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Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466777/primary-immunodeficiency-disorders
#1
EDITORIAL
Lisa J Kobrynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466776/diagnosis-and-management-of-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders-the-pieces-of-the-puzzle-are-starting-to-fit-together
#2
EDITORIAL
Stephen A Tilles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466775/personalized-therapy-immunoglobulin-replacement-for-antibody-deficiency
#3
REVIEW
Richard L Wasserman
Immunoglobulin replacement therapy is the cornerstone of management for most primary immunodeficiency disease patients. The selection of a particular product, dose, and route of administration requires an understanding of the features of therapeutic immunoglobulin as well as patient-specific risk factors in order to maximize efficacy and tolerability and minimize risk. Individualizing therapy, taking into consideration the burdens of care, is necessary in order to optimize patient outcomes.
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466774/gastrointestinal-manifestations-and-complications-of-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Shradha Agarwal, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles
Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement can be the presenting disease manifestation in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). Infections and noninfectious diarrhea are frequent manifestations; however, malignancy and inflammatory and autoimmune-related GI diseases are also described. GI symptoms and disease seen in association with PIDs can mimic other diseases but are often resistant to conventional treatments owing to alternate disease mechanisms. Despite the advances in treatments for these conditions, therapy for immunodeficiency-related GI disease is often empiric...
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466773/early-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
REVIEW
Judith R Kelsen, Pierre Russo, Kathleen E Sullivan
The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease has changed over the past 4 decades. The incidence is rising dramatically and the age of onset has become younger. This changing landscape of inflammatory bowel disease reflects the new recognition that the youngest children with inflammatory bowel disease are enriched in cases with underlying primary immunodeficiency and monogenic causes. The management of these cases can be quite different, with specific genetic etiologies supporting unique interventions and some requiring hematopoietic cell transplantation for effective treatment...
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466772/an-update-on-syndromes-with-a-hyper-ige-phenotype
#6
REVIEW
Jenna R E Bergerson, Alexandra F Freeman
Improvement in genetic testing has allowed specific delineation of several distinct clinical causes characterized by the hyperimmunoglobulin E (IgE) phenotype of eczema, recurrent infections, and elevated serum IgE. Mutations in STAT3, DOCK8, PGM3, ERBIN, IL6ST, and CARD11 cause clinical phenotypes that can present in this manner. This article focuses on loss of function STAT3 mutations causing autosomal-dominant hyper-IgE syndrome and dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, with discussion of other more recently described diseases...
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466771/secondary-hypogammaglobulinemia-an-increasingly-recognized-complication-of-treatment-with-immunomodulators-and-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Blanka Kaplan, Vincent R Bonagura
Secondary hypogammaglobulinemia is a common development in patients treated with immunomodulatory agents for autoimmune, connective tissue, and malignant diseases. It has been observed in the medical management of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation. Some patients have preexisting immunodeficiency associated with these illnesses; immunosuppressive treatment magnifies their immune defect. This article reviews immunosuppressive medications, including biological treatments that cause secondary hypogammaglobulinemia...
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466770/hereditary-autoinflammatory-disorders-recognition-and-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Lori Broderick
The autoinflammatory diseases encompass approximately 30 monogenic disorders in which inborn errors in the innate immune system lead to episodic systemic inflammation. Largely mediated by dysregulation of myeloid cells, interleukin (IL)-1β, type I interferon, and NF-κB, these disorders have rapidly expanded over the past several years, and increasing numbers of patients identified. Crossover disorders, bridging autoinflammation and immunodeficiency, have recently been described. This article focuses on the clinical presentation of IL-1 and interferon-driven autoinflammatory disorders, and discusses novel diseases with features of immunodeficiency...
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466769/genetic-testing-to-diagnose-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders-and-to-identify-targeted-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer Heimall
Since the first genes associated with primary immunodeficiency were described in the early 1990s, there has been an exponential increase the number of genes found to have pathologic variants in patients with symptoms of primary immunodeficiency. Genetic testing currently used clinically includes chromosomal microarray, Sanger sequencing, and next-generation sequencing techniques, including whole exome testing. With the knowledge of the underlying molecular pathways, biologic therapies have been used for treatment and efforts are underway to broaden the availability of gene therapy...
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466768/update-on-advances-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Oded Shamriz, Shanmuganathan Chandrakasan
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDDs) is being increasingly used as a curative option. Understanding the critical components, such as disease's nature and activity and pre-HSCT and post-HSCT patient care is key to a successful outcome. HSCT should be tailored to the underlying PIDD, as different PIDDs, such as severe combined immune deficiency, Treg dysfunction, and phagocytic disorders, have different transplant approaches. Therefore, successful HSCT in patients with PIDDs requires teamwork between immunologists and transplant physicians...
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30466767/newborn-screening-for-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-in-the-united-states-lessons-learned
#11
REVIEW
Morna J Dorsey, Jennifer M Puck
In the United States, significant improvement in diagnosis and outcomes for children affected with severe combined immunodeficiency has followed institution of newborn screening using an assay to measure T-cell receptor excision circles in newborn dried blood spot specimens. Key to this outcome is the avoidance of infectious complications in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency.
February 2019: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342590/biomarkers-in-allergy-and-asthma
#12
EDITORIAL
Flavia C L Hoyte, Rohit K Katial
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342589/biomarkers-in-allergic-diseases-and-asthma-essential-tools-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#13
EDITORIAL
Stephen A Tilles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342588/biomarkers-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#14
REVIEW
Alan D Workman, Michael A Kohanski, Noam A Cohen
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a complex disease that exists along the inflammatory spectrum between types 1 and 2 inflammation. The classic phenotypic differentiation of chronic rhinosinusitis based on the presence or absence of inflammatory polyps remains one of the best differentiators of response to therapy. Development of biologics for the treatment of atopic disease and asthma and topical therapies for sinusitis have placed renewed emphasis on understanding the pathophysiology of polyp disease. Identification of key markers of polyposis will allow for better stratification of inflammatory polyp disease endotypes to objectively identify medical therapies and track response to treatment...
November 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342587/exhaled-breath-condensate-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Michael D Davis, Alison J Montpetit
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising source of biomarkers of lung disease. EBC research and utility has increased substantially over the past 2 decades. This review summarizes many of the factors regarding the composition of EBC, its collection, and analysis for the utility of both clinicians and researchers.
November 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342586/molecular-endotypes-contribute-to-the-heterogeneity-of-asthma
#16
REVIEW
Erwin W Gelfand, Michaela Schedel
Diagnosis and management of asthma is commonly implemented based on clinical assessment. Although these nonmolecular biomarkers have been useful, limited resolution of the heterogeneity among asthmatic patients and little information regarding the underlying pathobiology of disease in individuals have been provided. Molecular endotying using global transcriptome expression profiling associated with clinical features of asthma has improved our understanding of disease mechanisms, risk assessment of asthma exacerbations, and treatment responses, especially in patients with type 2 inflammation...
November 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342585/airway-eosinophilopoietic-and-autoimmune-mechanisms-of-eosinophilia-in-severe-asthma
#17
REVIEW
Anurag Bhalla, Manali Mukherjee, Parameswaran Nair
Eosinophils are critical in asthma biology, contributing to symptoms, airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling. In severe asthma, in addition to local maturation in bone marrow, in situ eosinophilopoiesis plays a key role in the persistence of airway eosinophilia. Local milieu of structural, epithelial and inflammatory cells contribute by generating eosinophilopoietic cytokines in response to epithelial-derived alarmins. Another mechanism of persistent airway eosinophilia is glucocorticosteroid insensitivity, which is linked to recurrent airway infections and presence of local autoantibodies...
November 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342584/the-role-of-neutrophils-in-asthma
#18
REVIEW
Reynold A Panettieri
Although asthma defines a syndrome associated with airway inflammation, heterogeneity exists concerning the type of inflammation that modulates airway hyperresponsiveness. Compelling evidence suggests that common triggers of asthma exacerbations are preferentially mediated by neutrophilic airway inflammation. Currently, there exists no therapeutic approach that uniquely targets neutrophils in asthma. Given that neutrophilic airway inflammation seems to be steroid insensitive and given recent advances in neutrophil biology, exciting opportunities may lead to targeted therapy that focuses on the activation state of neutrophils rather than neutrophil number as a means to improve asthma outcomes in difficult to treat patients...
November 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342583/periostin-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-potential-biomarkers-of-interleukin-13-pathway-activation-in-asthma-and-allergy
#19
REVIEW
Claire Emson, Tuyet-Hang Pham, Scott Manetz, Paul Newbold
Periostin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) are proteins induced by type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 and show increased expression in asthma and diseases with type 2 inflammation, including atopic dermatitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Both proteins can also be induced by other stimuli, such as profibrotic factors, which may confound their specificity as biomarkers of IL-13 pathway activation and type 2-driven disease. DPP-4 is important in glucose metabolism; therefore, serum concentrations may be confounded by the presence of concomitant metabolic disease...
November 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30342582/urinary-leukotriene-e-4-as-a-biomarker-of-exposure-susceptibility-and-risk-in-asthma-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Bryce C Hoffman, Nathan Rabinovitch
Measurement of urinary leukotriene E4 (uLTE4 ) is a sensitive and noninvasive method of assaying total body cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) production and changes in CysLT production. Recent studies have reported on novel LTE4 receptor interactions and genetic polymorphisms causing CysLT variability. The applications of uLTE4 as a biomarker continue to expand, including evaluation of environmental exposures, asthma severity risk, aspirin sensitivity, predicting atopy in preschool age children, obstructive sleep apnea, and predicting susceptibility to leukotriene receptor antagonists...
November 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
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