Journals Current Opinion in Infectious ...

Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Oscar Morado-Aramburo, Rodrigo Hasbun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central nervous system (CNS) infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may present atypical or nonspecific symptoms. Due to a wider range of infectious agents compared with immunocompetent hosts, diagnosis is challenging. This review categorizes CNS infections in SOT recipients by cause. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have reported new data on the epidemiology and the risk factors associated with each specific pathogen described in this review...
April 2, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Lars Haukali Omland, Henrik Nielsen, Jacob Bodilsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The epidemiology of brain abscess has changed in recent decades. Moreover, acute and long-term management remains challenging with high risks of mortality and neurological sequelae. This review describes recent advances in epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of brain abscess. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of brain abscess is increasing, especially among elderly individuals. Important predisposing conditions include dental and ear-nose-throat infections, immuno-compromise, and previous neurosurgery...
March 29, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Conor I MacKay, Jafri Kuthubutheen, Anita J Campbell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With cochlear implantation becoming increasingly performed worldwide, an understanding of the risk factors, preventive measures, and management of cochlear implant (CI) infection remains important given the significant morbidity and cost it conveys. RECENT FINDINGS: At the turn of the 21st century there was a decrease in rates of CI infection, particularly meningitis, following the discontinuation of positioner use for CI. However, in more recent years rates of CI infection have remained largely static...
March 28, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Angel Miraclin T, Bhagteshwar Singh, Priscilla Rupali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emerging and re-emerging central nervous system (CNS) infections are a major public health concern in the tropics. The reasons for this are myriad; climate change, rainfall, deforestation, increased vector density combined with poverty, poor sanitation and hygiene. This review focuses on pathogens, which have emerged and re-emerged, with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, multiple acute encephalitis outbreaks have been caused Nipah, which carries a high case fatality...
March 27, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Patrick Naughton, Frances Enright, Brigid Lucey
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is an infectious disease that presents clinically in only a small percentage of individuals despite almost universal infection with the causative agent. Here, we review the latest concepts in the clinical presentation, epidemiology, and host response of this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recently published papers/reviews describe IM as a condition caused by one of several etiologic agents including, cytomegalovirus (HHV-5), Roseola virus (HHV-6) and Toxoplasmosis amongst others; this review focuses on IM as solely caused by the human herpes virus 4 (HHV-4)...
March 27, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Tristan C Sanford, Rodney K Tweten, Hunter L Abrahamsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC)-producing pathogens pose a significant threat to human health. Herein, we review the pore-dependent and -independent properties CDCs possess to assist pathogens in evading the host immune response. RECENT FINDINGS: Within the last 5 years, exciting new research suggests CDCs can act to inhibit important immune functions, disrupt critical cell signaling pathways, and have tissue-specific effects. Additionally, recent studies have identified a key region of CDCs that generates robust immunity, providing resources for the development of CDC-based vaccines...
March 22, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Nora Strong, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fusarium species are an increasingly important cause of meningitis and invasive disease in immunocompromised patients as well as in otherwise healthy patients as observed in two recent healthcare-associated outbreaks. This review summarizes recently published information on treatment and diagnosis of this infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Incidence of Fusarium species meningitis and invasive fusariosis are increasing. Molecular techniques are improving the speed of diagnosis...
March 19, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Leigh M Howard, Carlos G Grijalva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prevention of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) in children is a global health priority, as these remain a leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality throughout the world. As new products and strategies to prevent respiratory infections caused by important pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and pneumococcus are advancing, increasing evidence suggests that these and other respiratory viruses and pneumococci may exhibit interactions that are associated with altered colonization and disease dynamics...
March 5, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Sarah Y Michels, Matthew F Daley, Sophia R Newcomer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Completion of all doses in multidose vaccine series provides optimal protection against preventable infectious diseases. In this review, we describe clinical and public health implications of multidose vaccine series noncompletion, including current challenges to ensuring children receive all recommended vaccinations. We then highlight actionable steps toward achieving early childhood immunization goals. RECENT FINDINGS: Although coverage levels are high for most early childhood vaccinations, rates of completion are lower for vaccinations that require multiple doses...
March 4, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Christelle Elias, Marta C Nunes, Mitra Saadatian-Elahi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers updated perspectives on different aspects of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (pCAP), including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, antibiotic treatment, and existing preventive strategies in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: pCAP remains the most prevalent condition among lower respiratory tract infections in the older adults according to Global Burden of Diseases 2019. Older adults can display atypical symptoms such as confusion, general clinical deterioration, new onset of and exacerbation of underlying illness that might trigger clinical suspicion of pCAP...
April 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Nadia Castaldo, Antonio Vena, Alessandro Limongelli, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Matteo Bassetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a brief overview of drugs in Phase II and III of development for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), offering insights into potential customized treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Several drugs are currently in advanced stages of evaluation for the treatment of ABSSSI, and numerous molecules are entering in the early development phases. Notably, many of these drugs exhibit unique mechanisms of action and interesting antimicrobial spectrum...
April 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Tirajeh Saadatzadeh, Michael Angarone, Valentina Stosor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in solid organ transplant recipients, advancements in the diagnostic landscape, and updates in treatment and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: The increasing use of immune-depleting agents in the context of solid organ transplantation has given rise to P. jirovecii pneumonia in this population. The use of prophylaxis has dramatically reduced risk of infection; however, late-onset infections occur after cessation of prophylaxis and in the setting of lymphopenia, advancing patient age, acute allograft rejection, and cytomegalovirus infection...
April 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Sebastien Kenmoe, Harish Nair
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease burden and the current developments and challenges in RSV prevention for older adults ≥60 years through analysis of RSV epidemiology and the effectiveness of emerging vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: In industrialized countries, RSV incidence rates and hospitalization rates among older adults are estimated to be 600.7 cases per 100 000 person-years and 157 hospitalizations per 100 000 person-years, respectively...
April 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
John P Franzone, Natalie A Mackow, David van Duin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the challenges associated with the treatment of pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), discuss its carbapenem-resistance, and review the literature supporting the current treatment paradigm and therapeutic options. RECENT FINDINGS: In a multicenter, randomized, and controlled trial the novel β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor sulbactam-durlobactam was compared to colistin, both in addition to imipenem-cilastatin...
April 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Maddalena Peghin, Elena Graziano, Paolo Antonio Grossi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may be a great challenge for clinicians caring for SOT due to the involvement of both common and opportunistic pathogens associated with a blunted immune response. The purpose of this review is to outline current literature and describe open issues on the management of SSTI in this special population. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical presentation in SOT recipients can manifest as isolated skin lesions after primary inoculation or be the sign of a disseminated infection...
April 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Fatima Allaw, Saliba Wehbe, Souha S Kanj
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to discuss the latest evidence of epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and treatment of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) with a particular focus on necrotizing fasciitis (NF). RECENT FINDINGS: NSTIs have been historically referred to as NF but encompass a broader range of infections, with variable rates ranging from 0.86 to 32.64 per 100 000 person-years, influenced by factors such as climate and seasonal variations...
April 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Eric P F Chow, Christopher K Fairley, Fabian Y S Kong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rise in antimicrobial resistance in several STI pathogens such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become a public health threat as only one first-line treatment remains. Reducing screening interval for gonorrhoea and chlamydia in high-prevalence populations has been proposed to address antimicrobial stewardship, but this remains controversial. This review aimed to revisit the epidemiology of infections at the oropharynx and review the current screening recommendations and treatment guidelines in different populations...
February 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Irfaan Maan, Manik Kohli, Richard Gilson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The 2022 global outbreak of mpox disproportionally affected people with HIV (PWH). We review the data on the presentation, treatment, and prevention of mpox in PWH. RECENT FINDINGS: Most PWH with mpox had a mild and self-limiting illness, no different to people without HIV. A higher rate of rectal symptoms has been reported among PWH and those with advanced HIV disease were at higher risk of severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Treatment with antivirals was widely used in hospitalized patients without any randomized control trial data to support its use and without any data specifically in PWH...
February 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Almudena Burillo, Ana Pulido-Pérez, Emilio Bouza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are aspects of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that remain unresolved, such as current numbers, classification criteria, how best to define severity and predict the outcome, what diagnostic tests to perform, what new treatment options are available, or what the duration of antibiotic treatment should be. We have reviewed the literature over the last 18 months to clarify these issues and provide our opinion. RECENT FINDINGS: SSTIs are common and among the top 10 most frequent infections worldwide...
January 4, 2024: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Christian Eckmann, Cord Sunderkötter, Karsten Becker, Béatrice Grabein, Stefan Hagel, Frank Hanses, Dominic Wichmann, Florian Thalhammer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review comments on the current guidelines for the treatment of wound infections under definition of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). However, wound infections around a catheter, such as driveline infections of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are not specifically listed under this definition in any of the existing guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: Definitions and classification of LVAD infections may vary across countries, and the existing guidelines and recommendations may not be equally interpreted among physicians, making it unclear if these infections can be considered as ABSSSI...
December 12, 2023: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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