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Critical Reviews in Toxicology

Koustav Ganguly, Ulrika Carlander, Estella Dg Garessus, Markus Fridén, Ulf G Eriksson, Ulrika Tehler, Gunnar Johanson
Computational modeling together with experimental data are essential to assess the risk for particulate matter mediated lung toxicity and to predict the efficacy, safety and fate of aerosolized drug molecules used in inhalation therapy. In silico models are widely used to understand the deposition, distribution, and clearance of inhaled particles and aerosols in the human lung. Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been reported due to increased particulate matter related air pollution episodes...
April 23, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
S M Solaiman, Jennifer Algie, Shahnaz Bakand, Ronald Sluyter, Vitor Sencadas, Michael Lerch, Xu-Feng Huang, Konstantin Konstantinov, Philip J Barker
Nanotechnology has the potential to bring about revolutionary changes in manufacturing products, including sunscreens. However, a knowledge gap between benefits and detriments of engineered nano-materials used in sunscreens exists, which gives rise to safety concerns. This article is concerned with the protection of consumers without impairing the embellishment of this promising technology. It is widely argued that the harm associated with nano-sunscreens may only occur under certain conditions related mainly to users skin vulnerability, which can be avoided by informed and careful use of such a product...
April 5, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Lara Chehabeddine, Tala Al Saleh, Marwa Baalbaki, Eman Saleh, Samia J Khoury, Salem Hannoun
Ever since gadolinium was found to deposit in the brain of patients with normal kidney function by Kanda et al. in 2014, several studies have been conducted to evaluate its effect on the patients' health. However, conflicting results were obtained regarding imaging in gadolinium retention. These finding were attributed to the chelating structure of the administered gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA): linear agents were found to accumulate in the dentate nucleus (DN) and the globus pallidus (GP) of subjects even after one dose...
April 3, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Joyce S Tsuji, Ellen T Chang, P Robinan Gentry, Harvey J Clewell, Paolo Boffetta, Samuel M Cohen
The biologic effects of inorganic arsenic predominantly involve reaction of the trivalent forms with sulfhydryl groups in critical proteins in target cells, potentially leading to various toxicologic events including cancer. This mode of action is a threshold process, requiring sufficient concentrations of trivalent arsenic to disrupt normal cellular function. Nevertheless, cancer risk assessments for inorganic arsenic have traditionally utilized various dose-response models that extrapolate risks from high doses assuming low-dose linearity without a threshold...
April 1, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Stephanie K Bopp, Aude Kienzler, Andrea-Nicole Richarz, Sander C van der Linden, Alicia Paini, Nikolaos Parissis, Andrew P Worth
This paper summarizes current challenges, the potential use of novel scientific methodologies, and ways forward in the risk assessment and risk management of mixtures. Generally, methodologies to address mixtures have been agreed; however, there are still several data and methodological gaps to be addressed. New approach methodologies can support the filling of knowledge gaps on the toxicity and mode(s) of action of individual chemicals. (Bio)Monitoring, modeling, and better data sharing will support the derivation of more realistic co-exposure scenarios...
April 1, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Davide Arcella, Alan Boobis, Peter Cressey, Holly Erdely, Vittorio Fattori, Jean-Charles Leblanc, Markus Lipp, Rainer Reuss, Stefan Scheid, Angelika Tritscher, Trijntje Van der Velde-Koerts, Philippe Verger
Risk assessments for pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food are performed respectively by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The models used by the two Committees to assess chronic dietary exposure are based on different data and assumptions which may be confusing, particularly for risk managers, when the same compound is used to treat plants and animals. This publication details the results of combined chronic dietary exposure assessments for eight compounds used both as pesticide and veterinary drugs...
March 28, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
S Stanley Young, Warren B Kindzierski
It is generally acknowledged that claims from observational studies often fail to replicate. An exploratory study was undertaken to assess the reliability of base studies used in meta-analysis of short-term air quality-myocardial infarction risk and to judge the reliability of statistical evidence from meta-analysis that uses data from observational studies. A highly cited meta-analysis paper examining whether short-term air quality exposure triggers myocardial infarction was evaluated as a case study. The paper considered six air quality components - carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, particulate matter 10 μm and 2...
March 28, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Annelies Cannaert, Marthe Vandeputte, Sarah M R Wille, Christophe P Stove
The (ab)use of designer drugs and steroid hormones has gained popularity due to the lower chance of getting caught, as routine drug or doping tests may miss these (novel) compounds. Current analytical approaches mostly make use of targeted, structure-based techniques, such as immunoassays or mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods. However, these approaches have limitations, including a lack of cross-reactivity and the need for prior knowledge of molecular identity. This has initiated considerable interest in the so-called "untargeted" screening strategies to detect these compounds...
March 28, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Michael Kovochich, Brent L Finley, Rachel Novick, Andrew D Monnot, Ellen Donovan, Kenneth M Unice, Ernest S Fung, David Fung, Dennis J Paustenbach
Hip implants have improved the mobility and quality of life in millions of individuals. This review presents the evolution of scientific knowledge regarding the history and understanding of systemic and local metal toxicological concerns of hip implants designs utilizing metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing surfaces used in hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). This analysis addresses: (1) the history of the development of MoM hip implants; (2) the clinical and toxicological rationale for introducing second-generation MoM implants in the early 2000s as an alternative to metal-on-polyethylene bearings; (3) the subsequent history regarding success and failure of second-generation MoM devices; (4) a detailed review of the history of MoM toxicology, including carcinogenic potential, metal blood levels, hypersensitivity, and release of wear particles; and (5) a review of local tissue effects and MoM patient management...
March 26, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Mina Suh, Daniele Wikoff, Loren Lipworth, Michael Goodman, Seneca Fitch, Liz Mittal, Caroline Ring, Deborah Proctor
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is known to cause lung cancer in workers of certain industries, but an association with stomach cancer is uncertain and widely debated. Systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted to assess the risk of stomach cancer mortality/morbidity in humans and experimental animals exposed to Cr(VI). In accordance with the protocol (PROSPERO #CRD4201605162), searches in PubMed and Embase® , and reviews of secondary literature bibliographies, were used to identify eligible studies. Critical appraisal of internal validity and qualitative integration were carried out using the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) approach; meta-analyses were conducted based on the occupational data (the only data suitable for quantitative assessment)...
March 21, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Craig A Poland, Rodger Duffin
The global use of "asbestos" in various commercial products has led to a wide range and pervasive legacy of disease. One such use of chrysotile asbestos was brake pads and was utilized commonly in automobiles and heavy vehicles. The result of incorporation of chrysotile into brake pads is associated with the exposure of mechanics fitting and servicing vehicles to liberated chrysotile fibers. Despite the proven exposure, the relative risk of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in this occupational population is broadly seen as low...
March 15, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Andrea G Barthwell, Jeffrey Allgaier, Kenneth Egli
Individuals who receive buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder in office-based settings may be at risk for, or have a history of, polysubstance use. Urine drug testing is an important clinical tool for monitoring medication adherence and patient stability; and screening for illicit drug use and dangerous drug-drug interactions. This article is intended to educate practitioners in office-based opioid treatment settings on selecting appropriate substances for a definitive drug testing panel that are known to be used concurrently, sequentially, or in combination with buprenorphine for opioid use disorder...
February 22, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Abha Cherkani-Hassani, Imane Ghanname, Nezha Mouane
This systematic review summarizes the finding of 58 studies from 33 countries, which assessed mercury concentrations in breast milk and the factors related to the level of contamination. We performed a literature search in Pubmed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases for studies published between 1976 and 2017 that are monitoring and measuring mercury in human breast milk and investigating the associated factors. Then, we extracted more information about the aim of the study, the country, samples size, time of lactation, mercury concentration, and other data...
February 19, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
S Rotter, A Beronius, A R Boobis, A Hanberg, J van Klaveren, M Luijten, K Machera, D Nikolopoulou, H van der Voet, J Zilliacus, R Solecki
This article reviews the current legislative requirements for risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals via multiple exposure routes, focusing on human health and particularly on food-related chemicals. The aim is to identify regulatory needs and current approaches for this type of risk assessment as well as challenges of the implementation of appropriate and harmonized guidance at international level. It provides an overview of the current legal requirements in the European Union (EU), the United States and Canada...
January 10, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Lorenz R Rhomberg, David B Mayfield, Robyn L Prueitt, James W Rice
The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified straight-run bitumens and associated emissions during road paving as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B), owing to potential exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We examine existing chemistry, exposure, epidemiology, and animal toxicity data to explore quantitative cancer risk implications for paving workers exposed to asphalt emissions from the data used in identifying this qualitative hazard. Epidemiology studies show no consistent cancer risk elevation...
December 27, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Gerard M H Swaen, Paolo Boffetta, Maurice Zeegers
The incidence rates of a wide range of diseases and conditions have increased over the last decades. There is controversy over the origin of these increases, whether they are caused by exposure to compounds thought to have an effect on the endocrine system, the "endocrine disruption theory", or whether some other factor is responsible. In this analysis, the authors take a closer look at the role that changes in reproductive factors have played in this respect. They apply the relative risks of age at first pregnancy and parity or family size to a set of Dutch demographic data from 1955 and 2015 and calculate the percentage of disease increase explained...
December 27, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Peter Møller, Regitze Sølling Wils, Ditte Marie Jensen, Maria Helena Guerra Andersen, Martin Roursgaard
There has been a steady output of epidemiological studies linking environmental and occupational exposures to altered telomere length, showing mainly positive associations with persistent organic pollutants, inverse association with cadmium and inconsistent results with arsenic and lead. A bell-shaped dose-response relationship has been observed for ionizing radiation with telomere shortening at a low dose. Long-term air pollution is associated with telomere shortening, whereas the short-term exposure studies have shown mixed results...
December 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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November 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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November 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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November 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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