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Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

Andrew Pavia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the 100 years since the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, the most deadly event in human history, we have made substantial progress yet we remain vulnerable to influenza pandemics This article provides a brief overview of important advances in preparing for an influenza pandemic, viewed largely from the perspective of the healthcare system. RECENT FINDINGS: We have gained insights into influenza pathogenicity, the animal reservoir and have improved global surveillance for new strains and tools for assessing the pandemic risk posed by novel strains...
May 20, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Sara L Revolinski, L Silva Munoz-Price
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridioides difficile infection is common in solid organ transplant and hematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These populations are also underrepresented in clinical trials, making optimal management difficult. Because of this, management of these populations follows national guideline recommendations. This review aims to summarize the recent relevant literature pertaining to the clinical management of C...
May 20, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Gabriela Barcenas-Morales, Paulina Cortes-Acevedo, Rainer Doffinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review gives a concise and updated overview of the relative new field of anticytokine autoantibodies (ACAA) and associated infections with a focus on recent findings regarding clinical manifestions, diagnostic and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent case reports of unusual presentations of patients with neutralizing autoantibodies to IFN-γ and granulocyt macrophage colony-stimulating factor and expand the spectrum of clinical manifestations and suggest that anticytokine-mediated acquired immunodeficiency causing susceptibility to infection may be underdiagnosed...
May 20, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Diana F Florescu, Erica J Stohs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adenoviruses are an important cause of morbidity and mortality of solid organ transplant patients and remain a clinical challenge with regard to diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we provide an approach to identification and classification of adenovirus infection and disease, highlight risk factors, and outline management options for adenovirus disease in solid organ transplant patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Additional clinical data and pathologic findings of adenovirus disease in different organs and transplant recipients are known...
May 20, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Pearlie P Chong, Robert L Atmar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The majority of norovirus outbreaks in the United States occur in healthcare facilities. With the growing population of immunocompromised hosts who are in frequent contact with healthcare facilities, norovirus is not only a threat to hospitals and nursing homes but also to these individuals. This review summarizes the impact of norovirus infection on healthcare facilities and immunocompromised hosts. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural history of norovirus infection in immunocompromised individuals remains poorly understood...
May 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Hélène Guegan, Florence Robert-Gangneux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a frequent opportunistic infection associated with a high mortality rate. PCP is of increasing importance in non-HIV immunocompromised patients, who present with severe respiratory distress with low fungal loads. Molecular detection of Pneumocystis in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) has become an important diagnostic tool, but quantitative PCR (qPCR) needs standardization. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite a high negative predictive value, the positive predictive value of qPCR is moderate, as it also detects colonized patients...
May 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Dennis L Stevens, Amy E Bryant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Catherine B Anders, Tyler M W Lawton, Mary Cloud B Ammons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite modern advances in medicine, nonhealing wounds are the number one cause of nontraumatic, lower-limb amputation. Nonhealing wounds are characterized by a healing process stalled between inflammation and tissue remodel/repair, a stage characterized by a shift in macrophage functional phenotype. Characterization of diversity in macrophage functional phenotype in wounds and metabolic contributions to macrophage polarization are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Macrophage functional diversity in phenotype has recently evolved from duality (classically activated, pro-inflammatory M1 and alternatively activated, anti-inflammatory M2) to include an additional four alternately activated subphenotypes (M2a, M2b, M2c and M2d)...
April 3, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Catherine F Houlihan, Tehmina Bharucha, Judith Breuer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central nervous system (CNS) infections present an ongoing diagnostic challenge for clinicians, with an aetiological agent remaining unidentified in the majority of cases even in high-income settings. This review summarizes developments in a range of diagnostic methods published in the past 18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: Several commercial assays exist for the detection of viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens using single multiplex PCR. Multicentre validation of the Biofire FilmArray panel illustrated high sensitivity for bacterial and fungal pathogens, but poor results for Cryptococcus species detection...
April 3, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Michael P Motley, Kasturi Banerjee, Bettina C Fries
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent developments in the development of monoclonal antibodies to treat bacterial disease, including preclinical advances and the status of current clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is becoming increasingly promising in the infectious disease field. Though bacterial exotoxins continue to be a mainstay of mAb targets, searches for protein targets on the surface of bacteria have uncovered new mechanisms of antibody-mediated action against bacteria...
April 3, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Bodo Linz, Longhuan Ma, Israel Rivera, Eric T Harvill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To relate genomic changes to phenotypic adaptation and evolution from environmental bacteria to obligate human pathogens, focusing on the examples within Bordetella species. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies showed that animal-pathogenic and human-pathogenic Bordetella species evolved from environmental ancestors in soil. The animal-pathogenic Bordetella bronchiseptica can hijack the life cycle of the soil-living amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, surviving inside single-celled trophozoites, translocating to the fruiting bodies and disseminating along with amoeba spores...
March 27, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Anjana C Karawita, Marcus Z W Tong, Kirsty R Short
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A delicate balance exists between a protective and detrimental immune response to an invading viral pathogen. Here, we review the latest advancements in our understanding of immunity and immunopathology during H7N9 influenza A virus (IAV) infections and its relevance to disease management and diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have highlighted the role of specific leukocytes in the pathogenesis of H7N9 IAV infections and potential diagnostic role that host cytokine profiles can play in forecasting disease severity...
March 18, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Maja Babic, Claus S Simpfendorfer, Elie F Berbari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is still a rare but potentially very morbid infection of the spine. In recent years, the incidence has risen sharply but the condition remains a medical conundrum wrought with unacceptably long diagnostic delays. The outcome depends on timely diagnosis and missed opportunities can be associated with catastrophic consequences. Management and outcomes have improved over the past decade. This review focuses on risk factors and markers that can aid in establishing the diagnosis, the radiological characteristics of SEA on MRI and their clinical implications, as well as the importance of establishing clear indications for surgical decompression...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Arun Venkatesan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized and must be distinguished from infectious forms of encephalitis. Moreover, physicians should be aware of infectious triggers of autoimmune encephalitis and of infectious complications associated with treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the incidence of autoimmune encephalitis may rival that of infectious encephalitis. Although distinguishing autoimmune from infectious forms of encephalitis on clinical grounds can be challenging, recently proposed diagnostic criteria can provide some assistance...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Rodrigo Hasbun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired bacterial meningitis continues to occur and be associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite the availability of effective conjugate vaccines for the three most important meningeal pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: Indications for cranial imaging in suspected bacterial meningitis varies significantly between guidelines. Cranial imaging is of no clinical utility in those patients without indications and fosters delays in performing a lumbar puncture...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Adarsh Bhimraj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jessica J Evans, Devin D Bolz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antibiotic stress can evoke considerable genotypic and phenotypic changes in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we review recent studies describing altered virulence expression in response to cell wall-acting antibiotics and discuss mechanisms that coordinate regulation of the antibiotic response. RECENT FINDINGS: Pleiotropic effects induced by antibiotic exposure include alterations to bacterial metabolism, cell wall structure and antibiotic resistance...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Katarzyna Placek, Joachim L Schultze, Mihai G Netea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune memory is essential for host defense against invaders and it is also used as a basis for vaccine development. For these reasons, it is crucial to understand its molecular basis. In this review, we describe recent findings on memory characteristics of innate-like lymphocytes and its contribution to host protection.(Figure is included in full-text article.) RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to adaptive immune cells, innate cells are also able to mount memory responses through a process called 'trained immunity...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Han Wang, Daniel D Rhoads, Brian S Appleby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prion diseases are rapidly progressive neurodegenerative conditions that can be difficult to diagnose and are transmissible under specific circumstances. The authors will provide background regarding prion disease and focus on diagnostic tools. RECENT FINDINGS: Prion disease is caused by misfolded prion protein. The three possible causes of prion disease include sporadic (85%), genetic (10-15%), and acquired (<1%). Acquired prion diseases include kuru, iatrogenic, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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