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Journal of Psychopharmacology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084460/cessation-and-reduction-in-alcohol-consumption-and-misuse-after-psychedelic-use
#1
Albert Garcia-Romeu, Alan K Davis, Fire Erowid, Earth Erowid, Roland R Griffiths, Matthew W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of randomized studies using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcohol use disorder (AUD) showed large, significant effects for LSD efficacy compared to control conditions. Clinical studies suggest potential anti-addiction effects of LSD and mechanistically-related classic psychedelics for alcohol and other substance use disorders. AIMS: To supplement clinical studies, reports of psychedelic use in naturalistic settings can provide further data regarding potential effects of psychedelics on alcohol use...
May 14, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084455/the-effect-of-antidementia-drugs-on-mortality-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Wei-Hao Lin, Ching-Herng Lin, Po-Hsun Hou, Tsuo-Hung Lan
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease is associated with a higher mortality rate after the diagnosis. We hypothesized that patients with Alzheimer's disease who received antidementia drugs may have a lower mortality rate than those without such treatment. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease aged ⩾65 years during 2001-2006 were identified in the National Health Institute Research Database, Taiwan. We included patients with Alzheimer's disease who received antidementia drugs as the exposure group (ADD group), and compared them with a non-exposure group who did not receive any antidementia drugs (non-ADD group) matched for age at the index date, gender and Charlson Comorbidity Index score before the index date...
May 14, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084246/cannabidivarin-completely-rescues-cognitive-deficits-and-delays-neurological-and-motor-defects-in-male-mecp2-mutant-mice
#3
Erica Zamberletti, Marina Gabaglio, Fabiana Piscitelli, James S Brodie, Marie Woolley-Roberts, Isabella Barbiero, Marco Tramarin, Giorgio Binelli, Nicoletta Landsberger, Charlotte Kilstrup-Nielsen, Tiziana Rubino, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Daniela Parolaro
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that 2-week treatment with the non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid cannabidivarin (CBDV) could be beneficial towards neurological and social deficits in early symptomatic Mecp2 mutant mice, a model of Rett syndrome (RTT). AIM: The aim of this study was to provide further insights into the efficacy of CBDV in Mecp2-null mice using a lifelong treatment schedule (from 4 to 9 weeks of age) to evaluate its effect on recognition memory and neurological defects in both early and advanced stages of the phenotype progression...
May 14, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31081449/lamotrigine-augmentation-in-treatment-resistant-unipolar-depression-a-comprehensive-meta-analysis-of-efficacy-and-safety
#4
Kah Kheng Goh, Chun-Hsin Chen, Yi-Hang Chiu, Mong-Liang Lu
OBJECTIVE: Augmentation strategies are commonly applied when an individual is unresponsive to antidepressant monotherapy. Lamotrigine is currently considered at best only as second line augmentation for treatment-resistant unipolar depression while its clinical efficacy and safety profiles remain inconclusive. We intended to assess the therapeutic effects and safety profiles of lamotrigine augmentation in patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression by conducting a meta-analysis...
May 13, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31081443/mitragynine-kratom-impairs-spatial-learning-and-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-in-rats
#5
Zurina Hassan, Farah W Suhaimi, Surash Ramanathan, King-Hwa Ling, Mohamad A Effendy, Christian P Müller, Hans C Dringenberg
BACKGROUND: Mitragynine is the major alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) or Kratom, a psychoactive plant widely abused in Southeast Asia. While addictive effects of the substance are emerging, adverse cognitive effects of this drug and neuropharmacological actions are insufficiently understood. AIMS: In the present study, we investigated the effects of mitragynine on spatial learning and synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received daily (for 12 days) training sessions in the Morris water maze, with each session followed by treatment either with mitragynine (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg; intraperitoneally), morphine (5 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) or a vehicle...
May 13, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31081442/role-of-the-galanin-n-terminal-fragment-1-15-in-anhedonia-involvement-of-the-dopaminergic-mesolimbic-system
#6
Carmelo Millón, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Belén Gago, Francisco Alén, Laura Orio, Laura García-Durán, José A Narváez, Kjell Fuxe, Luis Santín, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is a core feature of depressive disorders. The galanin N-terminal fragment (1-15) plays a role in mood regulation since it induces depression and anxiogenic-like effects in rats. In this study, we analysed galanin N-terminal fragment (1-15) actions in anhedonic-like behaviours in rats using operant and non-operant tests and the areas involved with these effects. METHODS: Galanin N-terminal fragment (1-15) effects were analysed in saccharin self-administration, sucrose preference, novelty-suppressed feeding and female urine sniffing tests...
May 13, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31081439/the-australian-drug-harms-ranking-study
#7
Yvonne Bonomo, Amanda Norman, Sam Biondo, Raimondo Bruno, Mark Daglish, Sharon Dawe, Diana Egerton-Warburton, Jonathan Karro, Charles Kim, Simon Lenton, Dan I Lubman, Adam Pastor, Jill Rundle, John Ryan, Paul Gordon, Patrick Sharry, David Nutt, David Castle
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the current study was to review drug harms as they occur in Australia using the Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodology adopted in earlier studies in other jurisdictions. METHOD: A facilitated workshop with 25 experts from across Australia, was held to score 22 drugs on 16 criteria: 9 related to harms that a drug produces in the individual and 7 to harms to others. Participants were guided by facilitators through the methodology and principles of MCDA...
May 13, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31070489/the-lack-of-conditioned-place-preference-but-unaltered-stimulatory-and-ataxic-effects-of-alcohol-in-mglur3-ko-mice
#8
Mira Lainiola, Lana Hietala, Anni-Maija Linden, Teemu Aitta-Aho
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use associates with environmental cues that can later reinstate drinking patterns without any alcohol exposure. Alcohol-induced reward, when combined with contextual signals of various sensory modalities in the central synapses of mesolimbic reward circuitries, can lead to the formation of conditioned responses. AIMS: As the activation of glutamatergic synapses is pivotal in such processes, we aimed to investigate whether the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 plays a role in alcohol-induced behaviours including place preference...
May 9, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31070082/the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-required-for-responding-to-alcohol-predictive-cues-but-only-in-the-absence-of-alcohol-delivery
#9
Shaun Y Khoo, Joanna M Sciascia, Annie Pettorelli, Jean-Marie N Maddux, Nadia Chaudhri
BACKGROUND: The prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex is implicated in promoting drug-seeking in relapse tests. However, drug-seeking behaviour is typically extinguished before a test and tests normally occur without drug delivery. AIMS: We investigated the involvement of the prelimbic and the infralimbic cortex in responding elicited by a non-extinguished cue for alcohol that was presented without alcohol in an alcohol-associated context or a neutral context, and in responding to the same cue when it was paired with alcohol...
May 9, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31060435/global-brain-volume-reductions-in-a-sub-chronic-phencyclidine-animal-model-for-schizophrenia-and-their-relationship-to-recognition-memory
#10
Nazanin Doostdar, Eugene Kim, Ben Grayson, Michael K Harte, Joanna C Neill, Anthony C Vernon
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits and structural brain changes co-occur in patients with schizophrenia. Improving our understanding of the relationship between these is important to develop improved therapeutic strategies. Back-translation of these findings into rodent models for schizophrenia offers a potential means to achieve this goal. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of structural brain changes and how these relate to cognitive behaviour in a sub-chronic phencyclidine rat model...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31039654/glutathione-levels-and-activities-of-glutathione-metabolism-enzymes-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Sakiko Tsugawa, Yoshihiro Noda, Ryosuke Tarumi, Yu Mimura, Kazunari Yoshida, Yusuke Iwata, Muhammad Elsalhy, Minori Kuromiya, Shin Kurose, Fumi Masuda, Shinji Morita, Kamiyu Ogyu, Eric Plitman, Masataka Wada, Takahiro Miyazaki, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura, Shinichiro Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Glutathione is among the important antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress. However, the relationships between abnormality in the glutathione system and pathophysiology of schizophrenia remain uncertain due to inconsistent findings on glutathione levels and/or glutathione-related enzyme activities in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Original studies, in which three metabolite levels (glutathione, glutathione disulfide, and total glutathione (glutathione+glutathione disulfide)) and five enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutamate-cysteine ligase, glutathione synthetase, and glutathione S-transferase) were measured with any techniques in both patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, were included...
April 30, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31038382/metabolites-of-the-ring-substituted-stimulants-mdma-methylone-and-mdpv-differentially-affect-human-monoaminergic-systems
#12
Dino Luethi, Karolina E Kolaczynska, Melanie Walter, Masaki Suzuki, Kenner C Rice, Bruce E Blough, Marius C Hoener, Michael H Baumann, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: Amphetamine analogs with a 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substitution are among the most popular illicit drugs of abuse, exerting stimulant and entactogenic effects. Enzymatic N-demethylation or opening of the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring via O-demethylenation gives rise to metabolites that may be pharmacologically active. Indeed, previous studies in rats show that specific metabolites of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) can interact with monoaminergic systems...
April 30, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31018809/the-antidepressant-effect-of-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cell-transplantation-in-chronic-stress
#13
Pedro Antônio Schmidt do Prado-Lima, Guilherme Ary Onsten, Gutierre Neves de Oliveira, Guilherme Camargo Brito, Isadora Machado Ghilardi, Eduardo Vieira de Souza, Paula Gabrielli Dos Santos, Simone Denise Salamoni, Denise Cantarelli Machado, Marta Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Fernanda Barbisan, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz, Zaquer Suzana Munhoz Costa-Ferro, Jaderson Costa daCosta
BACKGROUND: Inflammation could be a risk factor for the development of depression and change the outcome of this common chronic-recurrent mental disorder. AIMS: This study aimed to investigate if bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) transplantation is effective in restoring sucrose preference in rats subjected to chronic stress (CS), if it has an anti-inflammatory effect and is able to restore damaged DNA. METHODS: The effect of BMMC transplantation was studied in a controlled protocol (compared with a control group and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram group) involving sucrose preference in CS in rats...
April 25, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31013455/dissociable-effects-of-cannabis-with-and-without-cannabidiol-on-the-human-brain-s-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#14
Matthew B Wall, Rebecca Pope, Tom P Freeman, Oliwia S Kowalczyk, Lysia Demetriou, Claire Mokrysz, Chandni Hindocha, Will Lawn, Michael Ap Bloomfield, Abigail M Freeman, Amanda Feilding, David J Nutt, H Valerie Curran
BACKGROUND: Two major constituents of cannabis are Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC is the main psychoactive component; CBD may buffer the user against the harmful effects of THC. AIMS: We examined the effects of two strains of cannabis and placebo on the human brain's resting-state networks using fMRI. METHODS: Seventeen healthy volunteers (experienced with cannabis, but not regular users) underwent three drug treatments and scanning sessions...
April 23, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31012390/short-term-low-dose-fluoxetine-prevents-oestrous-cycle-linked-increase-in-anxiety-like-behaviour-in-female-rats
#15
Rebeca Machado Figueiredo, Milene Cristina de Carvalho, Marcus Lira Brandão, Thelma Anderson Lovick
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We sought a robust behavioural test that evoked increased anxiety-like behaviour during the late dioestrus phase of the oestrous cycle (similar to the premenstrual period in women) and tested whether this could be prevented by acute low-dose fluoxetine (FLX). METHODS: Female Wistar rats in different stages of their cycle were exposed to four different tests of anxiety-like behaviour. RESULTS: No oestrous cycle differences were detected in fear potentiated startle or conditioned freezing to an aversive context...
April 23, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31012359/mirtazapine-attenuates-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-rats-during-cocaine-withdrawal
#16
Susana Barbosa Méndez, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression, key symptoms of the cocaine withdrawal syndrome in human addicts, are considered the main factors that precipitate relapse in chronic cocaine addiction. Preclinical studies have found that rodents exposed to different withdrawal periods show an increase in anxiety and depressive-like behavior. Mirtazapine - a tetracyclic medication - is used primarily to treat depression and, sometimes, anxiety. It has also successfully improved withdrawal symptoms in drug-dependent patients...
April 23, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30920339/combining-cdp-choline-and-galantamine-effects-of-a-selective-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-strategy-on-p50-sensory-gating-of-speech-sounds-in-healthy-volunteers
#17
Joelle Choueiry, Crystal M Blais, Dhrasti Shah, Dylan Smith, Derek Fisher, Vadim Illivitsky, Verner Knott
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and relatives have deficits in early cortical sensory gating (SG) typically measured by suppression of electroencephalography-derived P50 event-related potentials (ERPs) in a conditioning-testing (S1 -S2 ) paradigm. Associated with alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) dysfunction and shown to be improved with nicotine and α7 nAChR agonists, SG has recently been shown to be improved in low P50 suppressing SCZ patients following acute CDP-choline treatment...
March 28, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30912701/evaluation-of-simulated-driving-in-comparison-to-laboratory-based-tests-to-assess-the-pharmacodynamics-of-alprazolam-and-alcohol
#18
Coen Rh Huizinga, Rob G Zuiker, Marieke L de Kam, Dimitrios Ziagkos, Jorrit Kuipers, Yuri Mejia, Joop Ma van Gerven, Adam F Cohen
RATIONALE: Assessment of the effects of medicines on the risks of car driving must be derived from laboratory tests, simulated driving or real on-road driving tests. Relevance of tests is determined by their sensitivity and predictive ability for the probability of accidents or damage. This cannot be determined directly, but methods should be able to at least detect the effects of a positive control in dosage known to be clearly associated with increased risk. OBJECTIVES: A driving simulator was evaluated in comparison with a battery of validated tests of CNS performance, the NeuroCart®...
March 26, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30896354/silymarin-and-silymarin-nanoparticles-guard-against-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice-involvement-of-neurogenesis-and-nlrp3-inflammasome
#19
Aya Ashraf, Passant A Mahmoud, Haidy Reda, Salma Mansour, Mehad H Helal, Haidy E Michel, Maha Nasr
BACKGROUND: The neuropathology of depression is quite complex. Thus, treatment failures are frequent with current antidepressants, raising the need for more effective ones. AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the influence of silymarin on depressive-like behavior induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Silymarin was formulated as nanostructured lipid carriers (a lipid-based type of nanoparticle with the advantages of physical stability, good release profile, and targeted delivery)...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30887871/electroconvulsive-stimulation-differentially-affects-11-c-mdl100-907-binding-to-cortical-and-subcortical-5ht-2a-receptors-in-porcine-brain
#20
Anne M Landau, Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Ove Noer, Michael Winterdahl, Hélène Audrain, Arne Møller, Poul Videbech, Gregers Wegener, Albert Gjedde, Doris J Doudet
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy is an effective therapy of depression. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects are mediated partly by decreased serotonin receptor availability in the cortex. AIMS: We used positron emission tomography with the serotonin 5HT2A receptor radioligand [11 C]MDL100,907 to determine serotonin receptor availability in response to electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS). METHODS: Seven Göttingen minipigs were deeply anaesthetized and imaged at baseline before the onset of ECS, and at 1-2 and 8-10 days after the end of a clinical course of ECS, consisting of 10 sessions over 3...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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