Louis A Cox, William J Thompson, Kenneth A Mundt
INTRODUCTION: Causal epidemiology for regulatory risk analysis seeks to evaluate how removing or reducing exposures would change disease occurrence rates. We define interventional probability of causation (IPoC) as the change in probability of a disease (or other harm) occurring over a lifetime or other specified time interval that would be caused by a specified change in exposure, as predicted by a fully specified causal model. We define the closely related concept of causal assigned share (CAS) as the predicted fraction of disease risk that would be removed or prevented by a specified reduction in exposure, holding other variables fixed...
May 16, 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Annick D van den Brand, Ellen V S Hessel, Rinus Rijk, Bianca van de Ven, Niels M Leijten, Emiel Rorije, Shalenie P den Braver-Sewradj
The use of bisphenol A (BPA), a substance of very high concern, is proposed to be banned in food contact materials (FCMs) in the European Union. To prevent regrettable substitution of BPA by alternatives with similar or unknown hazardous properties, it is of importance to gain the relevant toxicological information on potential BPA alternative substances and monitor them adequately. We created an inventory of over 300 substances mentioned as potential BPA alternatives in regulatory reports and scientific literature...
May 10, 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Amal S A F Hafez, Fatma M Elgazzar, Zahraa K Sobh, Ahmad A El-Ebiary
Some studies suggested that gastrointestinal (GIT) decontamination with oil may improve the prognosis of patients who ingested aluminum phosphide (AlP). The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of gastric lavage with oil-based solutions to any method of gastric decontamination not using oils in patients presenting with acute AlP poisoning. The literature was searched for English-published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from inception to 16 September 2023. The searched electronic databases included MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Egyptian Knowledge Bank, Scopus, and Google Scholar...
April 24, 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Neva Jacobs, Daniel G Kougias, Fian Louie, Benjamin Roberts
Consumers are confronted with conflicting information regarding the safety of specific foods. For example, the Environmental Working Group (EWG) publishes an annual consumer guide in which they rank the pesticide contamination of 46 popular fruits and vegetables, which includes designating the 12 with the greatest pesticide contamination as the "Dirty Dozen," to help consumers reduce exposures to toxic pesticides. However, consumer guides like EWG's only incorporate some hazard assessment principles and do not reflect a dietary risk assessment...
April 16, 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Robinan Gentry, Tracy Greene, Holly Bartow, Cynthia Van Landingham, Joseph Rodricks, Harvey Clewell
The Ramazzini Institute (RI) has been conducting animal carcinogenicity studies for decades, many of which have been considered by authoritative bodies to determine potential carcinogenicity in humans. Unlike other laboratories, such as the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP), the RI does not provide a report or record of historical control data. Transparently documenting historical control data is critical in the interpretation of individual study results within the same laboratory. Historical control data allow an assessment of significant trends, either increasing or decreasing, resulting from changes in laboratory methods or genetic drift...
March 12, 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Imen Benchikh, Kaddour Ziani, Antonio Gonzalez Mateos, Boumediène Méghit Khaled
Neonicotinoid pesticides are utilized against an extensive range of insects. A growing body of evidence supports that these neuro-active insecticides are classified as toxicants in invertebrates. However, there is limited published data regarding their toxicity in vertebrates and mammals. the current systematic review is focused on the up-to-date knowledge available for several neonicotinoid pesticides and their non-acute toxicity on rodents and human physiology. Oral lethal dose 50 (LD50 ) of seven neonicotinoids (i...
March 12, 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Evan A Frank, M E Bette Meek
Risk assessment of human health hazards has traditionally relied on experiments that use animal models. Although exposure studies in rats and mice are a major basis for determining risk in many cases, observations made in animals do not always reflect health hazards in humans due to differences in biology. In this critical review, we use the mode-of-action (MOA) human relevance framework to assess the likelihood that bronchiolar lung tumors observed in mice chronically exposed to styrene represent a plausible tumor risk in humans...
March 5, 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Paolo Boffetta, Luisa Sambati, Michele Sassano
An association between exposure to arsenic (As) and neurologic and behavioral effects has been reported in some studies, but no systematic review is available of the evidence linking As in drinking water and neurobehavioral effects after consideration of study quality and potential confounding, with focus on low-level circumstances of exposure. We conducted a systematic review and reported it in compliance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, through a search of the databases PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase...
March 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Maja Aleksic, Ramya Rajagopal, Renato de-Ávila, Sandrine Spriggs, Nicola Gilmour
For over a decade, the skin sensitization Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) has served as a useful framework for development of novel in chemico and in vitro assays for use in skin sensitization hazard and risk assessment. Since its establishment, the AOP framework further fueled the existing efforts in new assay development and stimulated a plethora of activities with particular focus on validation, reproducibility and interpretation of individual assays and combination of assay outputs for use in hazard/risk assessment...
February 22, 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Michael W Duffel, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic toxicants derived from legacy pollution sources and their formation as inadvertent byproducts of some current manufacturing processes. Metabolism of PCBs is often a critical component in their toxicity, and relevant metabolic pathways usually include their initial oxidation to form hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs). Subsequent sulfation of OH-PCBs was originally thought to be primarily a means of detoxication; however, there is strong evidence that it may also contribute to toxicities associated with PCBs and OH-PCBs...
February 16, 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Zhenlin Huang, Zeqi Wu, Xinnan Gu, Lili Ji
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are one type of phytotoxins distributed in various plants, including many medicinal herbs. Many organs might suffer injuries from the intake of PAs, and the liver is the most susceptible one. The diagnosis, toxicological mechanism, and detoxification of PAs-induced hepatotoxicity have been studied for several decades, which is of great significance for its prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. When the liver was exposed to PAs, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) loss, hemorrhage, liver parenchymal cells death, nodular regeneration, Kupffer cells activation, and fibrogenesis occurred...
February 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Renata Sano Lini, Deborah Thais Palma Scanferla, Nadya Garcia de Oliveira, Raul Gomes Aguera, Thais da Silva Santos, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Alice Maria de Souza Kaneshima, Simone Aparecida Galerani Mossini
Although studies show that pesticides, especially insecticides, may be toxic to humans, publications on the neurological effects of fungicides are scarce. As fungicides are used widely in Brazil, it is necessary to gather evidence to support actions aimed at safely using of these chemicals. We investigated through a systematic review of publications on the use of fungicides and consequences of exposure related to nervous system diseases or neurological disorders in humans. The protocol review was registered on PROSPERO and followed the guidelines of the PRISMA-Statement...
January 30, 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Josje H E Arts, Sina Bader, Steffen Bade
Aminocarboxylic acid (monoamine-based) chelating agents such as GLDA, MGDA, NTA, and EDG are widely used in a variety of products and processes. In the European Union, based on the Green Deal and the Chemicals Strategy for Sustainability (CSS), there is an increasing tendency to speed up chemical hazard evaluation and to regulate chemicals by grouping substances based on molecular structure similarity. Recently, it was proposed to group polycarboxylic acid monoamines, hydroxy derivatives and their salts with monovalent cations , and to consider all group members as potential carcinogens based on the official CLP classification of one group member, viz...
January 25, 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Mohamed Kadry Taher, Franco Momoli, Jennifer Go, Shintaro Hagiwara, Siva Ramoju, Xuefeng Hu, Natalie Jensen, Rowan Terrell, Alex Hemmerich, Daniel Krewski
INTRODUCTION: Fluoride is a naturally occurring substance that is also added to drinking water, dental hygiene products, and food supplements for preventing dental caries. Concerns have been raised about several other potential health risks of fluoride. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a robust synthesis of evidence regarding human health risks due to exposure to fluoride in drinking water, and to develop a point of departure (POD) for setting a health-based value (HBV) for fluoride in drinking water...
January 2024: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Toshika Mishra, Suneetha Vuppu
The unintended exposure of children to hand sanitizers poses a high risk of potentially fatal complications. Skin irritation, dryness, cracking, peeling, hypoglycemia, apnea, and acidosis are examples of unintended consequences of hand sanitizer. The sanitizer reportedly kills normal microbial flora on hands, which usually promotes innate immunity among children under 12. Children are more susceptible to the toxicity associated with the chemical constituents of marketed chemical-based hand sanitizers; however, the studies to develop sanitizer formulations for children are rudimentary...
December 2023: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Zahraa Khalifa Sobh, Marwa Kholief, Eman Khalifa Sobh, Manal Ibrahim Fathy Balah
Metal phosphides are highly toxic pesticides that result in high morbidities and mortalities worldwide. This systematic review included 350 studies that fulfilled the eligibility criteria. There were significant rising trends of studies on acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) and zinc phosphide (Zn3 P2 ) poisoning ( p -values = <.001), pointing to an increased number of phosphide-intoxicated patients. Acute AlP poisoning studies represented 81%, 89.3%, and 97.7% of all descriptive, analytical, and experimental interventional studies included in this review, respectively...
December 2023: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Mirlinda Tahiri, Celine Johnsrud, Inger-Lise Steffensen
This scoping review provides an overview of publications reporting adverse effects on the intestines of the food additives carrageenan (CGN) (E 407)/processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES) (E 407a) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (E 466). It includes evidence from human, experimental mammal and in vitro research publications, and other evidence. The databases Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Epistemonikos were searched without time limits, in addition to grey literature...
November 30, 2023: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Stephen B Stanfill, Stephen S Hecht, Andreas C Joerger, Pablo J González, Luisa B Maia, Maria G Rivas, José J G Moura, Alpana K Gupta, Nick E Le Brun, Jason C Crack, Pierre Hainaut, Courtney Sparacino-Watkins, Robert E Tyx, Suresh D Pillai, Ghazi S Zaatari, S Jane Henley, Benjamin C Blount, Clifford H Watson, Bernd Kaina, Ravi Mehrotra
Tobacco use is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality globally. Tobacco products, including smokeless tobacco (ST), generally contain tobacco-specific N -nitrosamines (TSNAs), such as N '-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-butanone (NNK), which are potent carcinogens that cause mutations in critical genes in human DNA. This review covers the series of biochemical and chemical transformations, related to TSNAs, leading from tobacco cultivation to cancer initiation...
November 21, 2023: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Wells Utembe, Charlene Andraos, Mary Gulumian
The toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in vivo and in vitro has formed the basis of most studies. However, the toxicity of ENMs, particularly on the immune system, i.e. immunotoxicity , and their role in manipulating it, are less known. This review addresses the initiation or exacerbation as well as the attenuation of allergic asthma by a variety of ENMs and how they may be used in drug delivery to enhance the treatment of asthma. This review also highlights a few research gaps in the study of the immunotoxicity of ENMs, for example, the potential drawbacks of assays used in immunotoxicity assays; the potential role of hormesis during dosing of ENMs; and the variables that result in discrepancies among different studies, such as the physicochemical properties of ENMs, differences in asthmatic animal models, and different routes of administration...
November 7, 2023: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Daniel Delorenzi Schons, Gabriel Adan Araújo Leite
Malathion and diazinon are pesticides commonly used in agriculture to avoid insects that damage crops; however, they may cause impairment to the male genital system of exposed humans. The present work carried out a systematic review of the literature concerning the primary studies that assessed the reproductive effects resulting from male rats and mice exposed to malathion or diazinon. The search for articles was performed on the databases PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, and SciELO, using different combinations of the search terms "malathion," "diazinon," "mice," "rats," "male reproduction," "fertility," and "sperm," followed by the Boolean operators AND or OR...
November 3, 2023: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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