Journals Current Opinion in Infectious ...

Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Courtney Ierano, Lisa Hall, Rod James
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the current state of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) evidence for surgical site infection prevention. Despite decades of research, knowledge gaps persist in identifying optimal SAP regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent randomised controlled trials highlight ongoing heterogeneity in study design. Key new findings support the use of oral preoperative SAP for colorectal surgery and advise against the use of SAP for transperineal prostate biopsy...
September 27, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Nathan C Bahr, George R Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The endemic fungi are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in effected patients. The range of endemicity for these are expanding with infections observed outside of traditional locations. Enhanced diagnostic and treatment practices may significantly alter patient outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently completed clinical trials have focused on an assessment of improving efficacy while minimizing patient toxicity. Practice changing trials have been completed in histoplasmosis showing the utility of a single up-front liposomal amphotericin B dose followed by standard itraconazole dosing...
September 27, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jae Jung, Francesca Cozzi, Graeme N Forrest
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will describe role of shorter antibiotic therapies, early switch from intravenous to oral therapy, and artificial intelligence in infectious diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: There is evidence that shorter courses of antibiotics are noninferior to standard durations of therapy. This has been demonstrated with Enterobacterales bacteremia that can be treated with 7 days of therapy, community acquired pneumonia with 3 days and ventilator associated pneumonia with just 7 days of antibiotic therapy...
September 22, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Vincenzo Di Pilato, Edward Willison, Anna Marchese
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review provides an overview of most recent evidence about pathogenesis traits and virulence factors contributing to successful colonization or infection by P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, S. maltophilia and B. cepacia complex, among the most clinically relevant nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB). RECENT FINDINGS: The growing clinical importance of NFGNB as important opportunistic pathogens causing difficult-to-treat infections in a fragile patients' population in stressed by numerous studies...
September 22, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Natalie J M Dailey Garnes, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mucormycosis (MCR) is a common opportunistic mold infection, and Mucorales were recently designated by WHO as priority pathogens. The interest in this infection has risen significantly since the major outbreak of MCR in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in India. Herein, we summarize recently (last 24 months) published information regarding clinical aspects of MCR. RECENT FINDINGS: The disease remains protean in its clinical presentation, difficult to diagnose, and challenging to treat...
September 22, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Toshihiro Matsui, Chikara Ogimi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Seasonal respiratory virus infections (RVIs) often progress to severe diseases in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. This review summarizes the current evidence on risk factors for the severity of RVIs in this high-risk population and provides clinical management. RECENT FINDINGS: The likelihood of the respiratory viral disease progression depends on the immune status of the host and the type of virus. Conventional host factors, such as the immunodeficiency scoring index and the severe immunodeficiency criteria, have been utilized to estimate the risk of progression to severe disease, including mortality...
September 21, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Giusy Tiseo, Valentina Galfo, Marco Falcone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to discuss the potential clinical significance of heteroresistance in non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, heteroresistance has been considered potentially responsible for clinical failure in Acinetobacter baumannii infections. This raised a scientific debate, still open, about the potential clinical significance of heteroresistance in non-fermenting GNB. SUMMARY: We reviewed the literature of last 20 years and found a limited number of studies evaluating the relationship between heteroresistance and clinical outcome in non-fermenting GNB...
September 21, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Vera Portillo, Dionysios Neofytos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although invasive mold infections (IMI) are a major complication in high-risk populations, treatment duration has not yet been well defined. RECENT FINDINGS: Guidelines suggest documenting clinical/radiological resolution and immunological recovery before stopping antifungal treatment, after a minimum duration of treatment of 3 months for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while longer (up to 6 months) duration is proposed for the treatment of invasive mucormycosis...
September 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Diana D Wong, Su Ann Ho, Ana Domazetovska, Michelle K Yong, William D Rawlinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes current knowledge of ganciclovir (GCV) and valganciclovir (ValGCV) pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics, highlighting the likely contribution from host genetic factors to interpatient variability. The evidence and challenges surrounding optimization of drug dosing through therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) are examined, with recommendations made. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmacokinetic studies of current dosing guidelines have shown high interindividual and intraindividual variability of GCV concentrations...
September 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
BegoƱa Monge-Maillo, Rogelio Lopez-Velez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) has a wide world distribution causing important morbidity. Osseous involvement is present in less than 4% of the CE cases. Its diagnosis and therapeutic management is full of challenges and low grade of evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: The study summarizes literature evidence on the management of osseous CE with particular emphasis on new data regarding diagnosis and treatment. SUMMARY: Clinical presentation of osseous CE depends on the skeletal area affected...
August 21, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Cesar G Berto, Peter Liou, Christina M Coyle, Jean C Emond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection frequently involving the liver. Treatment options, including surgery, are decided based on the staging of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Ultrasound is the cornerstone for diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of cystic echinococcosis. MRI can help to evaluate for cystobiliary complications and planning of the surgery. The two main surgical approaches for cystic echinococcosis include a radical approach, which entails a partial hepatectomy and total pericystectomy, and a conservative approach or endocystectomy...
August 7, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Okan Akhan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to review recent literature for percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts (cystic echinococcosis: CE) via different techniques such as PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration), standard catheterization, and modified catheterization technique (MoCaT). RECENT FINDINGS: PAIR is an established technique and considered to be safe and effective for CE1 and CE3a as it is associated with lower morbidity, mortality, recurrence, and shorter hospital stay as compared with surgery...
August 4, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Yu-Lin Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review aimed to explore the recent trends in the epidemiology, risk factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility of two emerging opportunistic pathogens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Elizabethkingia anophelis. RECENT FINDINGS: Since 2020, numerous outbreaks of S. maltophilia and E. anophelis have been reported worldwide. Most of these outbreaks have been associated with healthcare facilities, although one outbreak caused by E...
August 3, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Pedro Puerta-Alcalde, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Alex Soriano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an update on the recent literature on Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in cancer patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Distinguishing between colonization and infection remains challenging in cancer patients. Many patients with negative toxin analysis are still treated for CDI, and some meet criteria for severe cases. The incidence of CDI is high in cancer patients, especially those with haematological malignancies. Disruption of the gut microbiome due to antibiotic consumption, chemotherapy and radiotherapy is the primary factor contributing to CDI development...
August 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jessica L Rauh, Alison J Lehane, Leah M Sieren, Lucas P Neff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the treatment of complicated intraabdominal infections (cIAIs) in premature infants. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work has continued to define the complex nature of cIAIs and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This includes new findings on the microbiome, breast milk and risk factors associated with NEC. The treatment of cIAIs employs a combination of both surgical and medical treatment. Further look at what type and timing of surgical intervention is used as well as the ideal antibiotic regimen...
July 31, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Drew T Bell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Plasma cell-free metagenomic next-generation sequencing (cf-mNGS) is increasingly employed for the diagnosis of infection, but a consensus for optimal use has not been established. This minireview focuses on the commercially available Karius Test and is aimed at local leaders seeking to understand the complexities of cf-mNGS to make informed test utilization policies and better interpret results. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent retrospective studies have reported how the Karius Test was applied at their institutions and identified areas of potential patient benefit...
July 26, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Anastasia A Theodosiou, Christine E Jones, Robert C Read, Debby Bogaert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antibiotic use is associated with development of antimicrobial resistance and dysregulation of the microbiome (the overall host microbial community). These changes have in turn been associated with downstream adverse health outcomes. This review analyses recent important publications in a rapidly evolving field, contextualizing the available evidence to assist clinicians weighing the potential risks of antibiotics on a patient's microbiome. RECENT FINDING: Although the majority of microbiome research is observational, we highlight recent interventional studies probing the associations between antibiotic use, microbiome disruption, and ill-health...
July 26, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Olivier Fortin, Sarah B Mulkey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congenital infections are a major cause of childhood multidomain neurodevelopmental disabilities. They contribute to a range of structural brain abnormalities that can cause severe neurodevelopmental impairment, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and neurosensory impairments. New congenital infections and global viral pandemics have emerged, with some affecting the developing brain and causing neurodevelopmental concerns. This review aims to provide current understanding of fetal infections and their impact on neurodevelopment...
July 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Mar Siles-Lucas, Leonardo Uchiumi, Francesca Tamarozzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2010, the WHO-Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis (IWGE) published an Expert Consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of echinococcal infections. We provide an update on the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis through a scoping review of the literature published after the release of the WHO-IWGE document. RECENT FINDINGS: Ultrasound accurately and reliably depicts the pathognomonic signs of cystic echinococcosis (CE) stages compared with other imaging techniques...
July 19, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jillian H Hurst, Sarah M Heston, Matthew S Kelly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss recent research that has furthered our understanding of microbiome development during childhood, the role of the microbiome in infections during this life stage, and emerging opportunities for microbiome-based therapies for infection prevention or treatment in children. RECENT FINDINGS: The microbiome is highly dynamic during childhood and shaped by a variety of host and environmental factors. In turn, the microbiome influences risk and severity of a broad range of infections during childhood, with recent studies highlighting potential roles in respiratory, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections...
July 19, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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