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Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

Na-Yon Kim, Jaehoon An, Jae-Kyung Jeong, Sumin Ji, Sung-Hyun Hwang, Hong-Seok Lee, Myung-Chul Kim, Hyun-Wook Kim, Sungho Won, Yongbaek Kim
Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is widely used for monitoring and diagnosing human diabetes mellitus, but is rarely used in veterinary clinics. The goal of our study was to validate the commercial HbA1c testing system SD A1cCare analyzer (Bionote, Gyeoggi-do, South Korea) for use in dogs. Dogs were recruited with owner's consent. Diabetic status was determined based on clinical signs, fasting hyperglycemia, and glycosuria. Intra-assay precision and linearity were evaluated with EDTA, heparin, or citrate as anticoagulants, and had excellent precision with mean coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Turan Yaman, Abdullah Karasu, Ahmet Uyar, Yağmur Kuşçu, Ömer Faruk Keleş
A 1-mo-old Ivesi male lamb was presented with 2 large red masses on the skin of the left ear. The tumors were removed using gentle dissection and submitted for histologic evaluation. The tumors consisted of numerous thin-walled capillaries lined by endothelial cells and nests of stromal cells. Immunohistochemically, the endothelial cells were positive for CD45, and the stromal cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase. GFAP-positive cells were occasionally present within the tumor. Endothelial and stromal cells were negative for S100, CD34, CD31, and factor VIII-related antigen...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Panpicha Sattasathuchana, Naris Thengchaisri, Jan S Suchodolski, Jonathan A Lidbury, Jörg M Steiner
Studies that have used serum 3-bromotyrosine (3-BrY) to investigate eosinophil activation in dogs have found elevated 3-BrY levels in clinical patients with chronic enteropathy (CE). To our knowledge, a method to measure 3-BrY concentrations in feces has not been reported. We developed and analytically validated an electron ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to measure fecal 3-BrY concentrations in dogs. The mean and maximum fecal 3-BrY concentrations in healthy dogs ( n = 40) and dogs with CE ( n = 40) over 3 consecutive days were compared...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Kelsey E Lawrence, Khiem C Lam, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko, Christiane V Löhr
Knowledge of changes in the composition of microbial communities (microbiota) in tissues after death, over time, is critical to correctly interpret results of microbiologic testing from postmortem examinations. Limited information is available about postmortem changes of the microbiota and the associated microbial genes (microbiome) of internal organs in any species. We examined the effect of time and ambient temperature on the postmortem microbiome (thanatomicrobiome) of tissues typically sampled for microbiologic testing during autopsies...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Maria Cuvertoret-Sanz, Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Madeleine Lunardi, René Brunthaler, Mònica Coma, Herbert Weissenböck, Joaquim Segalés
Enteric disease in pigs is usually of multifactorial etiology, including infectious and non-infectious factors. In many cases of endemic diarrhea in weaner-to-finisher pigs, the combination of 2 or more microorganisms leads to aggravation of intestinal lesions and, consequently, clinical signs. We autopsied a 4-mo-old fattening pig with diarrhea and diagnosed severe fibrinonecrotizing typhlocolitis. Numerous spiral-shaped bacteria and amoeba-like PAS-positive protozoa were observed in the cecal and colonic mucosa and submucosa...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Carlos O Schild, Federico Giannitti, Rosane M T Medeiros, Caroline da Silva Silveira, Rubén D Caffarena, Robert H Poppenga, Franklin Riet-Correa
We describe and illustrate lesions in an outbreak of lead arsenate poisoning in beef cattle that ingested pesticide residues stored in an abandoned building of a former orange orchard. Of 70 exposed cattle, 14 had diarrhea, paresis, ataxia, recumbency, and/or seizures. Ten of the affected animals died after a clinical course of 12-18 h. Pathologic findings in 3 steers included extensive necrohemorrhagic, ulcerative rumenitis, omasitis, and abomasitis; lymphocytolysis in lymphoid organs; and nephrosis. Hepatic arsenic and lead levels in cases 1-3 were 20, 24, and 31 ppm, and 8...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Matthew A Kopke, Malcolm W Jack, Wendy I Baltzer, Paul F Wightman, Arnon Gal
A 4-mo-old French bulldog was presented with acute onset pain and reluctance to move. A tubular structure arising in the dorsal thoracic midline and extending from a cutaneous orifice into deeper tissues was palpated on physical examination. Computed tomography with sinography revealed a dermoid sinus associated with spina bifida at the level of T3-T4. On surgical exploration, the dermoid sinus was found to communicate with the dura. Histology confirmed the diagnosis and classification as a type VI dermoid sinus...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Dayna A Goldsmith, Aslı Mete, Joseph B Pesavento, John M Adaska
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a disease of surfactant clearance in which functional abnormalities in alveolar macrophages lead to accumulation of surfactant within alveoli in mammals. Histologic examination of 6 avian autopsies, including 4 chickens, a turkey, and a cockatiel, revealed accumulation of hypereosinophilic densely arrayed lamellar material in the lungs that was magenta by periodic acid-Schiff stain and diastase resistant. Transmission electron microscopy of the proteinaceous material in 2 cases demonstrated alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent lamellae that formed whorls and had a regular periodicity of 6-14 nm, consistent with pulmonary surfactant...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
G Kenitra Hendrix, Kelly A Brayton, Grant N Burcham
Anaplasma ovis infection is known to occur in elk experimentally, but without clinical signs or significant clinicopathologic changes. An elk farm in southern Indiana experienced the death of 3 neonates. Gross findings suggested hemolytic anemia as the cause of death. Splenic impression smears revealed numerous intra-erythrocytic parasites compatible with Anaplasma spp. Products of a semi-nested PCR targeting the msp4 gene of A. ovis were sequenced and had 100% identity with published A. ovis sequences. Given the clinical presentation, vertical transmission of A...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
David A Graham, Deirdre King, Tracy A Clegg, Ronan G O'Neill
We investigated the potential for viremic sera from cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus to create false-negative antibody results when testing pools of 10 sera by indirect or blocking ELISAs. Seronegative viremic sera ( n = 23) were each added to a series of artificially constructed pools containing various percentages (0-90%) of antibody-positive sera, and the resulting pools were assayed for antibody. In all 23 cases, a negative antibody result was obtained in the pool containing no seropositive sera...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Francielle Liz Monteiro, Juliana F Cargnelutti, Bruno Martins, Jessica G Noll, Rudi Weiblen, Eduardo F Flores
The pestiviruses bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and -2, respectively) and HoBi-like pestivirus (HoBiPeV) are important pathogens of cattle, and a number of reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR)-based assays have been developed for their detection in clinical specimens. We evaluated a newly designed set of pan-bovine pestivirus primers (BP189-389) in a gel-based RT-PCR screening test for pestiviruses in the sera of beef calves destined for export from southern Brazil. Serum samples positive for BVDV antigens by an antigen ELISA ( n = 135) were submitted to RT-PCR assays using different sets of primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Ann P Britton, Julie Bidulka, Andrea Scouras, Helen Schwantje, Tomy Joseph
We describe herein fatal hepatic sarcocystosis in a free-ranging grizzly bear ( Ursus arctos horribilis) cub with apicomplexan infection of the liver and brain, both demonstrating 100% homology for Sarcocystis canis and S. arctosi. Fatal hepatic sarcocystosis in dogs has been etiologically associated with intrahepatic schizonts of S. canis. In black and polar bears, a S. canis-like organism produces schizonts in the liver and massive hepatic necrosis. Although intramuscular sarcocysts, taxa S. arctosi and S...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
S Jo Moore, Jodi D Smith, Jürgen A Richt, Justin J Greenlee
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc ) in the brain and other tissues. Animal prion diseases include scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in ranch-raised mink. We investigated the susceptibility of raccoons to various prion disease agents and compared the clinicopathologic features of the resulting disease. Raccoon kits were inoculated intracranially with the agents of raccoon-passaged TME (TMERac ), bovine-passaged TME (TMEBov ), hamster-adapted drowsy (TMEDY ) or hyper TME (TMEHY ), CWD from white-tailed deer (CWDWtd ) or elk (CWDElk ), or atypical (Nor98) scrapie...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Sandra Felten, Katrin Hartmann, Stefanie Doerfelt, Laura Sangl, Johannes Hirschberger, Kaspar Matiasek
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of tissue samples is considered the gold standard for diagnosing feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), and, in cats without body cavity effusion, IHC is the only method available to establish definitive antemortem diagnosis. However, IHC requires invasive tissue sample collection. We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of an immunocytochemical assay of fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) of mesenteric lymph nodes that can be obtained noninvasively by ultrasound-guided aspiration to diagnose FIP...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Erwin K Gudenschwager, Jonathan A Abbott, Tanya LeRoith
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a myocardial disease characterized by ventricular chamber dilation associated with systolic myocardial dysfunction in the absence of other cardiac lesions. DCM occasionally develops in conjunction with proliferation of fibroelastic fibers in the endocardium, producing endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE). Although early reports describe EFE as a primary disease, evidence now suggests that EFE may develop as a response to myocardial dysfunction. Echocardiographic evaluation of a 4-wk-old Pallas cat ( Otocolobus manul) with respiratory distress revealed enlargement of both atria, enlarged end-systolic left ventricular dimension, and left ventricular dilation...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Jennifer L Jones, Leyi Wang, Olgica Ceric, Sarah M Nemser, David S Rotstein, Dominika A Jurkovic, Yamir Rosa, Beverly Byrum, Jing Cui, Yan Zhang, Cathy A Brown, Anne L Burnum, Susan Sanchez, Renate Reimschuessel
Reports of raw meat pet food containing zoonotic foodborne bacteria, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, are increasing. Contaminated raw pet food and biological waste from pets consuming those diets may pose a public health risk. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network conducted 2 case investigations, involving 3 households with animal illnesses, which included medical record review, dietary and environmental exposure interviews, animal sample testing, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) of bacteria isolated from the pets and the raw pet food...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Heidi L Pecoraro, M Julia B Felippe, Andrew D Miller, Thomas J Divers, Kenneth W Simpson, Kimberly M Guyer, Gerald E Duhamel
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a rare condition in adult horses characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to parasitic and bacterial infections, including recurrent respiratory diseases, septicemia, and meningitis. Lyme disease is often included as a differential diagnosis in CVID horses with signs of meningitis; however, the Borrelia burgdorferi organism has not been demonstrated previously within central nervous system tissues of CVID horses with neurologic disease, to our knowledge...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Rommel L Vinueza, Marilyn Cruz, Emmanuel Bréard, Cyril Viarouge, Gina Zanella
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) have both been reported in mainland Ecuador, but their occurrence was unknown in the Galapagos Islands, an Ecuadorian province. We aimed to detect BTV or EHDV in cattle from the 3 main cattle-producing Galapagos Islands at a between-herd design prevalence of 20% and a within-herd design prevalence of 15%. Blood samples were collected from 410 cattle in 33 farms and tested for antibodies against BTV and EHDV by competitive ELISAs. All results were negative, suggesting that BTV and EHDV are not present in the Galapagos Islands...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Christina J Ramirez, Melissa Krug, Adam Zahand, Kyle Sundin, Lisa G Shaffer, Blake C Ballif
Canine inherited factor VII deficiency is a mild-to-moderate, inherited coagulopathy that affects several breeds of dog. We identified 2 polymorphisms near the disease-causing F7 gene mutation, one of which interfered with testing in several Beagles by causing allele dropout of the normal, wild-type allele. In the absence of an external proficiency program among veterinary genetic testing laboratories, implementation of an internal proficiency program, which requires 2 independent methods for genotyping dogs at any given locus, was further enhanced by ensuring minimally non-overlapping primer pairs between the 2 assays...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Claudio Borteiro, Francisco Kolenc, José Manuel Verdes, Claudio Martínez Debat, Martín Ubilla
Histology is often underappreciated for the detection of the amphibian pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the cause of the potentially lethal skin disease chytridiomycosis. We evaluated the sensitivity of histology to detect chytrids in 20 wild specimens of 2 frog species from Uruguay that were clinically normal, but confirmed by PCR to be infected by B. dendrobatidis. We detected maturing and sporulated sporangia in 15 of 20 (75%) frogs, which is more sensitive than previously reported for histology...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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