Giang, Nguyen Thu Trang, Dinh Thanh Thuy, Hoa H Nguyen, Nguyen Bich Diep, Hoang Thi Hai Van, Thai Thanh Truc, Cathy J Reback, Michael Li, Do Van Dung, Steve Shoptaw
INTRODUCTION: Methamphetamine use threatens positive treatment outcomes in substance use and HIV, for people with opioid use disorders (POUD) in many countries. This paper describes the adaptation of four evidence-based interventions (EBI) (motivational interviewing, contingency management, Matrix group model and SMS text messaging) for treating methamphetamine use among POUD receiving methadone maintenance therapy in Vietnam. METHODS: Following the ADAPT-ITT (Assessment-Decision-Administration-Production-Topical experts-Training-Testing) framework, we conducted 16 focus group discussions with POUD (n = 25) and providers (n = 22) at four methadone clinics in two largest cities (Hanoi in the North, Ho Chi Minh City in the South) to assess patterns of methamphetamine use and to get feedback on proposed EBIs...
August 23, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Yichao Liang, Jillian Roberts, Katherine Conigrave, Sobi Kim, Michael F Doyle
INTRODUCTION: People who enter custody have complex health issues and comorbidities may include alcohol use disorders. We investigated clinical service provision and comorbidities recorded among individuals with a likely alcohol withdrawal syndrome within prison in New South Wales, Australia. METHODS: For this clinical case series review, electronic medical data were used to identify 50 people entering custody between August and November 2018 who likely had a treated alcohol withdrawal syndrome...
August 22, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Rebecca J Haines-Saah, Heather Morris, Petra Schulz, Emily Jenkins, Elaine Hyshka
Canada is in the midst of a public health emergency in drug poisoning (overdose) deaths. In this context parents, and especially mothers, of those who have died from drug poisoning have mobilised to advocate for urgent responses and drug policy reforms. To document this emerging women-led advocacy, we initiated a community-academic research partnership with three parent groups representing families in Canada bereaved by drug-related deaths. In this commentary, we describe four guiding principles we developed during the course of this project, to ensure an ethical and equitable approach to conducting our research partnership...
August 22, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Basak Tas, Hollie Walker, Will Lawn, Faith Matcham, Elena V Traykova, Rebecca A S Evans, John Strang
INTRODUCTION: Drug-related deaths involving an opioid are at all-time highs across the United Kingdom. Current overdose antidotes (naloxone) require events to be witnessed and recognised for reversal. Wearable technologies have potential for remote overdose detection or response but their acceptability among people who use opioids (PWUO) is not well understood. This study explored facilitators and barriers to wearable technology acceptability to PWUO. METHODS: Twenty-four participants (79% male, average age 46 years) with current (n = 15) and past (n = 9) illicit heroin use and 54% (n = 13) who were engaged in opioid substitution therapy participated in semi-structured interviews (n = 7) and three focus groups (n = 17) in London and Nottingham from March to June 2022...
August 19, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
David McCutcheon, Jessamine Soderstrom, Mohan Raghavan, Francois Oosthuizen, Bianca Douglas, Sally Burrows, Jennifer L Smith, Daniel Fatovich
INTRODUCTION: Presentations related to illicit drugs are a feature of emergency department practice. Clinicians may form a belief that a patient is intoxicated with illicit drugs based on patient self-report, clinical features on presentation and the local prevalence of illicit drug use. But evidence of the accuracy of this assessment is lacking. The Western Australian Illicit Substance Evaluation (WISE) study enrolled patients believed by their treating clinician to be intoxicated with illicit drugs, and this analysis aims to evaluate the validity of this belief...
August 16, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Ripley J Corbett, Sarah K Blakemore, Erica G Martin, Lauren A Monds, Mark E Montebello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Ingeborg Lund, Inger Synnøve Moan, Torleif Halkjelsvik
INTRODUCTION: Sexual harassment as a political/legal issue was revitalised by the #MeToo movement in 2017. We estimate the prevalence and development of alcohol-related sexual harassment (ASH) across industries over the years 2015 to 2021, including potential changes from 2017, and assess differences in the risk of ASH according to industry- and individual-level characteristics. METHODS: Based on annual surveys (2015-2021) among employees in 21 Norwegian industries (observations N = 11,512, individuals N = 6353)...
August 14, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Bebe D'Souza, Tony Butler, Anthony Shakeshaft, Ivan Calder, Katherine Conigrave, Michael Doyle
INTRODUCTION: Prison-based drug and alcohol group treatment programs operate in all Australian jurisdictions. With more than two-thirds of people in prison having a history of substance use prior to incarceration, such programs are needed. There have been few published papers on the impact of attending group treatment programs in Australian prisons, and the research published to date has been predominately quantitative. We aim to report the experiences of males in prison who completed and those who did not complete a group-based drug and alcohol program, to gain insight into their strategies for reducing harm from drug and alcohol post-release...
August 13, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Rufina H W Chan, Dong Dong, Ka-Chun Chong, Jean H Kim
INTRODUCTION: Drinking expectancies, the perceived consequences of alcohol consumption, are noted to predict drinking behaviours. However, there is comparatively little research of drinking expectancies in non-Western populations. This study aimed to develop and validate a Chinese Drinking Expectancy Questionnaire (CDEQ-Adult) for Chinese young adults. METHODS: Face and content validity were first assessed of items generated from literature review and previously conducted focus groups...
August 11, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
Eva Naznin, Johnson George, Pete Driezen, Kerrin Palazzi, Olivia Wynne, Nigar Nargis, Geoffrey T Fong, Billie Bonevski
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (ST) use are prevalent in Bangladesh. This longitudinal study examined how knowledge of the health effects of smoking and ST use in Bangladesh has changed overtime with the country's acceleration of tobacco control efforts. METHODS: Data were analysed from the International Tobacco Control Survey, a nationally representative longitudinal study of users and non-users of tobacco (aged 15 and older) in Bangladesh, across four waves conducted in 2009 (n = 4378), 2010 (n = 4359), 2012 (n = 4223) and 2015 (n = 4242)...
August 11, 2023: Drug and Alcohol Review
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