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Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis

Tamires Cunha Almeida, Camila Chaves Coelho Guerra, Bárbara Letícia Gonçalves De Assis, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira Aguiar Soares, Camila Carriao Machado Garcia, Angélica Alves Lima, Glenda Nicioli da Silva
The antitumor activity of resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found mainly in grapes, has been studied in several types of cancer. In bladder cancer, its antiproliferative effects have already been demonstrated, however its mechanism of action is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate resveratrol antitumor activity (12.5, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 μM) and its possible mechanisms of action in bladder tumor cells with different TP53 gene status (RT4, grade 1, TP53 wild type; 5637-grade 2 and T24-grade 3, TP53 mutated)...
May 16, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Jennifer M Shemansky, L Patrice McDaniel, Christopher Klimas, Stephen D Dertinger, Vasily N Dobrovolsky, Takafumi Kimoto, Katsuyoshi Horibata, James E Polli, Robert H Heflich
Mutations in the X-linked phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A gene (Pig-a) lead to loss of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors and GPI-anchored proteins from the surface of erythrocytes and other mammalian cells. The Pig-a gene mutation assay quantifies in vivo gene mutation by immunofluorescent labeling and flow cytometry to detect the loss of GPI-anchored proteins on peripheral blood erythrocytes. As part of the regulatory acceptance of the assay, a public database has been created that provides detailed information on Pig-a gene mutation assays conducted in rats and mice...
May 15, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Álvaro Gómez-Tomás, José Pumarega, Juan Alguacil, André F S Amaral, Núria Malats, Natàlia Pallarès, Magda Gasull, Miquel Porta
Trace elements are a possible risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, their role in the occurrence and persistence of KRAS mutations remains unstudied. There appear to be no studies analyzing biomarkers of trace elements and KRAS mutations in any human cancer. We aimed to determine whether patients with KRAS mutated and non-mutated tumours exhibit differences in concentrations of trace elements. Incident cases of PDAC were prospectively identified in five hospitals in Spain. KRAS mutational status was determined through polymerase chain reaction from tumour tissue...
May 8, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Ion Udroiu, Jessica Marinaccio, Antonella Sgura
Epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea, to which many anticancer features, such as anti-oxidative, anti-genotoxic and anti-angiogenetic properties, are attributed. Moreover, it is also well known as a telomerase inhibitor. In this work, we have chronically treated U251 glioblastoma cells with low, physiologically realistic concentrations, of EGCG, in order to investigate its effects both on telomeres and on genome integrity. Inhibition of telomerase activity caused telomere shortening, ultimately leading to senescence and telomere dysfunction at 98 days...
April 26, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Krista L Dobo, Stephanie Coffing, William C Gunther, Michael Homiski
2-Hydroxypyridine N-oxide (HOPO) is an important coupling reagent used in pharmaceutical synthesis. Our laboratory previously reported HOPO as equivocal in the Ames assay following extensive testing of multiple lots of material. Given the lack of reproducibility between lots of material, and the weak increase in revertants observed, it was concluded that it would be highly unlikely that HOPO would pose a mutagenic risk in vivo. The purpose of the current investigation was to assess experimentally in rats the mutagenic (Pig-a mutation induction) and more broadly genotoxic (micronucleus and comet induction) potential of HOPO...
April 18, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Bianca S Maselli, Macelle C G Giron, Hwanmi Lim, Christoffer Bergvall, Roger Westerholm, Kristian Dreij, Tetsushi Watanabe, Arnaldo A Cardoso, Gisela A Umbuzeiro, Fábio Kummrow
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) organic fraction from urban centers are frequently mutagenic for the Salmonella/microsome assay. This mutagenicity is related to both primary and secondary pollutants, and meteorological conditions have great influence in the secondary pollutant's formation. Our objective was to compare the mutagenicity of atmospheric total suspended particulates (TSP) from three cities with marked different meteorological conditions and TSP concentrations: Limeira (Brazil), with 99.0 μg/m3 , Stockholm (Sweden) with 6...
April 9, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Suryanarayana V Vulimiri, Ofelia Olivero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
H Dean Hosgood, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Yunhu Wan, Xing Hua, Nathaniel Rothman, Wei Hu, Roel Vermeulen, Wei Jie Seow, Thomas Rohan, Jun Xu, Jihua Li, Jun He, Yunchao Huang, Kaiyun Yang, Guoping Wu, Fusheng Wei, Jianxin Shi, Amy R Sapkota, Qing Lan
We previously reported that bacterial diversity in sputum samples from never smoking women in rural China varied by lung cancer status and household air pollution (HAP) exposure type. Here we expand upon our associations between environmental exposures and respiratory tract microbiota with an additional 90 never smoking women from Xuanwei, China. DNA from sputum samples of cases (n=45) and controls (n=45) was extracted using a multi-step enzymatic and physical lysis, followed by a standardized clean-up. V1-V2 regions of 16S rRNA genes were PCR-amplified...
April 3, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Adela M Luján, Alejandro J Moyano, Román A Martino, Sofía Feliziani, Mariana Urretavizcaya, Andrea M Smania
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Ofelia A Olivero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Jill Escher, Suzanne Robotti
Drugs taken during pregnancy can affect three generations at once: the gestating woman (F0), her exposed fetus (F1), and the fetal germ cells that confer heritable information for the grandchildren (F2). Unfortunately, despite growing evidence for connections between F0 drug exposures and F2 pathology, current approaches to risk assessment overlook this important dimension of risk. In this commentary, we argue that the uniquemolecular vulnerabilities of the fetal germline, particularly with regard to global epigenomic reprogramming, combined withempirical evidence for F2 effects of F1 in utero drug and other exposures, should change the way we consider potential long-term consequences of pregnancy drugs and alter toxicology's standard somatic paradigm...
March 19, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Ion Udroiu, Elisa Coluzzi, Angelico Bedini, Claudia Giliberti, Raffaele Palomba, Antonella Sgura
The effects of ultrasound on the cytoskeleton, comprising microtubules, had been studied decades ago. Nonetheless, very little attention has been paid to the effects of ultrasound on the mitotic spindle, which is also formed by microtubules. In this study, we treated human fibroblasts and human cancer cells (HeLa and MCF-7) with 1-MHz ultrasound at low intensities (70, 140, and 300 mW/cm2 ). In all cell lines, 5 min after the end of sonication, we found an intensity-dependent increase of mitotic abnormalities (including multipolar spindles)...
March 14, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Sara Frias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Virginia Cruz-Vallejo, Rocío Ortíz-Muñiz, Teresita Vallarino-Kelly, Elsa Cervantes-Ríos, Pedro Morales-Ramírez
The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vivo radiosensitizing effect of a very low dose of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in mice exposed to low-dose radiation by establishing the following: i) the radiosensitizing effect during DNA synthesis using single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) in murine bone marrow cells, and ii) the number and timing of the mechanisms of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, as well as the correlation of both end points, using flow cytometry analysis of the kinetics of micronucleus induction in reticulocytes...
March 9, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Radhia M'kacher, Steffen Junker, Eric Jeandidier, Patrice Carde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Wenyong Li, Mengying Wang, Ren Zhou, Siyue Wang, Hongchen Zheng, Dongjing Liu, Zhibo Zhou, Hongping Zhu, Tao Wu, Terri H Beaty
Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a common birth defect. Genetic variants causing syndromic orofacial clefts can also contribute to the etiology of NSCL/P. The purpose of the present study was to explore gene-gene (G×G) interaction using common single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and its receptors and T-box genes, which were associated with syndromic orofacial clefts. Our study was conducted in 806 Chinese NSCL/P case-parent trios drawn from an international consortium...
March 8, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Sung-Hee Hwang, Hojin Yeom, Seong Yun Eom, Yong-Moon Lee, Michael Lee
In vitro cell transformation assays (CTA) have been proposed as a method to identify possible non-genotoxic carcinogens. However, the current protocols do not provide information on the mechanism of action of the test articles. In this study, we combined an in vitro Bhas 42 CTA and sequencing-based DNA methylation profiling analysis to elucidate the carcinogenic mechanism associated with non-genotoxic carcinogens. Three non-genotoxic carcinogens were evaluated: cadmium chloride, methyl carbamate, and lithocholic acid...
March 8, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Richard J Albertini, Janice A Nicklas, Pamela M Vacek, Elizabeth W Carter, Melissa McDiarmid
Fifty Veterans of the first Gulf War in 1991 exposed to depleted uranium (DU) were studied for GPI-anchor (GPIa) deficient T-cell mutants on three occasions during the years 2009, 2011 and 2013. GPIa deficiency was determined in two ways: cloning assays employing aerolysin selection and cytometry using the FLAER reagent for positive staining of GPIa cell surface proteins. Subsequent molecular analyses of deficient isolates recovered from cloning assays (Nicklas et al., 2019) revealed apparent incomplete selection in some cloning assays, necessitating correction of original data to afford a more realistic estimate of GPIa deficient mutant frequency (MF) values...
March 8, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Jinpeng Li, Raja S Settivari, Matthew J LeBaron
Cell line-based in vitro testing has been widely used as an important component of the genotoxicity testing battery; however, the use of cell lines is constrained by several limitations, including the genetic drift and variability. A study recently reported in the literature comprehensively examined genomic changes in a large number of cell lines and reported extensive genetic variations within the same cell lines across passage numbers and laboratories, even for single-cell derived subclones. The primary objective of this communication is to raise awareness and stimulate discussion within the genotoxicity testing community of the extent of genetic variability of cell lines in general and how these variables could potentially influence the results and reproducibility of genotoxicity testing...
March 8, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Janice A Nicklas, Pamela M Vacek, Elizabeth W Carter, Melissa McDiarmid, Richard J Albertini
During the First Gulf war (1991) over a hundred servicemen sustained depleted uranium (DU) exposure through wound contamination, inhalation and shrapnel. The Department of Veterans Affairs has a surveillance program for these Veterans which has included genotoxicity assays. The frequencies of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (GPIa) negative (aerolysin-resistant) cells determined by cloning assays for these Veterans are reported in Albertini et al. (2019). Molecular analyses of the GPIa biosynthesis class A (PIGA) gene was performed on 862 aerolysin-resistant T-lymphocyte recovered isolates...
March 8, 2019: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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